Knowledge Base

The Knowledge Base provides access to information about the environmental effects of marine and wind energy, supporting OES-Environmental and WREN initiatives. Relevant documents and OES-Environmental metadata forms are compiled into a user-friendly table with advanced filtering. Filters may be selected on the right, or keywords entered in the Search Text box. Content may also be sorted alphabetically by clicking on column headers. More entries will load as you scroll down.


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Titlesort descending Author* Date** Type of Content Technology Types Stressors Receptors
Ponnequin Wind Energy Project: Reference Site Avian Study Kerlinger, P., Curry, R., Ryder, R. April 2000 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Passerines, Raptors
Population Consequences of Displacement from Proposed Offshore Wind Energy Developments for Seabirds Breeding at Scottish SPAs Searle, K., et al. May 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Seabirds
Population Sizes of Seabirds Breeding in Scottish SPAs Lewis, M., et al. July 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds
Population Sizes of Seabirds breeding in Scottish Special Protection Areas Lewis, M., et al. July 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds
Population Trends of Breeding Seabird Colonies in Scottish SPAs Malcolm, F., Lye, G., Lewis, M. July 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds
Porpoises North of Sprogø Before, During and After Construction of an Offshore Wind Farm Tougaard, J., Carstensen, J. February 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise, Static Device Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Port Elizabeth Wind Energy Facility Avifaunal and Bat Impact Assessment Strugnell, L., Smallie, J., Patterson-Abrolat, C. October 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Portland General Electric Biglow Canyon Wind Farm Phase I Post-Construction Avian and Bat Monitoring First Annual Report Sherman County, Oregon: January, 2008 - December, 2008 Jeffrey, J., et al. April 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Positive Planning for Onshore Wind Expanding Onshore Wind Energy Capacity while Conserving Nature Bowyer, C., et al. March 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Ecosystem
Possible Behavioural, Energetic and Demographic Effects of Displacement of Red-throated Divers Dierschke, V., et al. June 2017 Report N/A N/A Birds, Waterfowl
Post-construction Avian and Bat Fatality Monitoring and Grassland Bird Displacement Surveys at the Judith Gap Wind Energy Project, Wheatland County, Montana TRC Environmental Corporation January 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
Post-Construction Avian and Bat Fatality Monitoring Study for the High Winds Wind Power Project Solano County, California: Two Year Report Kerlinger, P., et al. April 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds, Raptors, Terrestrial Mammals
Post-Construction Avian Monitoring Study for the Shiloh I Wind Power Project Solano County, California Kerlinger, P., et al. October 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds, Raptors
Post-Construction Avian Monitoring Study for the Shiloh I Wind Power Project Solano County, California Year One Final Report Kerlinger, P., et al. September 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds, Passerines, Raptors
Post-Construction Avian Monitoring Study for the Shiloh I Wind Power Project Solano County, California, Two Year Report Kerlinger, P., et al. April 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds, Raptors
Post-Construction Bird and Bat Mortality Study Cedar Ridge Wind Farm Fond Du Lac County, Wisconsin BHE Environmental, Inc. February 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Post-Construction Meteorological Tower Fatality Study at the Shiloh I Wind Project Site Solano County, California Final Report Kerlinger, P., et al. April 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds, Raptors
Post-construction monitoring report for avian and bat mortality at the NPPD Ainsworth Wind Farm Derby, C., et al. February 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Post‐Construction Bat and Bird Fatality Study at the Blue Sky Green Field Wind Energy Center, Fond du Lac County, Wisconsin: July 21, 2008 – October 31, 2008 and March 15, 2009 – June 4, 2009 Gruver, J., et al. December 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Potential Effects of Offshore Wind Developments on Coastal Processes Beiboer, F., Cooper, B. January 2002 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Potential Effects of Offshore Wind Farm Noise on Fish Thomsen, F., et al. January 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Potential impacts of artificial reef development on sea turtle conservation in Florida Barnette, M. January 2017 Report N/A Static Device Nearfield Habitat, Sea Turtles
Potential Impacts of Ocean Energy Development on Marine Mammals in Oregon Davis, A. December 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Potential Impacts of the Monterey Accelerated Research System (MARS) cable on the seabed and benthic faunal assemblages Kuhnz, L., et al. December 2015 Report N/A Static Device Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Potential Impacts to Predator-Prey Relationships as a Result of the Proposed Cape Wind Project in Nantucket Sound ESS Group September 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds, Ecosystem, Fish, Marine Mammals
Potential Use of Population Viability Analysis to Assess the Impact of Offshore Windfarms on Bird Populations Maclean, I., Frederiksen, M., Rehfisch, M. September 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Pre- and Post-Construction Studies of Conflicts Between Birds and Wind Turbines in Coastal Norway (Bird Wind): Progress Report 2009 Bevanger, K., et al. December 2009 Report Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
Pre- and Post-Construction Studies of Conflicts Between Birds and Wind Turbines in Coastal Norway (BirdWind) Report on Findings 2007-2010 Bevanger, K., et al. December 2010 Report Wind Energy general N/A Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Shorebirds
Pre- and Post-Construction Studies of Conflicts Between Birds and Wind Turbines in Coastal Norway: Progress Report 2008 Bevanger, K., et al. December 2008 Report Wind Energy general N/A Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Raptors, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
Pre- and Post-Construction Studies of Conflicts Between Birds and Wind Turbines in Coastal Norway: Status Report 1st January 2008 Bevanger, K., et al. January 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
Pre-Construction Breeding Bird Surveys Number Three Wind Energy Project Lewis County, New York Bay, K., et al. May 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
Pre-Construction Impact Assessment of Wind Development on Bats: Grande Prairie Wind Project, Holt County, Nebraska Midwest Wind Energy, LLC. January 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Predicting the Displacement of Common Scoter Melanitta nigra from Benthic Feeding Areas Due to Offshore Windfarms Kaiser, M., et al. March 2002 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Waterfowl
Prediction of Far Field Noise from Wind Energy Farms Shepherd, K., Hubbard, H. April 1986 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise Farfield Environment
Preliminary Assessment of Offshore Wind Development Impacts on Marine Ecosystems Huang, H., Hall, A. March 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Farfield Environment
Preliminary Assessment of the Conservation Importance of Benthic Species and Habitats off the West Coast of Orkney and in the Pentland Firth in Relation to the Development of Renewable Energy Schemes Moore, C. January 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates
Preliminary Field Test Results of an Acoustic Deterrent with the Potential to Reduce Bat Mortality from Wind Turbines Szewczak, J., Arnett, E. August 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Noise Bats
Preliminary Flora and Fauna Assessment - Penshurst Wind Farm McMahon, A., Marr, R. October 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Bats, Birds, Shorebirds, Waterfowl, Ecosystem, Terrestrial Mammals
Preliminary Investigations of Bird-Turbine Collisions at Nysted Offshore Wind Farm and Final Quality Control of Thermal Animal Detection System (TADS) Desholm, M. January 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Preliminary Methodology to Assess the National and Regional Impact of U.S. Wind Energy Development on Birds and Bats Diffendorfer, J., et al. May 2015 Report Wind Energy general N/A Bats, Birds
Prevention of the ecological effects of offshore windfarms in licensing and spatial planning - an overview Boon, A. July 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Prioritisation of monitoring and research for diadromous fish in the context of Marine/Offshore Renewables: A summary of stakeholder engagement meetings between Marine Scotland, wild fisheries interests and wind, wave and tidal developers Hunter, D., Malcolm, I., Armstrong, J. March 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Fish, Socio-economics, Fishing, Stakeholder Engagement
Prognosis and Assessment of Bird Collision Risks at Wind Turbines in Northern Germany PROGRESS Grunkorn, T., et al. July 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Project-Specific Avian and Bat Protection Plan for the Tule Reduced Ridgeline Wind Project Tule Wind March 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Proposal to Permit Take Provided Under the Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act Gould, R. April 2009 Report Wind Energy general N/A Birds
Proposed Yarram Wind Farm Bird Utilisation Survey Al-Dabbagh, K., Lane, B. May 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Protocol for Investigating Displacement Effects of Wind Facilities on Grassland Songbirds Erickson, W., et al. February 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds, Passerines
Provision of Evidence of the Conservation Impacts of Energy Production Tucker, G., et al. January 2008 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general N/A N/A
Puget Sound Energy Hopkins Ridge Wind Project Phase 1 Post-Construction Avian and Bat Monitoring First Annual Report Young, D. Jr., et al. March 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Passerines, Raptors
Puget Sound Energy Wild Horse Wind Facility Post-Construction Avian and Bat Monitoring, First Annual Report: January - December 2007 Erickson, W., Jeffrey, J., Poulton, V. January 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Quantifying the Relative Use of Coastal Waters by Breeding Terns: Towards Effective Tools for Planning & Assessing the Ornithological Impact of Offshore Wind Farms Perrow, M., et al. June 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds
Quieting Technologies for Reducing Noise During Seismic Surveying and Pile Driving Workshop CSA Ocean Sciences March 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Radar Monitoring of Bird and Bat Movement Patterns on Block Island and its Coastal Waters Mizrahi, D., et al. September 2010 Report N/A Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Rampion Offshore Wind Farm - Scoping Report RSK Environment September 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Range Management Practices to Reduce Wind Turbine Impacts on Burrowing Owls and Other Raptors in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area, California Smallwood, K., et al. October 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A N/A
Raptors and Wind Energy Development in the Central Appalachians: Where We Stand on the Issue Katzner, T., et al. August 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Real-Time Monitoring for Beluga Whales (Delphinapterus leucas) in the Eagle River, Alaska using a PAMBuoy Detection System Gillespie, D., et al. May 2013 Report N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Recommended Protocols for Monitoring Impacts of Wind Turbines on Birds Canadian Wildlife Service April 2007 Report Wind Energy general N/A Birds
Reconnaissance Geology and Geologic Hazards of the Offshore Coos Bay Basin, Oregon Clarke, S., Field, M., Hirozawa, C. January 1985 Report N/A N/A Nearfield Habitat
Reducing Bat Fatalities from Interactions with Operating Wind Turbines National Wind Technology Center November 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Reducing the Collision Risk for Bats at Onshore Wind Turbines (RENEBAT II) Behr, O., et al. April 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Reducing Wind Curtailment through Transmission Expansion in a Wind Vision Future Jorgenson, J., Mai, T., Brinkman, G. January 2017 Report Wind Energy general N/A Socio-economics
Regional Analysis of Wind Turbine-caused Bat and Bird Fatality: Final Report Drake, D., Schumacher, S., Sponsler, M. December 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Reindeer and windpower Skarin, A., et al. May 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Terrestrial Mammals
Relating Pre-Construction Bat Activity and Post-Construction Bat Fatality to Predict Risk at Wind Energy Facilities: A Synthesis Hein, C., Gruver, J., Arnett, E. March 2013 Report N/A Dynamic Device Bats
Relationships between Bats and Wind Turbines in Pennsylvania and West Virginia: An Assessment of Fatality Search Protocols, Patterns of Fatality, and Behavioral Interactions with Wind Turbines Arnett, E., et al. June 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Renewable Energy and Wildlife Conservation Khalil, M. December 2016 Report Wind Energy general N/A Bats, Birds
Renewable Energy Respecting Nature: A Synthesis of Knowledge on Environmental Impacts of Renewable Energy Financed by the Research Council of Norway May, R., et al. October 2012 Report Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Fish, Socio-economics
Renewable Energy Technologies and Migratory Species: Guidelines for sustainable deployment van der Winden, J., et al. February 2015 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general N/A N/A
Report of the Working Group on Marine Mammal Ecology (WGMME) International Council for the Exploration of the Sea April 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Report on a Red-throated Diver Agent-Based Model to Assess the Cumulative Impact from Offshore Wind Farms Topping, C., Petersen, I. November 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Waterfowl
Report on Environmental Impact Assessment and Mitigation Strategies TROPOS July 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal, Lighting, Static Device Ecosystem, Fish, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Report on the Implication for European Sites Proposed East Anglia ONE Offshore Windfarm The Planning Inspectorate for England and Wales November 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Report on the Implications for European Sites Proposed Burbo Bank Extension Offshore Wind Farm The Planning Inspectorate for England and Wales February 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Report on the Implications for European Sites Proposed Dogger Bank Creyke Beck Offshore Wind Farm UK Planning Inspectorate July 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Report on the Implications for European Sites Proposed Dogger Bank Teesside A & B Offshore Wind Farm The Planning Inspectorate for England and Wales December 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Report on the Implications for European Sites Proposed Hornsea Offshore Wind Farm (Zone 4) - Project One UK Planning Inspectorate March 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Report on the Implications for European Sites Proposed Hornsea Offshore Wind Farm (Zone 4) - Project Two The Planning Inspectorate for England and Wales November 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Report on the Implications for European Sites Proposed Navitus Bay Wind Park UK Planning Inspectorate February 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Report on the Implications for European Sites Proposed Triton Knoll Electrical System UK Planning Inspectorate February 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A N/A
Report on the Implications for European Sites Proposed Walney Extension Offshore Wind Farm The Planning Inspectorate for England and Wales April 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Report to Congress on the Potential Environmental Effects of Marine and Hydrokinetic Energy Technologies US Department of Energy December 2009 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Report to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory on Southwest Alaska Small Wind Wildlife Site Investigations at Kodiak Island and Bristol Bay October 3-10, 2003 Sharp, L., Kronner, K. December 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Repowering Smøla Wind-Power Plant: An Assessment of Avian Conflicts Dahl, E., et al. June 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors
Repowering the APWRA: Forecasting and Minimizing Avian Mortality without Significant Loss of Power Generation Smallwood, K., Neher, L. December 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
Request for advice about the displacement of marine mammals around operational offshore windfarms Alcock, P. October 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Request for advice on the populations of cetaceans that might be involved in significant interactions with marine renewable energy developments in Scottish marine waters Northridge, S. August 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Research and Guidance on Restoration and Decommissioning of Onshore Wind Farms Welstead, J., et al. January 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device N/A
Research Brief: Effects of Wind Power Development on the Population Biology of Greater Prairie-Chickens in Kansas National Wind Coordinating Collaborative (NWCC) May 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Residence Time and Behaviour of Sole and Cod in the Offshore Wind Farm Egmond aan Zee Winter, H., Aarts, G., van Keeken, O. September 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Fish
Response of Red-Tailed Hawks and Golden Eagles to Topographical Features, Weather, and Abundance of a Dominant Prey Species at the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area, California: April 1999-December 2000 Hoover, S. June 2002 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
Responses of Local Birds to the Offshore Wind Farms PAWP and OWEZ off the Dutch mainland coast Leopold, M., van Bemmelen, R., Zuur, A. October 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds
Responses of the Big Brown Bat, Eptesicus fuscus, to an Acoustic Deterrent Device in a Lab Setting Spanjer, G. December 2006 Report N/A N/A Bats
Results of Bat and Bird Mortality Monitoring at the Expanded Buffalo Mountain Windfarm, 2005 Fiedler, J., et al. June 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds, Passerines
Results of Wildlife Movement Monitoring Using an Infrared Sensing Remote Camera Located Under Wind Turbine 7, Searsburg Wind Project April-November 2006 Wallin, J. November 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Passerines, Terrestrial Mammals
Results of Wildlife Movement Monitoring Using an Infrared Sensing Remote Camera Located Under Wind Turbine 7, Searsburg Wind Project During October 2005 Wallin, J. October 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Terrestrial Mammals
Review and Evaluation of the Eastern Scotian Shelf Integrated Management (ESSIM) Initiative McCuaig, J., Herbert, G. January 2013 Report N/A N/A Socio-economics
Review of Cabling Techniques and Environmental Effects Applicable to the Offshore Wind Farm Industry UK Department for Business Enterprise and Regulatory Reform January 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
Review of Environmental Data Associated with Post-Consent Monitoring of Licence Conditions of Offshore Wind Farms Marine Management Organisation April 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Ecosystem, Fish, Marine Mammals
Review of Methods and Techniques for Field Validation of Collision Rates and Avoidance Amongst Birds and Bats at Offshore Wind Turbines Dirksen, S. March 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds

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