Knowledge Base

The Knowledge Base provides access to information about the environmental effects of marine and wind energy, supporting OES-Environmental and WREN initiatives. Relevant documents and OES-Environmental metadata forms are compiled into a user-friendly table with advanced filtering. Filters may be selected on the right, or keywords entered in the Search Text box. Content may also be sorted alphabetically by clicking on column headers. More entries will load as you scroll down.


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Titlesort descending Author* Date** Type of Content Technology Types Stressors Receptors
Framework for Assessing Ecological and Cumulative Effects of Offshore Wind Farms - Part B: Description and Assessment of the Cumulative Effects of Implementing the Roadmap for Offshore Wind Power Ministry of Economic Affairs (Rijksoverheid) July 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Farfield Environment
Framework for Assessing Ecological and Cumulative Effects of Offshore Wind Farms: A First Approach to Deal with Cumulative Effects on Birds and Bats of Offshore Wind Farms and Other Human Activities in the Southern North Sea Leopold, M., et al. January 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Framework for Assessing Ecological and Cumulative Effects of Offshore Wind Farms: Cumulative Effects of Impulsive Underwater Sound on Marine Mammals Heinis, F., de Jong, C. April 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Framework for Testing the Effectiveness of Bat and Eagle Impact-Reduction Strategies at Wind Energy Projects Sinclair, K., DeGeorge, E. April 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds, Raptors
Full Scale Trial of High Definition Video Survey for Offshore Windfarm Sites Mellor, M., Maher, M. June 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Waterfowl
Further Use of Aerial Surveys to Detect Bird Displacement by Offshore Windfarms Maclean, I., Skov, H., Rehfisch, M. October 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Future Offshore: A Strategic Framework for the Offshore Wind Industry UK Department of Trade and Industry November 2002 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Galloper Wind Farm Project: Environmental Statement - Chapter 14: Marine Mammals Galloper Wind Farm October 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Pinnipeds, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Generic monitoring programme for monitoring watercourses in relation to onshore wind farm developments Marine Scotland Science April 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A N/A
Genetic Approaches to Understanding the Population-Level Impact of Wind Energy Development on Migratory Bats Vonhof, M., Russell, A. September 2013 Report Wind Energy general N/A Bats
Golden Eagles in a Perilous Landscape: Predicting the Effects of Mitigation for Wind Turbine Blade Strike Mortality Hunt, G. July 2002 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Good practice during Wind Farm construction Scottish Renewables, et al. September 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A N/A
Grande Prairie Wind Farm Bird and Bat Conservation Strategy Stantec Consulting Services May 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Greater Gabbard Offshore Wind Farm Environmental Statement Greater Gabbard Offshore Winds January 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise, Static Device Birds, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Greater Sage-Grouse & Wind Energy Development: A Review of the Issues Johnson, G., Holloran, M. April 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
Greater Sage-Grouse Habitat Use and Population Demographics at the Simpson Ridge Wind Resource Area, Carbon County, Wyoming Johnson, G., et al. March 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
Green Light to Birds: Investigation into the Effect of Bird-Friendly Lighting van de Laar, F. December 2007 Report N/A Lighting Birds, Passerines, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
Green Norms for Wind Power Bhushan, C., Hamberg, J., Kumar A. January 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A N/A
Greening Blue Energy: Identifying and Managing the Biodiversity Risks and Opportunities of Offshore Renewable Energy Wilhelmsson, D., et al. July 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Guidance Note for Environmental Impact Assessment in Respect of FEPA and CPA Requirements Centre for Environment Fisheries and Aquaculture Science (CEFAS) June 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Guidance note: Guidance on Methods for Monitoring Bird Populations at Onshore Wind Farms Scottish Natural Heritage January 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Guidance on Environmental Impact Assessment of Offshore Renewable Energy Development on Surfing Resources and Recreation Surfers Against Sewage June 2009 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment, Recreation
Guidance on the Assessment of the Impact of Offshore Wind Farms: Methodology for Assessing the Marine Navigational Safety Risks of Offshore Wind Farms UK Department of Trade and Industry January 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Navigation
Guidance: Survey Methods for Use in Assessing the Impacts of Onshore Windfarms on Bird Communities Scottish Natural Heritage November 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Guide to the OCS Alternative Energy Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) US Deparment of the Interior, Minerals Management Service October 2007 Report Marine Energy general, Ocean Current, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, Noise, Static Device Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Guidelines for Assessing the Impact of Wind Farms on Birds and Bats Atienza, J., et al. September 2014 Report Wind Energy general N/A Bats, Birds
Guidelines for Assessing the Potential Impacts to Birds and Bats from Wind Energy Development in Northern Arizona and the Southern Colorado Plateau Lynn, J., Auberle, W. February 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Guidelines for Conducting Bird and Bat Studies at Commercial Wind Energy Projects New York State Department of Environmental Conservation June 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Guidelines for Consideration of Bats in Wind Farm Projects Revision 2014 Rodrigues, L., et al. January 2015 Report Wind Energy general N/A Bats
Guidelines for Data Acquisition to Support Marine Environmental Assessments of Offshore Renewable Energy Projects Judd, A. May 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Guidelines for Raptor Conservation during Urban and Rural Land Development in British Columbia B.C. Ministry of Forests February 2013 Report N/A N/A Birds
Guidelines for Reducing Impacts to Wildlife from Wind Energy Development in Arizona Arizona Game and Fish Department October 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Guidelines for the Assessment of Indirect and Cumulative Impacts as well as Impact Interactions Walker, L., Johnston, J. May 1999 Report N/A N/A Farfield Environment
Guidelines for Wind Energy and Wildlife Resource Management in Nebraska Nebraska Wind and Wildlife Working Group November 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Socio-economics
Guidelines on the Environmental Impact Assessment for Wind Farms Ivanović, S., et al. June 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Gunfleet Sands 2 Offshore Wind Farm Environmental Statement RPS Group June 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics
Gunfleet Sands Offshore Wind Farm Environmental Statement GE Wind Energy January 2002 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Gwynt y Môr Offshore Wind Farm Environmental Statement RWE Group November 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Gwynt y Môr Offshore Wind Farm Marine Ecology Technical Report Centre for Marine and Coastal Studies January 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF, Energy Removal, Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Ecosystem, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics, Climate Change, Environmental Impact Assessment
Habitat Mapping and Assessment of Northeast Wind Energy Areas Guida, V., et al. December 2017 Report Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Ecosystem, Fish
Habitat Preferences of Harbour Seals in the Dutch Coastal Area: Analysis and Estimate of Effects of Offshore Wind Farms Brasseur, S., et al. January 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Habitats Regulations Appraisal of Draft Plan for Offshore Wind Energy in Scottish Territorial Waters: Appropriate Assessment Information Review APS Group Scotland January 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
Habitats Regulations Appraisal of Draft Plan for Offshore Wind Energy in Scottish Territorial Waters: Information for Appropriate Assessment APS Group Scotland March 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Nearfield Habitat
Habitats Regulations Appraisal of Draft Plan for Offshore Wind Energy in Scottish Territorial Waters: Pre-Screening Review of the Medium Term Options APS Group Scotland March 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
Habitats Regulations Appraisal of Draft Plan for Offshore Wind Energy in Scottish Territorial Waters: Proposed Approach for the Screening and Assessment of the Short and Medium Term Options APS Group Scotland March 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Harbour Porpoises on Horns Reef Effects of the Horns Reef Wind Farm Jakob, T., et al. November 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise, Static Device Marine Mammals
Harbour Seals at Horns Reef Before, During and After Construction of Horns Rev Offshore Wind Farm Tougaard, J., et al. October 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Harnessing our Ocean Wealth: An Integrated Marine Plan for Ireland Government of Ireland July 2012 Report N/A N/A Socio-economics
Harnessing the Wind: How to Advance Wind Power Offshore NRDC July 2019 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Noise N/A
Hearing frequencies of a harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) temporarily affected by played back offshore pile driving sounds Kastelein, R., et al. September 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Hearing thresholds of a harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) for narrow-band sweeps (0.125-150 kHz) Kastelein, R., et al. July 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Hearing thresholds of a harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) for playbacks of multiple pile driving strike sounds Kastelein, R., et al. August 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Hearing thresholds of two harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) for playbacks of multiple pile driving strike sounds Kastelein, R., et al. August 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Hermosa West Wind Energy Project Draft EIS - Appendix F: Bat Acoustical Studies Taylor, K., Solick, D., Bay, K. September 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise Bats, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Hermosa West Wind Energy Project: Draft Environmental Impact Statement Western Area Power Administration September 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
High Definition Imagery for Surveying Seabirds and Marine Mammals: A Review of Recent Trials and Development of Protocols Thaxter, C., Burton, N. November 2009 Report N/A N/A Birds, Seabirds, Marine Mammals
High Level Environmental Screening Study for Offshore Wind Farm Developments - Marine Habitats and Species Project Hiscock, K., Tyler-Walters, H., Jones, H. August 2002 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Ecosystem, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
High Resolution Video Survey of Seabirds and Mammals in the Rhyl Flats Area Hexter, R. July 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds, Marine Mammals
High-Resolution Aerial Imaging Surveys of Marine Birds, Mammals, and Turtles on the US Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf - Utility Assessment, Methodology Recommendations, and Implementation Tools Normandeau Associates April 2013 Report N/A N/A Birds, Marine Mammals, Reptiles
Historical Challenges of Wind Energy/Wildlife Interactions: How This May Affect Distributed Wind Sinclair, K. August 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Holberg Wind Energy Assessment Report British Columbia Environmental Assessment Office October 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Hong Kong Offshore Wind Farm in Southeastern Waters - Environmental Impact Assessment BMT Asia Pacific Ltd March 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Horns Rev 2 Offshore Wind Farm Bird Monitoring Program 2010-2012 Skov, H., et al. December 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Horns Rev 2 Offshore Wind Farm EIA Report: Benthic Communities Leonhard, S. July 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates
Horns Rev II Offshore Wind Farm Food Basis for Common Scoter Skov, H., et al. September 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Ecosystem
Horns Rev II Offshore Wind Farm Monitoring of Bird Migration Skov, H., et al. May 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Passerines, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Horns Rev II Offshore Wind Farm Monitoring of Migrating Waterbirds Piper, W., et al. October 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Horns Rev II Offshore Wind Farm Monitoring of Resting Waterbirds Skov, H., Piper, W., Leonhard, S. September 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds
Horns Rev Offshore Wind Farm Environmental Impact Assessment: Summary of EIA Report Elsamprojekt May 2000 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Ecosystem, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Horns Rev Offshore Wind Farm II: EIA Report Fish Jensen, B., Klaustrup, M., Skov, H. July 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Fish, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Life Cycle Assessment
Hornsea Offshore Wind Farm Project One: Environmental Statement: Volume 5 - Offshore Annexes Chapter 5.5.1: Ornithology Technical Report RPS Group July 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Hornsea Offshore Wind Farm Project One: Reports - Habitat Regulations Assessment Report: Information to Support the Appropriate Assessment for Project One RPS Group July 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Nearfield Habitat
How the Belgian Wind Farm Business Made us Discover the Challenging Environment of Marine Sand Dunes Bolle, A., Mathys, M., Haerens, P. April 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Nearfield Habitat
Human Perception of Sound from Wind Turbines Pedersen, E., Forssén, J., Waye, K. June 2010 Report Wind Energy general Noise Socio-economics, Aesthetics
Humber Gateway Offshore Wind Farm: Offshore ES Description of the Biological Baseline Environment Humber Gateway Offshore Wind Farm January 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Ecosystem, Fish, Marine Mammals
Humber Gateway Offshore Wind Farm: Offshore ES Description of the Physical Baseline Environment Humber Gateway Offshore Wind Farm January 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal, Static Device Farfield Environment
Humpback Whale Encounter with Offshore Wind Mooring Lines and Inter-Array Cables Copping, A., Grear, M. October 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Hydro-Acoustic Monitoring of Fish Communities at Offshore Wind Farms Hvidt, C., et al. May 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Fish, Nearfield Habitat
ICES SGWTE Report 2012: Report of the Study Group on Environmental Impacts of Wave and Tidal Energy International Council for the Exploration of the Sea May 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
ICES SGWTE Report 2013: Report of the Study Group on Environmental Impacts of Wave and Tidal Energy International Council for the Exploration of the Sea March 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
ICES WGMBRED Report 2013: Report of the Working Group on Marine Benthal and Renewable Energy Developments (WGMBRED) International Council for the Exploration of the Sea March 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates
ICES WGMBRED Report 2018: Report of the Working Group on Marine Benthal and Renewable Energy Developments (WGMBRED) International Council for the Exploration of the Sea March 2018 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
ID Stat: Innovative Technology for Assessing Wildlife Collisions with Wind Turbines Delprat, B., Alcuri, G. July 2011 Report Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Identification of Outer Continental Shelf Renewable Energy Space-Use Conflicts and Analysis of Potential Mitigation Measures Conway, F., et al. September 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device N/A
Identifying a Range of Options to Prevent or Reduce Avian Collision with Offshore Wind Farms using a UK-Based Case Study Cook, A., et al. May 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds
Identifying Information Needs and Approaches for Assessing Potential Impacts of Offshore Wind Farm Development on Fisheries Resources in the Northeast Region Petruny-Parker, M., et al. July 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Impact Assessment of an Off-shore Wind Park on Sea Ducks Guillemette, M., Larsen, J., Clausager, I. March 1998 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise, Static Device Birds, Waterfowl, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Impact assessment of wind farms on birds of prey in Thrace. Annual Report August 2009 - August 2010 Doutau, B., et al. March 2011 Report Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Birds
Impact of Wind Turbines on Birds - Status of present Knowledge and Perspectives Clausager, I., Nohr, H. January 1995 Report Wind Energy general N/A Birds
Impact of Windfarm OWEZ on the Local Macrobenthos Community Daan, R., Mulder, M., Bergman, M. January 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates
Impacts of Submarine Cables on the Marine Environment - A Literature Review Meißner, K., et al. September 2006 Report N/A EMF N/A
Impacts of Wind Energy Development on Birds and Bats: Looking into the Problem Edkins, M. January 2008 Report Wind Energy general N/A Bats, Birds, Raptors, Seabirds
Impacts of Wind Energy Facilities on Wildlife and Wildlife Habitat Arnett, E., et al. September 2007 Report Wind Energy general Static Device Bats, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Impacts of Wind Farms on Birds: A Review Powlesland, R. January 2009 Report Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Impacts of Wind Farms on Upland Habitats: The Environmental Cost of Scotland's Renewable Revolution The John Muir Trust January 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Impacts on Biodiversity of Exploitation of Renewable Energy Sources: The Example of Birds and Bats Hötker, H., Thomsen, K., Jeromin, H. January 2006 Report Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Impacts on Wildlife and Government Responsibilities for Regulating Development and Protecting Wildlife Office, United States Government Accountability September 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds, Raptors
Impacts to Marine Fisheries Habitat from Nonfishing Activities in the Northeastern United States Johnson, M., et al. February 2008 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Fishing
Impacts to Wildlife of Wind Energy Siting and Operation in the United States Allison, T., et al. September 2019 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind N/A Bats, Birds, Nearfield Habitat
Improving Efficiencies of National Environmental Policy Act Documentation for Offshore Wind Facilities - Case Studies Report English, P., et al. March 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Legal and Policy

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