Knowledge Base

The Knowledge Base provides access to information about the environmental effects of marine and wind energy, supporting OES-Environmental and WREN initiatives. Relevant documents and OES-Environmental metadata forms are compiled into a user-friendly table with advanced filtering. Filters may be selected on the right, or keywords entered in the Search Text box. Content may also be sorted alphabetically by clicking on column headers. More entries will load as you scroll down.


As an alternative to the Knowledge Base, check out the Map Viewer to access geotagged content in a spatial view.


Title Author* Date** Type of Contentsort descending Technology Types Stressors Receptors
Effects of Pile-Driving Noise on the Behaviour of Marine Fish Mueller-Blenkle, C., et al. March 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Effects of Sound on Fish Hastings, M., Popper, A. January 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Effects of Wind Farms on Harbour Porpoise Behavior and Population Dynamics Nabe-Nielsen, J., et al. September 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Effects of Offshore Wind Farm Noise on Marine Mammals and Fish Tomsen, F., et al. July 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish, Marine Mammals
Effects of the Nysted Offshore Wind Farm on Harbour Porpoises Tougaard, J., et al. July 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Effects on Birds of an Offshore Wind Park at Horns Rev: Environmental Impact Assessment Noer, H., et al. January 2000 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors, Seabirds, Waterfowl, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Final Results of Bird Studies at the Offshore Wind Farms at Nysted and Horns Rev, Denmark Petersen, I., et al. January 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Seabirds, Nearfield Habitat
Further Use of Aerial Surveys to Detect Bird Displacement by Offshore Windfarms Maclean, I., Skov, H., Rehfisch, M. October 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Greening Blue Energy: Identifying and Managing the Biodiversity Risks and Opportunities of Offshore Renewable Energy Wilhelmsson, D., et al. July 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Guidance Note for Environmental Impact Assessment in Respect of FEPA and CPA Requirements Centre for Environment Fisheries and Aquaculture Science (CEFAS) June 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Guidance on Environmental Impact Assessment of Offshore Renewable Energy Development on Surfing Resources and Recreation Surfers Against Sewage June 2009 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment, Recreation
Guidelines for Data Acquisition to Support Marine Environmental Assessments of Offshore Renewable Energy Projects Judd, A. May 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Habitats Regulations Appraisal of Draft Plan for Offshore Wind Energy in Scottish Territorial Waters: Appropriate Assessment Information Review APS Group Scotland January 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
Habitats Regulations Appraisal of Draft Plan for Offshore Wind Energy in Scottish Territorial Waters: Information for Appropriate Assessment APS Group Scotland March 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Nearfield Habitat
Habitats Regulations Appraisal of Draft Plan for Offshore Wind Energy in Scottish Territorial Waters: Pre-Screening Review of the Medium Term Options APS Group Scotland March 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
Harbour Porpoises on Horns Reef Effects of the Horns Reef Wind Farm Jakob, T., et al. November 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise, Static Device Marine Mammals
Harbour Seals at Horns Reef Before, During and After Construction of Horns Rev Offshore Wind Farm Tougaard, J., et al. October 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
High Level Environmental Screening Study for Offshore Wind Farm Developments - Marine Habitats and Species Project Hiscock, K., Tyler-Walters, H., Jones, H. August 2002 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Ecosystem, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
Horns Rev 2 Offshore Wind Farm Bird Monitoring Program 2010-2012 Skov, H., et al. December 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Horns Rev 2 Offshore Wind Farm EIA Report: Benthic Communities Leonhard, S. July 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates
Horns Rev II Offshore Wind Farm Food Basis for Common Scoter Skov, H., et al. September 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Ecosystem
Horns Rev II Offshore Wind Farm Monitoring of Bird Migration Skov, H., et al. May 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Passerines, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Horns Rev II Offshore Wind Farm Monitoring of Migrating Waterbirds Piper, W., et al. October 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Horns Rev II Offshore Wind Farm Monitoring of Resting Waterbirds Skov, H., Piper, W., Leonhard, S. September 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds
Horns Rev Offshore Wind Farm II: EIA Report Fish Jensen, B., Klaustrup, M., Skov, H. July 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Fish, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Life Cycle Assessment
Review Report 2004: The Danish Offshore Wind Farm Demonstration Project: Horns Rev and Nysted Offshore Wind Farms Environmental Impact Assessment and Monitoring Boesen, C., Kjær, J. October 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
Hydro-Acoustic Monitoring of Fish Communities at Offshore Wind Farms Hvidt, C., et al. May 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Impact Assessment of an Off-shore Wind Park on Sea Ducks Guillemette, M., Larsen, J., Clausager, I. March 1998 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise, Static Device Birds, Waterfowl, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Impact of Windfarm OWEZ on the Local Macrobenthos Community Daan, R., Mulder, M., Bergman, M. January 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates
Infauna Monitoring Horns Rev Offshore Wind Farm: Annual Status Report 2003 Bech, M., Leonhard, S., Pedersen, J. May 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Information Synthesis on the Potential for Bat Interactions with Offshore Wind Facilities - Final Report Pelletier, S., et al. June 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Bats
Intersectoral Assessment of Impacts on Seabirds: Baseline Report for a Comprehensive Environmental Management Plan for the Norwegian Sea Christensen-Dalsgaard, S., et al. January 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds, Socio-economics
Investigations of Birds During Construction and Operation of Nysted Offshore Wind Farm at Rødsand Kahlert, J., et al. January 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Noise, Static Device Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Investigations of the Bird Collision Risk and the Responses of Harbour Porpoises in the Offshore Wind Farms Horns Rev, North Sea, and Nysted, Baltic Sea, in Denmark - Part I: Birds Blew, J., et al. January 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Large-Scale Offshore Wind Power in the United States: Assessment of Opportunities and Barriers Musial, M., Ram, B. September 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics
Maine Deepwater Offshore Wind Report University of Maine, Rockefeller Brothers Fund September 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal, Noise Socio-economics
Marine Renewable Energy: A Global Review of the Extent of Marine Renewable Energy Developments, the Developing Technologies and Possible Conservation Implications for Cetaceans James, V. November 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, EMF, Noise, Static Device Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Marine Renewable Energy Legislation for Nova Scotia Nova Scotia Department of Energy January 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Marine Wind Farms: Seabirds, White-Tailed Eagles, Eurasian Eagle-Owl and Waders - A Screening of Potential Conflict Areas Christensen-Dalsgaard, S., et al. January 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Raptors, Seabirds, Shorebirds
Marine Bird Distribution Along the Oregon Coast Suryan, R., et al. April 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds
Measurement and Interpretation of Underwater Noise During Construction and Operation of Offshore Windfarms in UK Waters Nedwell, J., et al. December 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Measurement of Underwater Noise During Piling at the Red Funnel Terminal, Southampton, and Observation of its Affect on Caged Fish Nedwell, J., et al. October 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Measurements of Construction Noise During Pile Driving of Offshore Research Platforms and Wind Farms Matuschek, R., Betke, K. January 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Measurements of Underwater Noise During Construction of Offshore Wind Farms and Comparison with Background Noise Nedwell, J., Langworthy, J., Howell, D. November 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Modelling Total Numbers and Distribution of Common Scoter Melanitta nigra at Horns Rev Petersen, I. November 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Waterfowl
Modelling of Noise Effects of Operational Offshore Wind Turbines Including Noise Transmission Through Various Foundation Types Marmo, B., et al. August 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish, Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Nature Conservation Guidance on Offshore Windfarm Development - A Guidance Note on the Implications of the EC Wild Birds and Habitats Directives for Developers Undertaking Offshore Windfarm Developments UK Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs March 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
New Insights and New Tools Regarding Risk to Roseate Terns, Piping Plovers, and Red Knots from Wind Facility Operations on the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf Gordon, C. October 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds, Shorebirds
Noise Measurements and Analysis: Offshore Pile-Driving Underwater and Above-Water Ødegaard and Danneskiold-Samsøe October 2000 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
North Sea Wind Farms NSW Lot 1 Benthic Fauna Jarvis, S., et al. February 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Ecosystem
Guide to the OCS Alternative Energy Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) US Deparment of the Interior, Minerals Management Service October 2007 Report Marine Energy general, Ocean Current, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, Noise, Static Device Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Ireland Offshore Renewable Energy Strategic Action Plan 2012 - 2020 UK Department of Enterprise, Trade and Investment March 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Offshore Renewables - Guidance on Assessing the Impact on Coastal Landscape and Seascape: Guidance for Scoping an Environmental Statement Scottish Natural Heritage March 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Strategic Joint Industry Project No.1: Bird avoidance behavior and collision impact monitoring at Offshore Windfarms Marine Scotland, et al. December 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Offshore Wind Farms and Birds: Round 3 Zones, Extensions to Round 1 & Round 2 Sites & Scottish Territorial Waters Langston, R. February 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds
Offshore Wind Farms and the Environment: Danish Experiences from Horns Rev and Nysted Danish Energy Authority November 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics
Offshore Wind Farms in the Belgian Part of the North Sea: Early Environmental Impact Assessment and Spatio-Temporal Variability Degraer, S., Brabant, R., Rumes, B. January 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, Dynamic Device, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Offshore Wind Farms in the Belgian Part of the North Sea: Heading for an Understanding of Environmental Impacts Degraer, S., Brabant, R., Rumes, B. January 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal, Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Farfield Environment, Fish, Socio-economics
Offshore Wind Market and Economic Analysis Navigant Consulting February 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Options and Opportunities for Marine Fisheries Mitigation Associated with Windfarms Blyth-Skyrme, R. January 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Fish, Socio-economics
Pathways of Effects for Offshore Renewable Energy in Canada Isaacman, L., Daborn, G. December 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Lighting, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Sea Turtles, Socio-economics
Permitting and Leasing for Marine Offshore Wind Energy Projects Thaler, J. January 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Population Sizes of Seabirds Breeding in Scottish SPAs Lewis, M., et al. July 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds
Porpoises North of Sprogø Before, During and After Construction of an Offshore Wind Farm Tougaard, J., Carstensen, J. February 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise, Static Device Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Potential Effects of Offshore Wind Developments on Coastal Processes Beiboer, F., Cooper, B. January 2002 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Potential Impacts of Ocean Energy Development on Marine Mammals in Oregon Davis, A. December 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Preliminary Investigations of Bird-Turbine Collisions at Nysted Offshore Wind Farm and Final Quality Control of Thermal Animal Detection System (TADS) Desholm, M. January 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Habitats Regulations Appraisal of Draft Plan for Offshore Wind Energy in Scottish Territorial Waters: Proposed Approach for the Screening and Assessment of the Short and Medium Term Options APS Group Scotland March 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Residence Time and Behaviour of Sole and Cod in the Offshore Wind Farm Egmond aan Zee Winter, H., Aarts, G., van Keeken, O. September 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Fish
Review of Migratory Routes and Behaviour of Atlantic Salmon, Sea Trout and European Eel in Scotland's Coastal Environment: Implications for the Development of Marine Renewables Malcolm, I., Godfrey, J., Youngson, A. January 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Fish
Review of Cabling Techniques and Environmental Effects Applicable to the Offshore Wind Farm Industry UK Department for Business Enterprise and Regulatory Reform January 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
Review of the Reef Effects of Offshore Wind Farm Structures and their Potential for Enhancement and Mitigation UK Department for Business Enterprise and Regulatory Reform January 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Fish, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
Revised Best Practice Guidance for the Use of Remote Techniques for Ornithological Monitoring at Offshore Windfarms Walls, R., et al. June 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds
Sandeels in the Wind Farm Area at Horns Reef Jensen, H., Kristensen, P., Hoffmann, E. August 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Scoping Study for Offshore Wind Farm Development in Scottish Waters Davies, I., Watret, R. November 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Scotland's Renewables Routemap Short Life Task Force On Streamlining Energy Development Licensing and Consents The Scottish Government February 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Screening Analysis for the Environmental Risk Evaluation System - Environmental Effects of Offshore Wind Energy Copping, A., Hanna, L. September 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Sea Turtles
Scroby Sands Offshore Wind Farm - Coastal Processes Monitoring Centre for Environment Fisheries and Aquaculture Science (CEFAS) July 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Scroby Sands Seal Monitoring: Analysis of the 2005 Post-Construction Aerial Surveys Skeate, E., Perrow, M. November 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Seabed Morphology Off Southern Long Island: Studies of Artificial Reefs and Implications for Wind Farms Flood, R. January 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
COWRIE 2.0 Electromagnetic Fields (EMF) Phase 2: EMF Sensitive Fish Response to EM Emissions from Sub-sea Electricity Cables of the Type used by the Offshore Renewable Energy Industry Gill, A., et al. March 2009 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF Fish
Short-Term Effects of the Construction of Wind Turbines on Harbour Porpoises at Horns Reef Tougaard, J., et al. April 2003 Report Offshore Wind Noise, Static Device Marine Mammals
South West Marine Energy Park Prospectus Southwest Marine Energy Park Coalition January 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Standard Investigation of the Impacts of Offshore Wind Turbines on the Marine Environment (StUK3) Bellebaum, J., et al. February 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Statutory Nature Conservation Agency Protocol for Minimising the Risk of Injury to Marine Mammals from Piling Noise Joint Nature Conservation Committee August 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Strategic Review of Offshore Wind Farm Monitoring Data Associated with FEPA Licence Conditions: Fish Walker, R., et al. July 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Fish
Strategy of Approach Demersal Fish Fauna Grift, R., Tien, N. May 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Fish
Summary on Harbour Porpoise Monitoring 1999-2006 around Nysted and Horns Rev Offshore Wind Farms Teilmann, J., Tougaard, J., Carstensen, J. November 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise, Static Device Marine Mammals
Summary on Seal Monitoring 1999-2005 around Nysted and Horns Rev Offshore Wind Farms Teilmann, J., et al. November 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise, Static Device Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Symposium Sound Solutions Report The North Sea Foundation February 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
TADS Investigations of Avian Collision Risk at Nysted Offshore Wind Farm Desholm, M. January 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Passerines, Seabirds, Waterfowl
The Development of Marine Based Wind Energy Generation and Inshore Fisheries in UK Waters: Are They Compatible? Rodmell, D., Johnson, M. January 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Fish, Socio-economics
The European Offshore Wind Industry Key 2011 Trends and Statistics European Wind Energy Association January 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
The Impact of Offshore Wind Farms on Bird Life in Southern Kalmar Sound, Sweden Pettersson, J. January 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Waterfowl
The Plan for Offshore Wind Energy in Scottish Territorial Waters Pre-Screening for Appropriate Assessment Halcrow Group June 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
COWRIE 1.5 The Potential Effects of Electromagnetic Fields Generated by Sub-Sea Power Cables Associated with Offshore Wind Farm Developments on Electrically and Magnetically Sensitive Marine Organisms - A Review Gill, A., et al. July 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF Benthic Invertebrates, Fish, Marine Mammals
The Shipping Industry and Marine Spatial Planning Patraiko, D., Holthus, P. November 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
The Turning Point for Atlantic Offshore Wind Energy: Time for Action to Create Jobs, Reduce Pollution, Protect Wildlife, and Secure America's Energy Future Bowes, C., Allegro, J. September 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Thermal Animal Detection System (TADS): Development of a Method for Estimating Collision Frequency of Migrating Birds at Offshore Wind Turbines Desholm, M. January 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Passerines, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Humpback Whale Encounter with Offshore Wind Mooring Lines and Inter-Array Cables Copping, A., Grear, M. October 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Marine Mammals, Cetaceans

Pages

Find Tethys on InstagramFind Tethys on FacebookFind Tethys on Twitter
 
CAPTCHA
This question is for testing whether or not you are a human visitor and to prevent automated spam submissions.