Knowledge Base

The Knowledge Base provides access to information about the environmental effects of marine and wind energy, supporting OES-Environmental and WREN initiatives. Relevant documents and OES-Environmental metadata forms are compiled into a user-friendly table with advanced filtering. Filters may be selected on the right, or keywords entered in the Search Text box. Content may also be sorted alphabetically by clicking on column headers. More entries will load as you scroll down.


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Title Author* Date** Type of Content Technology Types Stressors Receptorssort descending
The Effect of a Large Danish Offshore Wind Farm on Harbor and Gray Seal Haul-Out Behavior Edrén, S., et al. July 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Underwater Noise From Three Types Of Offshore Wind Turbines: Estimation Of Impact Zones For Harbor Porpoises And Harbor Seals Tougaard, J., Henriksen, O., Miller, L. January 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Likely Effects of Construction of Scroby Sands Offshore Wind Farm on a Mixed Population of Harbour Phoca vitulina and Grey Halichoerus grypus Seals Skeate, E., Perrow, M., Gilroy, J. April 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Sound Exposure in Harbour Seals During the Installation of an Offshore Wind Farm: Predictions of Auditory Damage Hastie, G., et al. June 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Use of Anthropogenic Sea Floor Structures by Australian Fur Seals: Potential Positive Ecological Impacts of Marine Industrial Development? Arnould, J., et al. July 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Effect of pile-driving sounds on harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) hearing Kastelein, R., et al. June 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Effect of Pile-Driving Playback Sound Level on Fish-Catching Efficiency in Harbor Porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) Kastelein, R., et al. July 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Harbour porpoise responses to pile-driving diminish over time Graham, I., et al. June 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Avoidance of Wind Farms by Harbour Seals is Limited to Pile Driving Activities Russell, D., et al. May 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
A Model for Passive Underwater Noise Suppression by Bubble Curtains Surrounding Point or Line Sources in Shallow Water Hay, T., et al. October 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
A Semi Analytical Model for the Prediction of Underwater Noise from Offshore Pile Driving Tsouvalas, A., Metrikine, V. June 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Assessing Integrated Risks Of Offshore Wind Projects: Moving Towards Gigawatt-scale Deployments Ram, B. June 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
California Offshore Wind Energy Potential Dvorak, M., Archer, C., Jacobson, M. June 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Tethys: Developing a Commons for Understanding Environmental Effects of Marine Renewable Energy Copping, A., et al. December 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Differentiating Between Underwater Construction Noise of Monopile and Jacket Foundations for Offshore Windmills: A Case Study from the Belgian Part of the North Sea Norro, A., Rumes, B., Degraer, S. February 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Doppler Lidar-Based Wind-Profile Measurement System for Offshore Wind Energy and Other Marine Boundary Layer Applications Pichugina, Y., et al. February 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Found in the Wind: The Value of Early Consultation and Collaboration with Other Ocean Users for Successful Offshore Wind Development Frulla, D., Hagerman, G., Hallowell, M. March 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Modelling of Pile Driving Noise by Means of Wavenumber Integration Lippert, T., Lippert, S. December 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Predicting Underwater Radiated Noise Levels due to the First Offshore Wind Turbine Installation in the U.S. Kim, H., Miller, J., Potty, G. June 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Renewable Energy from the Ocean Pelc, R., Fujita, R. November 2002 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Underwater Noise from Construction and Operation of Offshore Wind Farms Tougaard, J., Madsen, P., Wahlberg, M. January 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Long Term Estimations of Low Frequency Noise Levels over Water from an Off-Shore Wind Farm Bolin, K., et al. January 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Encouraging Renewable Energy in the Offshore Environment Appiott, J., Dhanju, A., Cicin-Sain, B. March 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Pseudo Spectral Analysis of the Energy Entrainment in a Scaled Down Wind Farm Newman, J., Drew, D., Castillo, L. October 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal N/A
Planners to the Rescue: Spatial Planning Facilitating the Development of Offshore Wind Energy Jay, S. April 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device N/A
Offshore Wind Farms Development in Relation to Environmental Protected Areas Spiropoulou, I., Karamanis, D., Kehayias, G. February 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Off-Shore Wind Farm Development: Present Status and Challenges Perveen, R., Kishor, N., Mohanty, S. January 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Modeling of Underwater Noise from Pile Driving using Coupled Finite Element and Parabolic Equation Model with Improved Parabolic Equation Starting Field Park, J., Seong, W., Lee, K. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Performance and Integrity of Protective Coating Systems for Offshore Wind Power Structures after Three Years Under Offshore Site Conditions Momber, A., Plagemann, P., Stenzel, V. February 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals N/A
Why Offshore Wind Energy? Esteban, M., et al. February 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
The Significance of Parameter Uncertainties for the Prediction of Offshore Pile Driving Noise Lippert, T., von Estorff, O. September 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Applicability of the "Frame of Reference" Approach for Environmental Monitoring of Offshore Renewable Energy Projects Garel, E., et al. August 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Geological and Geotechnical Characterisation for Offshore Wind Turbine Foundations: A Case Study of the Sheringham Shoal Wind Farm Le, T., et al. July 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device N/A
On a Hybrid Model for the Prediction of Pile Driving Noise from Offshore Wind Farms Lippert, T., von Estorff, O. April 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
The Cumulative Effect on Sound Levels from Multiple Underwater Anthropogenic Sound Sources in Shallow Coastal Waters Pine, M., Jeffs, A., Radford, C. February 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
The Current State of Offshore Wind Energy Technology Development Sun, X., Huang, D., Wu, G. May 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Airborne Sound Propagation Over Sea During Offshore Wind Farm Piling Van Renterghem, T., Botteldooren, D., Dekoninck, L. February 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
The Key Technologies and Development of Offshore Wind Farm in China Wu, J., Wang, Z., Wang, G. June 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Determining the dependence of marine pile driving sound levels on strike energy, pile penetration, and propagation effects using a linear mixed model based on damped cylindrical spreading Martin, S., Barclay, D. July 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Overview of ocean power technology Wilberforce, T., et al. May 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Floating Offshore Turbines Tande, J., et al. June 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Leading Edge Erosion of Coated Wind Turbine Blades: Review of Coating Life Models Slot, H., et al. August 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals N/A
Integrated Environmental Mapping and Monitoring, a Methodological Approach to Optimise Knowledge Gathering and Sampling Strategy Nilssen, I., et al. July 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Multi-Criteria Assessment of Offshore Wind Turbine Support Structures Lozano-Minguez, E., Kolios, A., Brennan, F. November 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device N/A
Long Range Propagation Modeling of Offshore Wind Turbine Noise using Finite Element and Parabolic Equation Models Kim, H., et al. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
A Computational Method to Predict and Study Underwater Noise due to Pile Driving Schecklman, S., et al. July 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Underwater Mach Wave Radiation from Impact Pile Driving: Theory and Observation Reinhall, P., Dahl, P. September 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Validation of Finite Element Computations for the Quantitative Prediction of Underwater Noise from Impact Pile Driving Zampolli, M., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
An Analytical Model for the Underwater Sound Pressure Waveforms Radiated when an Offshore Pile is Driven Hall, M. August 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
The Adhesion of Corrosion Protection Coating Systems for Offshore Wind Power Constructions after Three Years under Offshore Exposure Momber, A., Plagemann, P., Stenzel, V. March 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals N/A
The Turbulent Wake of a Monopile Foundation Rogan, C., et al. August 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal N/A
Combining Wave Energy with Wind and Solar: Short-Term Forecasting Reikard, G., Robertson, B., Bidlot, J. September 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Large-Eddy Simulation of Offshore Wind Farm Yang, D., Meneveau, C., Shen, L. February 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal N/A
Visual assessment of off-shore wind turbines: The influence of distance, contrast, movement and social variables Bishop, I., Miller, D. April 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Site Selection for Offshore Wind Farms in the Southwest Coast of South Korea Kim, C., Jang, S., Kim, T. May 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
The sustainable worldwide offshore wind energy potential: A systematic review Keivanpour, S., Ramudhin, A., Kadi, D. November 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Emissions from corrosion protection systems of offshore wind farms: Evaluation of the potential impact on the marine environment Kirchgeorg, T., et al. November 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals N/A
Oil and gas infrastructure decommissioning in marine protected areas: System complexity, analysis and challenges Burdon, D., et al. October 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Structure-Borne Wave Radiation by Impact and Vibratory Piling in Offshore Installations: From Sound Prediction to Auditory Damage Tsouvalas, A., Metrikine, A. August 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
A strategic analysis of tidal current energy conversion systems in the European Union Segura, E., Morales, R., Somolinos, J. February 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Environmental benefits of leaving offshore infrastructure in the ocean Fowler, A., et al. July 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device N/A
Assessing the cumulative exposure of wildlife to offshore wind energy development Wing Goodale, M., Milman, A. April 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Impact of the establishment of US offshore wind power on neodymium flows Fishman, T., Graedel, T. March 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
A three-dimensional underwater sound propagation model for offshore wind farm noise prediction Lin, Y., et al. May 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Potential effects of electrical energy transmission - the case study from the Polish Marine Areas (southern Baltic Sea) Otremba, Z., et al. June 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF N/A
Characteristics of the soundscape before and after the construction of the Block Island Wind Farm Tripathy, A., et al. October 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Site Selection of Hybrid Offshore Wind and Wave Energy Systems in Greece Incorporating Environmental Impact Assessment Loukogeorgaki, E., Vagiona, D., Vasileiou, M. August 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
The influence of regulatory framework on environmental impact assessment in the development of offshore wind farms in Spain: Issues, challenges and solutions Salvador, S., Gimeno, L., Larruga, F. July 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Marine Renewable Energy Seascape Borthwick, A. March 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Physical and Numerical Large-Scale Wave Basin Modeling of Fluid-Structure Interaction and Wave Impact Phenomena Yim, S., et al. June 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow N/A
Environmental Impact of Wind Energy Mann, J., Teilmann, J. July 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Simulation Of Wave Damping Near Coast Due To Offshore Wind Farms Alari, V., Raudsepp, U. September 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow N/A
Electromagnetic Simulation of the Near-Field Distribution around a Wind Farm Ling, H., Yang, S. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF Nearfield Habitat
Environmental and Ecological Effects of Ocean Renewable Energy Development: A Current Synthesis Boehlert, G., Gill, A. June 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy general, OTEC, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Nearfield Habitat
Offshore Windmill Farms: Threats to or Possibilities for the Marine Environment Petersen, J., Malm, T. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Nearfield Habitat
The Nature Of Scour Development And Scour Protection At Offshore Windfarm Foundations Whitehouse, R., et al. November 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Nearfield Habitat
The Habitat-Creation Potential of Offshore Wind Farms Elliott, M., Wilson, J. February 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Nearfield Habitat
Seismic Response of Large-Scale Prestressed Concrete Bucket Foundation for Offshore Wind Turbines Zhang, P., Ding, H., Conghuan, L. January 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Nearfield Habitat
The Effects of Landscape Modifications on the Long-Term Persistence of Animal Populations Nabe-Nielsen, J., et al. January 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Nearfield Habitat
Experimental Analysis of the Wake of a Horizontal-Axis Wind-Turbine Model Lignarolo, L., et al. October 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Nearfield Habitat
Experimental Study on Influence of Pitch Motion on the Wake of a Floating Wind Turbine Model Rockel, S., et al. March 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Nearfield Habitat
Computationally Efficient Modelling of Dynamic Soil-Structure Interaction of Offshore Wind Turbines on Gravity Footings Damgaard, M., Andersen, L., Ibsen, L. August 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Nearfield Habitat
Turbid Wakes Associated with Offshore Wind Turbines Observed with Landsat 8 Vanhellemont, Q., Ruddick, K. April 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Nearfield Habitat
On the Effect of Structure-Induced Resistance and Mixing on Inflows into the Baltic Sea: A Numerical Model Study Rennau, H., Schimmels, S., Burchard, H. February 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Nearfield Habitat
Recent Developments of Ocean Environmental Description with Focus on Uncertainties Bitner-Gregersen, E., et al. August 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Nearfield Habitat
Upper Ocean Response to Large Wind Farm Effect in the Presence of Surface Gravity Waves Paskyabi, M., Fer, I. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal, Static Device Nearfield Habitat
Offshore Wind Park Monitoring Programmes, Lessons Learned and Recommendations for the Future Lindeboom, H., et al. September 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Nearfield Habitat
Unstructured Grid Modelling of Offshore Wind Farm Impacts on Seasonally Stratified Shelf Seas Cazenave, P., Torres, R., Allen, J. June 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Nearfield Habitat
The expected efficiency and coastal impact of a hybrid energy farm operating in the Portuguese nearshore Onea, F., Rusu, E. February 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Nearfield Habitat
Human pressures on UK seabed habitats: a cumulative impact assessment Foden, J., Rogers, S., Jones, A. May 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Habitat Change Nearfield Habitat
Sustainable Decommissioning of an Offshore Wind Farm Topham, E., McMillan, D. March 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
Exploring the wakes of large offshore wind farms Emeis, S., et al. January 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Offshore Wind Farm Wake Effect on Stratification and Coastal Upwelling Paskyabi, M. December 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Numerical Study for Wave-Induced Seabed Response around Offshore Wind Turbine Foundation in Donghai Offshore Wind Farm, Shanghai, China Chang, K., Jeng, D. July 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Effects of Man-Made Structures on Sedimentary Oxygenation: Extent, Seasonality and Implications for Offshore Renewables Wilding, T. June 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Large Eddy Simulation Studies of the Effects of Alignment and Wind Farm Length Stevens, R., Gayme, D., Meneveau, C. April 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Evaluation of the nearshore impact of a hybrid wave-wind energy farm Diaconu, S., Onea, F., Rusu, E. February 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
On The Influence Of Large Wind Farms On The Upper Ocean Circulation Broström, G. November 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Offshore Wind Turbine Wakes Measured by Sodar Barthelmie, J., et al. April 2003 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
The Expected Shoreline Effect of a Marine Energy Farm Operating Close to Sardinia Island Onea, F., Rusu, E. November 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment

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