Knowledge Base

The Knowledge Base provides access to information about the environmental effects of marine and wind energy, supporting OES-Environmental and WREN initiatives. Relevant documents and OES-Environmental metadata forms are compiled into a user-friendly table with advanced filtering. Filters may be selected on the right, or keywords entered in the Search Text box. Content may also be sorted alphabetically by clicking on column headers.


As an alternative to the Knowledge Base, check out the Map Viewer to access geotagged content in a spatial view.


Title Author* Date** Type of Content Technology Types Stressorssort descending Receptors
Key Seabird Areas in Southern New England Identified Using a Community Occupancy Model Flanders, N., et al. August 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds
Classification of Birds and Bats Using Flight Tracks Cullinan, V., Matzner, S., Duberstein, C. May 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Predicting the offshore distribution and abundance of marine birds with a hierarchical community distance sampling model Goyert, H., et al. September 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds
The proportion of flatfish recruitment in the North Sea potentially affected by offshore windfarms Barbut, L., et al. April 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Fish
Barotrauma is a Significant Cause of Bat Fatalities at Wind Turbines Baerwald, E., et al. August 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Bats
Life cycle cost-benefit analysis of offshore wind energy under the climatic conditions in Southeast Asia – Setting the bottom-line for deployment Nian, V., Liu, Y., Zhong, S. January 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Life Cycle Assessment
A Life Cycle Co-Benefits Assessment of Wind Power in China Xue, B., et al. January 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Life Cycle Assessment
Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Electricity Generated by Offshore Wind Farms Reimers, B., Özdirik, B., Kaltschmitt, M. December 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Life Cycle Assessment
Consequential Environmental System Analysis of Expected Offshore Wind Electricity Production in Germany Pehnt, M., Oeser, M., Swider, D. May 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Sustainability and tourism: the effect of the United States’ first offshore wind farm on the vacation rental market Carr-Harris, A., Lang, C. August 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Recreation & Tourism, Visual Impacts
Refusal of planning consent for the Docking Shoal offshore wind farm: Stakeholder perspectives and lessons learned Broadbent, I., Nixon, C. June 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment, Legal & Policy, Stakeholder Engagement
Stakeholder Perspectives on the Value of Marine Spatial Planning Towards Advancing Offshore Wind in the U.S. Ryan, K., et al. April 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning, Stakeholder Engagement
Retrospective and Outlook for an Environmentally Sound Development of Offshore Wind Energy Lüdeke, J. January 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Imbalances in interaction for transboundary marine spatial planning: Insights from the Baltic Sea Region Janßen, H., et al. July 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
Camera technology for monitoring marine biodiversity and human impact Bicknell, A., et al. October 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Fish, Invertebrates, Human Dimensions
Failure Mode Identification and End of Life Scenarios of Offshore Wind Turbines: A Review Luengo, M., Kolios, A. August 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions
Environmental Impacts of Balancing Offshore Wind Power with Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) Bouman, E., Øberg, M., Hertwich, E. January 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment, Life Cycle Assessment
Assessing the Life Cycle Environmental Impacts of Wind Power: A Review of Present Knowledge and Research Needs Arvesen, A., Hertwich, E. October 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment, Life Cycle Assessment
Obligations and aspirations: A critical evaluation of offshore wind farm cumulative impact assessments Willsteed, E., et al. February 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment, Legal & Policy
A Markov Model for Planning and Permitting Offshore Wind Energy: A Case Study of Radio-Tracked Terns in the Gulf of Maine, USA Cranmer, A., et al. May 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds
Marine Renewable Energy Seascape Borthwick, A. March 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Resolving Conflicts Between Endangered Species Conservation and Renewable Energy Siting: Wiggle Room for Renewables? Badichek, G. January 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Climate Change, Legal & Policy
Environmental Impact of Wind Energy Mann, J., Teilmann, J. July 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Local support for renewable energy technologies? Attitudes towards local near-shore wind farms among second home owners and permanent area residents on the Danish coast Johansen, K. September 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Stakeholder Engagement, Visual Impacts
Mapping Fisheries for Marine Spatial Planning: Gear-Specific Vessel Monitoring System (VMS), Marine Conservation and Offshore Renewable Energy Campbell, M., et al. March 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Fish, Human Dimensions, Fisheries
Modelling the Biological Significance of Behavioural Change in Coastal Bottlenose Dolphins in Response to Disturbance New, L., et al. April 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Local and socio-political acceptance of wind farms in Germany Sonnenberg, M., Ruddat, M. November 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Valuation of Ecological and Amenity Impacts of an Offshore Windfarm as a Factor in Marine Planning Börger, T., Hooper, T., Austen, M. December 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Visual Impacts
A Well-Being Framework for Impact Evaluation: The Case of the UK Offshore Wind Industry Hattam, C., Hooper, T., Papathanasopoulou, E. April 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Establishing an Agenda for Social Studies Research in Marine Renewable Energy Kerr, S., et al. April 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Establishing the Resilience of a Coastal-marine Social-ecological System to the Installation of Offshore Wind Farms Burkhard, B., Gee, K. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Individual preferences regarding environmental offset and welfare compensation: a choice experiment application to an offshore wind farm project Kermagoret, C., et al. September 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Marine Renewable Energy and Scottish West Coast Fishers: Exploring Impacts, Opportunities and Potential Mitigation Alexander, K., Potts, T., Wilding, T. April 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Fisheries, Social & Economic Data
Comparing offshore and onshore wind development considering acceptance costs Hevia-Koch, P., Jacobsen, H. February 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data, Stakeholder Engagement
Seeing clearly in a virtual reality: Tourist reactions to an offshore wind project Teisl, M., et al. November 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Recreation & Tourism
An ecosystem approach for studying the impact of offshore wind farms: a French case study Pezy, J., Raoux, A., Dauvin, J. September 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Ecosystem Processes, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Flatfish habitat use near North America's first offshore wind farm Wilber, D., Carey, D., Griffin, M. September 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Fish
Zooplankton Community Responses and the Relation to Environmental Factors from Established Offshore Wind Farms within the Rudong Coastal Area of China Wang, T., et al. July 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Ecosystem Processes, Physical Environment, Water Quality
A Review of Vessel Traffic and Fishing Activity Standards for Offshore Wind Farm in Domestic Areas Based on the Analysis of Foreign Cases Kwon, Y., Lee, C., Rim, G. February 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Fisheries, Navigation
Assessing cumulative socio-ecological impacts of offshore wind farm development in the Bay of Seine (English Channel) Raoux, A., et al. February 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Ecosystem Processes, Fish, Invertebrates, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Public estimates of support for offshore wind energy: False consensus, pluralistic ignorance, and partisan effects Sokoloski, R., Markowitz, E., Bidwell, D. January 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Stakeholder Engagement
Offshore Wind Farms as Potential Locations for Flat Oyster (Ostrea edulis) Restoration in the Dutch North Sea Kamermans, P., et al. October 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Invertebrates, Human Dimensions, Fisheries
Changes in European wind energy generation potential within a 1.5 °C warmer world Hosking, J., et al. May 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Climate Change
Breeding density, fine-scale tracking, and large-scale modeling reveal the regional distribution of four seabird species Wakefield, E., et al. October 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds
Damage analysis of ship collisions with offshore wind turbine foundations Moulas, D., Shafiee, M., Mehmanparast, A. October 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Navigation
Density dependence and marine bird populations: are wind farm assessments precautionary? Horswill, C., O'Brien, S., Robinson, R. October 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds
North Atlantic right whale Eubalaena glacialis occurrence in offshore wind energy areas near Massachusetts and Rhode Island, USA Leiter, S., et al. July 2017 Journal Article Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Year-Round Spatiotemporal Distribution of Harbour Porpoises Within and Around the Maryland Wind Energy Area Wingfield, J., et al. May 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals
High-resolution sea duck distribution modeling: Relating aerial and ship survey data to food resources, anthropogenic pressures, and topographic variables Heinänen, S., et al. May 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds
Benthic Monitoring and Sampling Design and Effort to Detect Spatial Changes: A Case Study using Data from Offshore Wind Farm Sites Franco, A., Quintino, V., Elliott, M. October 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Invertebrates
Comparison of Manual and Semi-Automatic Underwater Imagery Analyses for Monitoring of Benthic Hard-Bottom Organisms at Offshore Renewable Energy Installations Saskov, A., et al. September 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Invertebrates
Special Issue: Renewable Ocean Energy Development and the Environment Zydlewski, G., Copping, A., Redden, A. January 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Ecosystem Processes
Investigating the Co-Existence of Fisheries and Offshore Renewable Energy in the UK: Identification of a Mitigation Agenda for Fishing Effort Displacement de Groot, J., et al. December 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Fisheries
Great Skua (Stercorarius skua) Movements at Sea in Relation to Marine Renewable Energy Developments Wade, H., et al. October 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds
Assessing Ecological Risks of Offshore Wind Power on Kattegat Cod Hammar, L., Wikström, A., Molander, S. June 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Fish
The Legal Framework for Offshore Wind Farms: A Critical Analysis of the Consents Process Gibson, E., Howsamn, P. August 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy, Social & Economic Data
Ecosystem service tradeoff analysis reveals the value of marine spatial planning for multiple ocean uses White, C., Halpern, B., Kappel, C. March 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning, Social & Economic Data
Bird Killer, Industrial Intruder or Clean Energy? Perceiving Risks to Ecosystem Services Due to an Offshore Wind Farm Klain, S., et al. January 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Energy Systems and their Impacts on Marine Ecosystem Services Papathanasopoulou, E., et al. December 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Ecosystem Processes, Social & Economic Data
The Impact of Offshore Wind Farms on Marine Ecosystems: A Review Taking an Ecosystem Services Perspective Mangi, S. April 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Cultural Ecosystem Services in the Context of Offshore Wind Farming: A Case Study from the West Coast of Schleswig-Holstein Gee, K., Burkhard, B. September 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
The Implications of Energy Systems for Ecosystem Services: A Detailed Case Study of Offshore Wind Hooper, T., Beaumont, N., Hattam, C. April 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Public acceptance of offshore wind power: does perceived fairness of process matter? Firestone, J., et al. December 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Need for a wind of change? Use of offshore wind messages by stakeholders and the media in Germany and their effects on public acceptance Schmidt, A. October 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Development of cumulative impact assessment guidelines for offshore wind farms and evaluation of use in project making Durning, B., Broderick, M. July 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Recycling offshore wind farms at decommissioning stage Topham, E., et al. June 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Offshore gas production infrastructure reutilisation for blue energy production Sedlar, D., et al. April 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
The interplay between economics, legislative power and social influence examined through a social-ecological framework for marine ecosystems services Martino, S., Tett, P., Kenter, J. February 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Korean traditional beliefs and renewable energy transitions: Pungsu, shamanism, and the local perception of wind turbines Kim, E., Chung, J., Seo, Y. December 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Floating offshore wind - Economic and ecological challenges of a TLP solution Kausche, M., et al. October 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
The influence of stakeholder groups in operation and maintenance services of offshore wind farms: Lesson from Denmark Ahsan, D., Pederson, S. September 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
An Overview of Offshore Wind Energy Resources in Europe Under Present and Future Climate deCastro, M., et al. July 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Climate Change, Legal & Policy
The impact of on-shore and off-shore wind turbine farms on property prices Jensen, C., et al. May 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Offshore wind energy resource assessment under techno-economic and social-ecological constraints Magar, V., Gross, M., González-García, L. February 2018 Journal Article Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Do tidal stream energy projects offer more value than offshore wind farms? A case study in the United Kingdom Lamy, J., Azevedo, I. February 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Offshore wind zoning in China: Method and experience Ou, L., et al. January 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Will Communities "Open-Up" to Offshore Wind? Lessons Learned from New England Islands in the United States Klain, S., et al. December 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Ocean Beliefs and Support for an Offshore Wind Energy Project Bidwell, D. September 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Integration of wave energy and other marine renewable energy sources with the needs of coastal societies Manasseh, R., et al. January 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Ocean Current, OTEC, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Does more wind energy influence the choice of location for wind power development? Assessing the cumulative effects of daily wind turbine encounters in Denmark Ladenburg, J. November 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
A comparative assessment of proposed offshore wind power demonstration projects in the United States Bates, A., Firestone, J. November 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Strategic Planning to Reduce Conflicts for Offshore Wind Development in Taiwan: A Social Marketing Perspective Chen, J., Liu, H., Chuang, C. October 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Attitudes and Perceptions of Fishermen on the Island of Ireland Towards the Development of Marine Renewable Energy Projects Reilly, K., O'Hagan, A., Dalton, G. August 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Ocean Zoning for Conservation, Fisheries and Marine Renewable Energy: Assessing Trade-Offs and Co-Location Opportunities Yates, K., Schoeman, D., Klein, C. April 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Fisheries, Marine Spatial Planning
Dark Green Electricity Comes from the Sea: Capitalizing on Ecological Merits of Offshore Wind Power? Toonen, H., Lindeboom, H. February 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Rights and Ownership in Sea Country: Implications of Marine Renewable Energy for Indigenous and Local Communities Kerr, S., et al. February 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Identifying Space for Offshore Wind Energy in the North Sea. Consequences of Scenario Calculations for Interactions with Other Marine Uses Jongbloed, R., van der Wal, J., Lindeboom, H. May 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions
Effects of Offshore Wind Farms on Marine Wildlife - A Generalized Impact Assessment Bergström, L., et al. March 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
The State of Rhode Island's Pioneering Marine Spatial Plan Olsen, S., McCann, J., Fugate, G. March 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
Co-Location of Activities and Designations: A Means of Solving or Creating Problems in Marine Spatial Planning? Christie, N., et al. January 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
Public Attitudes and Environmental Impacts of Wind Farms: A Review Karydis, M. February 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
The Case for Offshore Wind Farms, Artificial Reefs and Sustainable Tourism in the French Mediterranean Westerberg, V., Jacobsen, J., Lifran, R. February 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Recreation & Tourism
Seabird Aggregative Patterns: A New Tool for Offshore Wind Energy Risk Assessment Christel, I., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds
A Marine Spatial Planning Framework for the Optimal Siting of Marine Renewable Energy Installations: Two Danish Case Studies Azzellino, A., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
A review of unmanned vehicles for the detection and monitoring of marine fauna Verfuss, U., et al. March 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Short-Term Ecological Effects of an Offshore Wind Farm in the Dutch Coastal Zone: A Compilation Lindeboom, H., et al. August 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Environmental Impact Assessment of Offshore Wind Farms: A Simulation-Based Approach Lapeña, B., et al. August 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Birds
Environmental and Ecological Effects of Ocean Renewable Energy Development: A Current Synthesis Boehlert, G., Gill, A. June 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Planners to the Rescue: Spatial Planning Facilitating the Development of Offshore Wind Energy Jay, S. April 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
Spatial Planning of Offshore Wind Farms: A Windfall to Marine Environmental Protection? Punt, M., et al. November 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning

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