Knowledge Base

The Knowledge Base provides access to information about the environmental effects of marine and wind energy, supporting OES-Environmental and WREN initiatives. Relevant documents and OES-Environmental metadata forms are compiled into a user-friendly table with advanced filtering. Filters may be selected on the right, or keywords entered in the Search Text box. Content may also be sorted alphabetically by clicking on column headers. More entries will load as you scroll down.


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Title Author* Date** Type of Contentsort descending Technology Types Stressors Receptors
Valuation of Ecological and Amenity Impacts of an Offshore Windfarm as a Factor in Marine Planning Börger, T., Hooper, T., Austen, M. December 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Ecosystem, Socio-economics
A Methodology for Multi-Criteria Design of Multi-Use Offshore Platforms for Marine Renewable Energy Harvesting Zanuttigh, B., et al. January 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Challenges in Implementing Sustainable Marine Spatial Planning: The New Portuguese Legal Framework Case Santos, C., et al. November 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Legal and Policy, Marine Spatial Planning
Strategic Planning to Reduce Conflicts for Offshore Wind Development in Taiwan: A Social Marketing Perspective Chen, J., Liu, H., Chuang, C. October 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Evaluation and Comparison of the Levelized Cost of Tidal, Wave, and Offshore Wind Energy Astariz, S., Vazquez, A., Iglesias, G. October 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Likelihood of a Marine Vessel Accident from Wind Energy Development in the Atlantic Copping, A., et al. November 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Navigation
Underwater Noise Modelling for Environmental Impact Assessment Farcas, A., Thompson, P., Merchant, N. February 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Public Opinion and the Environmental, Economic and Aesthetic Impacts of Offshore Wind Bush, D., Hoagland, P. February 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Aesthetics, Stakeholder Engagement
What Drives Attitudes towards Marine Renewable Energy Development in Island Communities in the UK? de Groot, J., Bailey, I. April 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
An Indicator to Objectively Quantify the Visual Impact of an Offshore Wind Farm Gonzalez-Rodriguez, A. April 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Aesthetics
Marine Renewable Energy Seascape Borthwick, A. March 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Socio-economics, Climate Change, Legal and Policy
Offshore Wind Farm Site Selection Study around Jeju Island, South Korea Kim, T., Park, J., Maeng, J. January 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Ecosystem, Socio-economics
Achieving Blue Growth through Maritime Spatial Planning: Offshore Wind Energy Optimization and Biodiversity Conservation in Spain Rodríguez-Rodríguez, D., et al. November 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Ecosystem, Socio-economics, Legal and Policy, Marine Spatial Planning
Sustainable Decommissioning of an Offshore Wind Farm Topham, E., McMillan, D. March 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
Environmental Impacts of Balancing Offshore Wind Power with Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) Bouman, E., Øberg, M., Hertwich, E. January 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Life Cycle Assessment
A Well-Being Framework for Impact Evaluation: The Case of the UK Offshore Wind Industry Hattam, C., Hooper, T., Papathanasopoulou, E. April 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Recreational Use of Offshore Wind Farms: Experiences and Opinions of Sea Anglers in the UK Hooper, T., Hattam, C., Austen, M. April 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Socio-economics, Recreation
Maritime Route Delineation using AIS Data from the Atlantic Coast of the US Breithaupt, S., et al. March 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Navigation
Will Communities "Open-Up" to Offshore Wind? Lessons Learned from New England Islands in the United States Klain, S., et al. December 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Evaluating the Visual Impact of an Offshore Wind Farm Maslov, N., et al. May 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Aesthetics
Ocean Beliefs and Support for an Offshore Wind Energy Project Bidwell, D. September 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Bird Killer, Industrial Intruder or Clean Energy? Perceiving Risks to Ecosystem Services Due to an Offshore Wind Farm Klain, S., et al. January 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Assessing larval connectivity for marine spatial planning in the Adriatic Bray, L., Kassis, D., Hall-Spencer, J. April 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
Method to Estimate the Visual Impact of an Offshore Wind Farm Maslov, N., et al. October 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Aesthetics
The effects of temporary exclusion of activity due to wind farm construction on a lobster (Homarus gammarus) fishery suggests a potential management approach Roach, M., et al. February 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Fish, Socio-economics
Offshore wind zoning in China: Method and experience Ou, L., et al. January 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
The Life-Cycle Energy and Environmental Emissions of a Typical Offshore Wind Farm in China Yang, J., et al. April 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals Socio-economics, Climate Change
A Markov Model for Planning and Permitting Offshore Wind Energy: A Case Study of Radio-Tracked Terns in the Gulf of Maine, USA Cranmer, A., et al. May 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds, Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
A Conceptual Model to Determine Vulnerability of Wildlife Populations to Offshore Wind Energy Development Goodale, M., Stenhouse, J. April 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Ecosystem, Socio-economics
Assessing cumulative socio-ecological impacts of offshore wind farm development in the Bay of Seine (English Channel) Raoux, A., et al. February 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Ecosystem, Socio-economics, Climate Change
Building a stakeholder's vision of an offshore wind-farm project: A group modeling approach Château, P., et al. March 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
Ecosystem service tradeoff analysis reveals the value of marine spatial planning for multiple ocean uses White, C., Halpern, B., Kappel, C. March 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
Need for a wind of change? Use of offshore wind messages by stakeholders and the media in Germany and their effects on public acceptance Schmidt, A. October 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
A portfolio model for siting offshore wind farms with economic and environmental objectives Cranmer, A., et al. May 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Ecosystem, Socio-economics
The factors affecting stakeholders' acceptance of offshore wind farms along the western coast of Taiwan: Evidence from stakeholders' perceptions Chen, J., et al. June 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
Public Attitudes and Environmental Impacts of Wind Farms: A Review Karydis, M. February 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Socio-economics, Aesthetics
Fisheries, the environment and offshore wind farms: location, location, location Johnson, M., Rodmell, D. January 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Ecosystem, Socio-economics, Fishing
NEPA Review of Offshore Wind Farms: Ensuring Emission Reduction Benefits Outweigh Visual Impacts Bisbee, D. January 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Aesthetics
An Overview of Offshore Wind Energy Resources in Europe Under Present and Future Climate deCastro, M., et al. July 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
The impact of on-shore and off-shore wind turbine farms on property prices Jensen, C., et al. May 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Static Device Socio-economics
The social dynamics of turbine tourism and recreation: Introducing a mixed-method approach to the study of the first U.S. offshore wind farm Smith, H., et al. July 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Recreation
Offshore wind energy resource assessment under techno-economic and social-ecological constraints Magar, V., Gross, M., González-García, L. February 2018 Journal Article Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Linking ecosystem services with epibenthic biodiversity change following installation of offshore wind farms Causon, P., Gill, A. November 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
Cool Rationalities and Hot Air: A Rhetorical Approach to Understanding Debates on Renewable Energy Barry, J., Ellis, G., Robinson, C. May 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Thinking Globally and Siting Locally - Renewable Energy and Biodiversity in a Rapidly Warming World Allison, T., Root, T., Frumhoff, P. September 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Climate Change
Comparing offshore and onshore wind development considering acceptance costs Hevia-Koch, P., Jacobsen, H. February 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
Is Marine Spatial Planning Enough to Overcome Biological Data Deficiencies? Ryan, K., Danylchuk, A., Jordaan, A. November 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
Co-location of passive gear fisheries in offshore wind farms in the German EEZ of the North Sea: A first socio-economic scoping Stelzenmüller, V., et al. December 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Socio-economics, Fishing
Offshore wind farm in marine spatial planning and the stakeholders engagement: Opportunities and challenges for Taiwan Zhang, Y., et al. November 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Fishing, Marine Spatial Planning, Stakeholder Engagement
Life-cycle green-house gas emissions of onshore and offshore wind turbines Wang, S., Wang, S., Jinxiang, L. February 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Life Cycle Assessment
A modelling approach for offshore wind farm feasibility with respect to ecosystem-based marine spatial planning Pınarbaşı, K., et al. June 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
Consideration of scales in offshore wind environmental impact assessments Ryan, K., Danylchuk, A., Jordaan, A. March 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Chains of trust: Energy justice, public engagement, and the first offshore wind farm in the United States Dwyer, J., Bidwell, D. January 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
Life cycle assessment of a floating offshore wind turbine Weinzettel, J., et al. March 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Life Cycle Assessment
GHG emissions and energy performance of offshore wind power Raadal, H., et al. June 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Life Cycle Assessment
Renewable energy from the high seas: Geo-spatial modelling of resource potential and legal implications for developing offshore wind projects beyond the national jurisdiction of coastal States Elsner, P., Suarez, S. May 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Marine Aquaculture within Offshore Wind Farms: Social Aspects of Multiple-Use Planning Michler-Cieluch, T., Krause, G., Buck, B. June 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Fishing, Marine Spatial Planning
Offshore wind power development as affected by seascape values on the German North Sea coast Gee, K. April 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Aesthetics, Stakeholder Engagement
Integrated Assessment of Coastal and Marine Changes Using the Example of Offshore Wind Farms: the Coastal Futures Approach Kannen, A., Burkhard, B. September 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
The use of 'ecological risk' for assessing effects of human activities: an example including eutrophication and offshore wind farm construction in the North Sea Nunneri, C., et al. October 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Ecosystem, Socio-economics
Why does the offshore wind industry need standardized HSE management systems? An evidence from Denmark Ahsan, D., et al. June 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Legal and Policy, Stakeholder Engagement
Stakeholder Perspectives on the Value of Marine Spatial Planning Towards Advancing Offshore Wind in the U.S. Ryan, K., et al. April 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
Europe, China and the United States: Three different approaches to the development of offshore wind energy deCastro, M., et al. July 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
The politics of Estonia's offshore wind energy programme: Discourse, power and marine spatial planning Tafon, R., Howarth, D., Griggs, S. January 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Legal and Policy, Marine Spatial Planning
Do tidal stream energy projects offer more value than offshore wind farms? A case study in the United Kingdom Lamy, J., Azevedo, I. February 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Floating offshore wind - Economic and ecological challenges of a TLP solution Kausche, M., et al. October 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Climate Change, Life Cycle Assessment
The influence of stakeholder groups in operation and maintenance services of offshore wind farms: Lesson from Denmark Ahsan, D., Pederson, S. September 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Offshore Wind Turbine Visibility and Visual Impact Threshold Distances Sullivan, R., et al. March 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Aesthetics
The economics of visual disamenity reductions of offshore wind farms—Review and suggestions from an emerging field Ladenburg, J., Lutzeyer, S. December 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Aesthetics
Place attachment and marine recreationists' attitudes toward offshore wind energy development Brownlee, M., et al. December 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Recreation
Over the Sea and Far Away? A Consideration of the Planning, Politics and Public Perception of Offshore Wind Farms Haggett, C. August 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Legal and Policy, Marine Spatial Planning
Steel forests or smoke stacks: the politics of visualisation in the Cape Wind controversy Phadke, R. February 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Aesthetics
Winds of change – Predicting water-based recreationists' support and opposition for offshore wind energy development in the Great Lakes Ferguson, M., et al. February 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Recreation
Sustainability and tourism: the effect of the United States’ first offshore wind farm on the vacation rental market Carr-Harris, A., Lang, C. August 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Aesthetics
Combined Exploitation of Offshore Wind and Wave Energy in the Italian Seas: A Spatial Planning Approach Azzellino, A., et al. April 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
The post-normal politics and science of wind power planning: Evidence from a Danish near-shore wind farm tender Johansen, K., Upham, P. July 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Legal and Policy, Stakeholder Engagement
The integrated offshore grid in Europe: Exploring challenges for regional energy governance Dedecca, J., Hakvoort, R., Herder, P. June 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Korean traditional beliefs and renewable energy transitions: Pungsu, shamanism, and the local perception of wind turbines Kim, E., Chung, J., Seo, Y. December 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Wind in the sails or choppy seas?: People-place relations, aesthetics and public support for the United States’ first offshore wind project Firestone, J., et al. June 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Aesthetics
Marine wind energy and the North Sea Offshore Grid Initiative: A Multi-Level Perspective on a stalled technology transition? Flynn, B. December 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Does more wind energy influence the choice of location for wind power development? Assessing the cumulative effects of daily wind turbine encounters in Denmark Ladenburg, J. November 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Offshore wind farms in Southern Europe – Determining tourist preference and social acceptance Westerberg, V., Jacobsen, J., Lifran, R. November 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Aesthetics, Recreation
A comparative assessment of proposed offshore wind power demonstration projects in the United States Bates, A., Firestone, J. November 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Integration of marine research results into a maritime spatial plan for Lithuania Mileriene, R., Blažauskas, N., Gulbinskas, S. April 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
Building the Blue Economy: The Role of Marine Spatial Planning in Facilitating Offshore Renewable Energy Development Young, M. February 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
Who cares? European attitudes towards marine and coastal environments Potts, T., et al. October 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Aesthetics, Fishing, Stakeholder Engagement
Tilting at Offshore Windmills: Regulating Wind Farm Development Within the Renewable Energy Zone Scott, K. December 2005 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Social licence in the marine sector: A review of understanding and application Kelly, R., Pecl, G., Fleming, A. July 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
Development of cumulative impact assessment guidelines for offshore wind farms and evaluation of use in project making Durning, B., Broderick, M. July 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
A path planning approach based on multi-direction A* algorithm for ships navigating within wind farm waters Xie, L., et al. June 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Navigation
Offshore gas production infrastructure reutilisation for blue energy production Sedlar, D., et al. April 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Adaptive marine spatial planning in the Netherlands sector of the North Sea de Vrees, L. February 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
Life-cycle cost analysis of floating offshore wind farms Castro-Santos, L., Diaz-Casas, V. June 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Life Cycle Assessment
Recycling offshore wind farms at decommissioning stage Topham, E., et al. June 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
External Effects of Renewable Energy Projects: Life Cycle Analysis-based Approach Salnikova, A., et al. May 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Life Cycle Assessment
A Review of Vessel Traffic and Fishing Activity Standards for Offshore Wind Farm in Domestic Areas Based on the Analysis of Foreign Cases Kwon, Y., Lee, C., Rim, G. February 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Socio-economics, Fishing
Refusal of planning consent for the Docking Shoal offshore wind farm: Stakeholder perspectives and lessons learned Broadbent, I., Nixon, C. June 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment, Legal and Policy, Stakeholder Engagement
Obligations and aspirations: A critical evaluation of offshore wind farm cumulative impact assessments Willsteed, E., et al. February 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment, Legal and Policy, Marine Spatial Planning
The legislative regime for environment assessment and approval of offshore wind energy developments in England and Wales Wawryk, A. August 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment, Legal and Policy
From strategic marine planning to project licences – Striking a balance between predictability and adaptability in the management of aquaculture and offshore wind farms Schütz, S., Slater, A. June 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Legal and Policy, Marine Spatial Planning

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