Knowledge Base

The Knowledge Base provides access to information about the environmental effects of marine and wind energy, supporting OES-Environmental and WREN initiatives. Relevant documents and OES-Environmental metadata forms are compiled into a user-friendly table with advanced filtering. Filters may be selected on the right, or keywords entered in the Search Text box. Content may also be sorted alphabetically by clicking on column headers. More entries will load as you scroll down.


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Title Author* Date** Type of Content Technology Types Stressorssort descending Receptors
Processing of Antifouling Paint Particles by Mytilus edulis Turner, A., Barrett, M., Brown, M. January 2009 Journal Article N/A Chemicals Benthic Invertebrates
Pathways of Effects for Offshore Renewable Energy in Canada Isaacman, L., Daborn, G. December 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Lighting, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Sea Turtles, Socio-economics
List of Environmental Effects of MHK Devices Simas, T., Moura, A., Conley, D. September 2010 Presentation Marine Energy general Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Sea Turtles
Screening Analysis for the Environmental Risk Evaluation System - Environmental Effects of Offshore Wind Energy Copping, A., Hanna, L. September 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Sea Turtles
Offshore Wind Farms in the Belgian Part of the North Sea: Early Environmental Impact Assessment and Spatio-Temporal Variability Degraer, S., Brabant, R., Rumes, B. January 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, Dynamic Device, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Cape Wind Final Environmental Impact Statement Minerals Management Service January 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Sea Turtles, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
The Ecosystem Consequences of Sediment Disturbance Centre for Environment Fisheries and Aquaculture Science (CEFAS) March 2005 Report N/A Chemicals, Energy Removal, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Ecosystem
An Evaluation of the Wildlife Impacts of Offshore Wind Development Relative to Fossil Fuel Power Production Jarvis, C. September 2005 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Socio-economics
Danish Offshore Wind: Key Environmental Issues DONG Energy, et al. November 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
High Level Environmental Screening Study for Offshore Wind Farm Developments - Marine Habitats and Species Project Hiscock, K., Tyler-Walters, H., Jones, H. August 2002 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Ecosystem, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
West Coast Environmental Protocols Framework: Baseline and Monitoring Studies Klure, J., et al. September 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Sea Turtles
Barrow Offshore Wind Farm Post-Construction Monitoring Report Barrow Offshore Wind January 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl, Fish
Environmental Impacts of Offshore Wind Farms in the Belgian Part of the North Sea: Learning from the Past to Optimise Future Monitoring Programmes Degraer, S., Brabant, R., Rumes, B. January 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics
A framework to evaluate the environmental impact of OCEAN energy devices Mendoza, E., et al. June 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Ocean Current, OTEC, Tidal, Wave, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Ecosystem, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Pinnipeds, Nearfield Habitat, Environmental Impact Assessment
Worldwide Synthesis and Analysis of Existing Information Regarding Environmental Effects of Alternative Energy Uses on the Outer Continental Shelf Michel, J., et al. July 2007 Report Marine Energy general, Ocean Current, OTEC, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles, Socio-economics
Bioelectric Fields of Marine Organisms: Voltage and Frequency Contributions to Detectability by Electroreceptive Predators Bedore, C., Kajiura, S. April 2013 Journal Article N/A EMF Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
Identical Response of Caged Rock Crabs (Genera Metacarcinus and Cancer) to Energized and Unenergized Undersea Power Cables in Southern California, USA Love, M., et al. April 2015 Journal Article N/A EMF Benthic Invertebrates
Potential Impact of Submarine Power Cables on Crab Harvest Bull, A., Nishimoto, M. February 2016 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF Benthic Invertebrates
Effect of magnetic pulses on Caribbean spiny lobsters: implications for magnetoreception Ernst, D., Lohmann, K. June 2016 Journal Article N/A EMF Benthic Invertebrates
Assessing potential impacts of energized submarine power cables on crab harvests Love, M., et al. December 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general EMF Benthic Invertebrates, Socio-economics, Fishing
Effects of EMFs from Undersea Power Cables on Elasmobranchs and other Marine Species Normandeau Associates, et al. May 2011 Report N/A EMF Benthic Invertebrates, Fish, Marine Mammals
Magnetic Orientation and Magnetoreception in Birds and Other Animals Wiltschko, R., Wiltschko, W. August 2005 Journal Article N/A EMF Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Sea Turtles
Magnetic Orientation and Navigation in Marine Turtles, Lobsters, and Molluscs: Concepts and Conundrums Cain, S., et al. January 2005 Journal Article N/A EMF Benthic Invertebrates, Sea Turtles
COWRIE 1.5 The Potential Effects of Electromagnetic Fields Generated by Sub-Sea Power Cables Associated with Offshore Wind Farm Developments on Electrically and Magnetically Sensitive Marine Organisms - A Review Gill, A., et al. July 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF Benthic Invertebrates, Fish, Marine Mammals
True Navigation and Magnetic Maps in Spiny Lobsters Boles, L., Lohmann, K. January 2003 Journal Article N/A EMF Benthic Invertebrates
Magnetic Maps in Animals: Nature's GPS Lohmann, K., Lohmann, C., Putman, N. July 2007 Journal Article N/A EMF Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Sea Turtles
A Preliminary Review of the Impact of Placing Portions of an Extra-High Voltage Transmission Line Beneath the Chesapeake Bay & Other Waters Community & Environmental Defense Service February 2011 Report N/A EMF Benthic Invertebrates, Ecosystem, Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Gwynt y Môr Offshore Wind Farm Marine Ecology Technical Report Centre for Marine and Coastal Studies January 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF, Energy Removal, Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Ecosystem, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics, Climate Change, Environmental Impact Assessment
Burbo Offshore Wind Farm Construction Phase Environmental Monitoring Report Centre for Marine and Coastal Studies April 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF, Energy Removal, Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish
Review Report 2004: The Danish Offshore Wind Farm Demonstration Project: Horns Rev and Nysted Offshore Wind Farms Environmental Impact Assessment and Monitoring Boesen, C., Kjær, J. October 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
Humanity and the Sea: Marine Renewable Energy Technology and Environmental Interactions Shields, M., Payne, A. January 2014 Book Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles
Proceedings of the Oregon Marine Renewable Energy Environmental Sciences Conference Boehlert, G., et al. April 2013 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF, Energy Removal, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles, Socio-economics
Environmental Assessment of Offshore Wind Power Generation near Rhode Island: Acoustic and Electromagnetic Effects on Marine Animals Miller, J., et al. October 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF, Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Ecosystem, Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles
Review Report 2005: The Danish Offshore Wind Farm Demonstration Project: Horns Rev and Nysted Offshore Wind Farms Environmental Impact Assessment and Monitoring DONG Energy, Vattenfall November 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Coastal And Offshore Wind Energy Generation: Is It Environmentally Benign? Wilson, J., et al. June 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general EMF, Noise, Static Device Bats, Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Effects of Marine Windfarms on the Distribution of Fish, Shellfish and Marine Mammals in the Horns Rev Area Hoffmann, E., et al. May 2000 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Fish, Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Seabed Morphology Off Southern Long Island: Studies of Artificial Reefs and Implications for Wind Farms Flood, R. January 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Offshore Wind Farms in the Belgian Part of the North Sea: Heading for an Understanding of Environmental Impacts Degraer, S., Brabant, R., Rumes, B. January 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal, Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Farfield Environment, Fish, Socio-economics
Ecological Research at the Offshore Windfarm Alpha Ventus: Challenges, Results and Perspectives Beiersdorf, A., Radecke, A. January 2014 Book Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal, Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Analyzing Coastal and Marine Changes – Offshore Wind Farming as a Case Study Lange, M., et al. January 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Ecosystem, Fish, Socio-economics
Man-Made Structures on Marine Sediments: Effects on Adjacent Benthic Communities Davis, N., VanBlaricom, G., Dayton, P. January 1982 Journal Article N/A Energy Removal, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Nature Conservation Guidance on Offshore Windfarm Development - A Guidance Note on the Implications of the EC Wild Birds and Habitats Directives for Developers Undertaking Offshore Windfarm Developments UK Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs March 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Review of Cabling Techniques and Environmental Effects Applicable to the Offshore Wind Farm Industry UK Department for Business Enterprise and Regulatory Reform January 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
NYSERDA Environmental Research Program Plan Research Area 4: Marine Wind and Wildlife New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) September 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles
Strategic Review of Offshore Wind Farm Monitoring Data Associated with FEPA Licence Conditions: Benthic Ecology Walker, R., et al. August 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates
Role of Benthic Habitat Distribution Data in Coastal Water Wind Turbine Site Selection Sahla, M., Kalliola, R., Haldin, M. May 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates
Towards an Integrated Approach to Marine Benthic Monitoring Froján, C., Cooper, K., Bolam, S. March 2016 Journal Article N/A N/A Benthic Invertebrates
Wales' Marine Evidence Report Welsh Government October 2015 Report N/A N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Ecosystem, Fish, Marine Mammals
Effects of an Offshore Wind Farm (OWF) on the Common Shore Crab Carcinus maenas: Tagging Pilot Experiments in the Lillgrund Offshore Wind Farm (Sweden) Langhamer, O., Holand, H., Rosenqvist, G. October 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates
Long term studies on biogenic reefs and implications for offshore developments Lancaster, J., Walker, A. February 2013 Presentation Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Ecosystem
Storm effects on intertidal invertebrates: increased beta diversity of few individuals and species Corte, G., et al. May 2017 Journal Article N/A N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Socio-economics, Climate Change
Patterns of Benthic Mega-Invertebrate Habitat Associations in the Pacific Northwest Continental Shelf Waters Hemery, L., Henkel, S. July 2015 Journal Article N/A N/A Benthic Invertebrates
Patterns of Benthic Mega-Invertebrate Habitat Associations in the Pacific Northwest Continental Shelf Waters: A Reassessment Hemery, L., Henkel, S. August 2016 Journal Article N/A N/A Benthic Invertebrates
The Influence of Fisheries Exclusion and Addition of Hard Substrata on Fish and Crustaceans Wilhelmsson, D., Langhamer, O. January 2014 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
The effects of temporary exclusion of activity due to wind farm construction on a lobster (Homarus gammarus) fishery suggests a potential management approach Roach, M., et al. February 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Fish, Socio-economics
East Anglia TWO Offshore Windfarm Scoping Report ScottishPower Renewables November 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Short-term effects of fishery exclusion in offshore wind farms on macrofaunal communities in the Belgian part of the North Sea Coates, D., et al. July 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates
Appendix E-1 LimnoTech Report - Results of 2016 Aquatic Sampling LimnoTech March 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
Appendix E-2 LimnoTech Report - Results of 2017 Aquatic Sampling LimnoTech February 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
Habitat Mapping and Assessment of Northeast Wind Energy Areas Guida, V., et al. December 2017 Report Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Ecosystem, Fish
Rapid increase of benthic structural and functional diversity at the alpha ventus offshore test site Gutow, L., et al. January 2014 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates
Benthic effects of offshore renewables: identification of knowledge gaps and urgently needed research Dannheim, J., et al. March 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general N/A Benthic Invertebrates
Global Status of Coral Reefs: In Combination, Disturbances and Stressors Become Ratchets Birkeland, C. January 2019 Book Chapter N/A N/A Benthic Invertebrates
Wave energy drives biotic patterns beyond the surf zone: Factors influencing abundance and occurrence of mobile fauna adjacent to subtropical beaches Schultz, A., et al. January 2019 Journal Article N/A N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
Characterizing the benthic community in Maryland’s offshore wind energy areas using a towed camera sled: Developing a method to reduce the effort of image analysis and community description Cruz-Marrero, W., et al. May 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Abundance, composition and succession of sessile subtidal assemblages in high wave-energy environments of Central Chile: Temporal and depth variation Navarrete, S., et al. March 2019 Journal Article N/A N/A Benthic Invertebrates
Effects of submarine power transmission cables on a glass sponge reef and associated megafaunal community Dunham, A., et al. June 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Interim Report of the Working Group on Marine Benthal and Renewable Energy Developments (WGMBRED) International Council for the Exploration of the Sea March 2017 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
ICES WGMBRED Report 2018: Report of the Working Group on Marine Benthal and Renewable Energy Developments (WGMBRED) International Council for the Exploration of the Sea March 2018 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
JWGBIRD Report 2018: Report of the Joint OSPAR/HELCOM/ICES Working Group on Marine Birds (JWGBIRD) International Council for the Exploration of the Sea October 2018 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Seabirds
A Review of Approaches for Classifying Benthic Habitats and Evaluating Habitat Quality Diaza, R., Solan, M., Valente, R. November 2004 Journal Article N/A N/A Benthic Invertebrates
An Approach to the Intercalibration of Benthic Ecological Status Assessment in the North Atlantic Ecoregion, According to the European Water Framework Directive Borja, A., et al. January 2007 Journal Article N/A N/A Benthic Invertebrates
Analysis of Marine Environmental Monitoring Plan Data from the Robin Rigg Offshore Wind Farm, Scotland (Operational Year 1) Walls, R., et al. January 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Assessment of the Environmental Impact of Offshore Wind-Farms OSPAR Commission January 2008 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Benthic Cover Data NOAA Coastal Services Center January 2010 Website N/A N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Preliminary Assessment of the Conservation Importance of Benthic Species and Habitats off the West Coast of Orkney and in the Pentland Firth in Relation to the Development of Renewable Energy Schemes Moore, C. January 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates
Ecological Research on Offshore Wind Farms: International Exchange of Experiences - Part A Zucco, C., et al. January 2006 Workshop Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Epibenthic Assessment of a Renewable Tidal Energy Site Sheehan, E., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
US National Ocean Service's Estuarine Bathymetry NOAA’s National Ocean Service Special Projects January 1998 Website N/A N/A Benthic Invertebrates
Horns Rev 2 Offshore Wind Farm EIA Report: Benthic Communities Leonhard, S. July 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates
Mapping Benthic Habitat in Regions of Gradual Substrata: An Automated Approach Utilised Geophysical, Geological, and Biological Relationships Brown, C., Collier, J. June 2008 Journal Article N/A N/A Benthic Invertebrates
Minimal Sampling Requirements for a Precise Assessment of Soft-Bottom Macrobenthic Communities, using AMBI Muxika, I., et al. October 2007 Journal Article N/A N/A Benthic Invertebrates
National Status and Trends Data Portal Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment January 2012 Website N/A N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Farfield Environment
New York Department of State Offshore Atlantic Ocean Study New York Department of State July 2013 Report N/A N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles, Socio-economics
North Sea Wind Farms NSW Lot 1 Benthic Fauna Jarvis, S., et al. February 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Ecosystem
Offshore Wind Farms and the Environment: Danish Experiences from Horns Rev and Nysted Danish Energy Authority November 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics
Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary: Invertebrates List National Marine Sanctuaries July 2004 Website N/A N/A Benthic Invertebrates
Process-Driven Characterization and Mapping of Seabed Habitats Kostylev, V., Hannah, C. January 2007 Book Chapter N/A N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Robin Rigg Offshore Wind Farm Marine Environmental Monitoring Plan (MEMP): Ecological Analysis Data Wells, R., Shenton, S. November 2011 Presentation Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl, Fish, Marine Mammals
Temporal Variability in the Benthos: Does the Sea Floor Function Differently over Time? Frid, C. April 2011 Journal Article N/A N/A Benthic Invertebrates
The Derivation, Performance and Role of Univariate and Multivariate Indicators of Benthic Change: Case Studies at Differing Spatial Scales Quintino, V., Elliott, M., Rodríguez, A. March 2006 Journal Article N/A N/A Benthic Invertebrates
Towards a Statistically Valid Method of Textural Sea Floor Characterization of Benthic Habitats Orpin, A., Kostylev, V. January 2006 Journal Article N/A N/A Benthic Invertebrates
Use of a High-Resolution Profiling Sonar and a Towed Video Camera to Map a Zostera Marina Bed Lefebvre, A., et al. April 2009 Journal Article N/A N/A Benthic Invertebrates
Lynn and Inner Dowsing Hydrographic Monitoring Survey Emu December 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
A Comparison of Top-Down and Bottom-Up Approaches to Benthic Habitat Mapping to Inform Offshore Wind Energy Development LaFrance, M., et al. July 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
A Strategic Environmental Assessment of the Fish & Shellfish Resources with Respect to Proposed Offshore Wind Farms in the Eastern Irish Sea Lockwood, S. March 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Fish, Socio-economics
Updated Summary of Knowledge: Selected Areas of the Pacific Coast Kaplan, B., et al. July 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Ecosystem, Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles, Socio-economics
Benthic Communities on Hard Substrates of the Offshore Wind Farm Egmond aan Zee (OWEZ) Bouma, S., Lengkeek, W. February 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates
Weighing Natural Variability and Anthropogenic Impacts: A Case Study of Demersal Fish and Epibenthic Communities in the Belgian Part of the North Sea De Backer, A., et al. January 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
Offshore Wind Farms in the Belgian Part of the North Sea: State of the Art After Two Years of Environmental Monitoring Degraer, S., Brabant, R. January 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Ecosystem, Fish, Marine Mammals

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