Knowledge Base

The Knowledge Base provides access to information about the environmental effects of marine and wind energy, supporting OES-Environmental and WREN initiatives. Relevant documents and OES-Environmental metadata forms are compiled into a user-friendly table with advanced filtering. Filters may be selected on the right, or keywords entered in the Search Text box. Content may also be sorted alphabetically by clicking on column headers.


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Title Author* Date** Type of Contentsort descending Technology Types Stressors Receptors
Underwater Noise Measurements, Analysis, and Predictions Degn, U. March 2000 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Utgrunden Offshore Wind Farm Measurements of Underwater Noise Ingemansson Technology June 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Visual and Radar Observations of Birds in Relation to Collision Risk at the Horns Rev Offshore Wind Farm Christensen, T., et al. January 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds
Interactions Between Seals and Offshore Wind Farms McConnell, B., Lonergan, M., Dietz, R. January 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Gunfleet Sands Offshore Wind Farm Environmental Statement GE Wind Energy January 2002 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Lynn and Inner Dowsing Hydrographic Monitoring Survey Emu December 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Humber Gateway Offshore Wind Farm: Offshore ES Description of the Physical Baseline Environment Humber Gateway Offshore Wind Farm January 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal, Static Device Farfield Environment
Ormonde Offshore Wind Farm 2010 Construction Environmental Monitoring Report Saunders, S. January 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal, Noise Birds, Waterfowl, Marine Mammals
Inch Cape Offshore Wind Farm Environmental Statement Inch Cape Offshore June 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
Argyll Array Offshore Wind Farm: Habitat Regulations Assessment - Screening for Likely Significant Effects Dewar, R. May 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Analysis of the Argyll Array Turbine Layout Iterations in Relation to Ornithological Constraints Bullman, R., Shaylon, S. November 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Argyll Array Windfarm Basking Shark Draft Chapter for Environmental Statement Booth, C., King, S., Lacey, C. January 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Marine Mammals
Developing Environmental Protocols and Modeling Tools to Support Ocean Renewable Energy and Stewardship McCann, J. September 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Aerial Surveys Of Round 3, Zone 5 For Waterbirds - Final Report WWT Consulting May 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl
A Review Of Assessment Methodologies For Offshore Windfarms Maclean, I., et al. May 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Underwater Radiated Noise Due to the Piling for the Q7 Offshore Wind Park de Jong, C., Ainslie, M. June 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Underwater Noise Emissions from Offshore Wind Turbines Betke, K., Schultz-von Glahn, M., Matuschek, R. January 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Burbo Bank Extension Offshore Wind Farm: Volume 2 - Chapter 13: Fish and Shellfish Ecology Livesey, S., et al. March 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Fish
Comparison of Visual and Digital Aerial Survey Results of Avian Abundance for Round 3, Norfolk Region Burt, L., Rexstad, E., Buckland, S. November 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds
COWRIE Workshop on the Cumulative Impact of Offshore Windfarms on Birds Norman, T., Buisson, R., Askew, N. May 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds
Full Scale Trial of High Definition Video Survey for Offshore Windfarm Sites Mellor, M., Maher, M. June 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Waterfowl
High Resolution Video Survey of Seabirds and Mammals in the Rhyl Flats Area Hexter, R. July 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds, Marine Mammals
Potential Use of Population Viability Analysis to Assess the Impact of Offshore Windfarms on Bird Populations Maclean, I., Frederiksen, M., Rehfisch, M. September 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Quantifying the Relative Use of Coastal Waters by Breeding Terns: Towards Effective Tools for Planning & Assessing the Ornithological Impact of Offshore Wind Farms Perrow, M., et al. June 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds
A Further Review of Sediment Monitoring Data Carroll, B., et al. March 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Nearfield Habitat
Updated Summary of Knowledge: Selected Areas of the Pacific Coast Kaplan, B., et al. July 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Ecosystem, Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles, Socio-economics
Monitoring and Researching Ecological Effects of Dutch Offshore Wind Farms Boon, A., et al. May 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Bats, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics
Using a Collision Risk Model to Assess Bird Collision Risks for Offshore Wind Farms Band, B. March 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Measurement of Wind Turbine Construction Noise at Horns Rev II Betke, K. December 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
How the Belgian Wind Farm Business Made us Discover the Challenging Environment of Marine Sand Dunes Bolle, A., Mathys, M., Haerens, P. April 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Nearfield Habitat
Shortlist Masterplan Wind - Effect of Piling Noise on Survival of Fish Larvae (pilot study) Bolle, L., et al. June 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Benthic Communities on Hard Substrates of the Offshore Wind Farm Egmond aan Zee (OWEZ) Bouma, S., Lengkeek, W. February 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates
Weighing Natural Variability and Anthropogenic Impacts: A Case Study of Demersal Fish and Epibenthic Communities in the Belgian Part of the North Sea De Backer, A., et al. January 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
The Effects of Anthropogenic Sound on Marine Mammals Boyd, I., et al. June 2008 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Ocean Noise: Turn it down - A report on ocean noise pollution McKenna, C., International Fund for Animal Welfare June 2008 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish, Marine Mammals
Potential Impacts to Predator-Prey Relationships as a Result of the Proposed Cape Wind Project in Nantucket Sound ESS Group September 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds, Ecosystem, Fish, Marine Mammals
Review of Environmental Data Associated with Post-Consent Monitoring of Licence Conditions of Offshore Wind Farms Marine Management Organisation April 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Ecosystem, Fish, Marine Mammals
Effect Studies Offshore Wind Farm Egmond aan Zee - Final Report on Fluxes, Flight Altitudes and Behaviour of Flying Birds Krijgsveld, K., et al. November 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
Effect of the Horns Rev 1 Offshore Wind Farm on Fish Communities: Follow-up Seven Years after Construction Leonhard, S., Stenberg, C., Støttrup, J. January 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Fish
Local Birds in and around the Offshore Wind Farm Egmond aan Zee (OWEZ) Leopold, M., Dijkman, E., Teal, L. January 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds
Offshore Wind Farms Measuring Instruction for Underwater Sound Monitoring Müller, A., Zerbs, C. October 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Assessment of the Marine Renewables Industry in Relation to Marine Mammals: Synthesis of Work Undertaken by the ICES Working Group on Marine Mammal Ecology (WGMME) Murphy, S., et al. January 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
ICES WGMBRED Report 2013: Report of the Working Group on Marine Benthal and Renewable Energy Developments (WGMBRED) International Council for the Exploration of the Sea March 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates
Ocean Wind Power Ecological Baseline Studies Final Report - Volume 3: Marine Mammal and Sea Turtle Studies Geo-Marine July 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Reptiles
MERiFIC 3.3.2: Grey Seal Population Surveys of the Isles of Scilly and Parc Naturel Marin d'Iroise Witt, M. December 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Ocean Wind Power Ecological Baseline Studies Final Report - Volume 2: Avian Studies Geo-Marine July 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
Ocean Wind Power Ecological Baseline Studies Final Report - Volume 4: Fish and Fisheries Studies Geo-Marine July 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Fish
The Effects of Wind Power on Marine Life - A Synthesis Bergström, L., et al. October 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Fish, Marine Mammals
Book of Abstracts: Conference on Wind Power and Environmental Impacts Naturvårdsverket February 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Night Migration of Songbirds and Waterfowl at the Utgrunden Off-Shore Wind Farm: A Radar-Assisted Study in Southern Kalmar Sound Pettersson, J., Fågelvind, J. July 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Passerines, Waterfowl
Baseline Studies North Sea Wind Farms: Lot 5 Marine Birds in and Around the Future Sites Nearshore Windfarm (NSW) and Q7 Leopold, M., et al. January 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds
Shortlist Masterplan Wind Aerial Surveys of Harbour Porpoises on the Dutch Continental Shelf Geelhoed, S., et al. December 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals
Potential Effects of Offshore Wind Farm Noise on Fish Thomsen, F., et al. January 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Assessment and Costs of Potential Engineering Solutions for the Mitigation of the Impacts of Underwater Noise Arising from the Construction of Offshore Windfarms Nehls, G., et al. September 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Kentish Flats Offshore Wind Farm Turbine Foundation Faunal Colonisation Diving Survey Emu November 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Nearfield Habitat
Delivering Offshore Electricity to the EU: Spatial Planning of Offshore Renewable Energies and Electricity Grid Infrastructures in an Integrated EU Maritime Policy Seanergy May 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Environmental Effects and the Permitting Processes for a Deep Water Offshore Wind-Wave Hybrid Generator DeVault, G. March 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Standard for Measurement and Monitoring of Underwater Noise, Part II: Procedures for Measuring Underwater Noise in Connection with Offshore Wind Farm Licensing de Jong, C., Ainslie, M., Blacquière, G. September 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Habitat Preferences of Harbour Seals in the Dutch Coastal Area: Analysis and Estimate of Effects of Offshore Wind Farms Brasseur, S., et al. January 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
The Potential Effects of Electromagnetic Fields Generated by Cabling Between Offshore Wind Turbines upon Elasmobranch Fishes Gill, A., Taylor, H. September 2001 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF Fish
Development of Noise Mitigation Measures in Offshore Wind Farm Construction Koschinski, S., Lüdemann, K. February 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
A Biogeographic Assessment of Seabirds, Deep Sea Corals and Ocean Habitats of the New York Bight: Science to Support Offshore Spatial Planning Menza, C., et al. April 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Birds
Sound Solutions: Construction of Offshore Wind Farms Without Underwater Noise Stichting de Noordzee January 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Guidance on the Assessment of the Impact of Offshore Wind Farms: Methodology for Assessing the Marine Navigational Safety Risks of Offshore Wind Farms UK Department of Trade and Industry January 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Navigation
Survey of Beached Birds and Mammals: Sao Jãcinto - Torreira (Portugal) - March 2014 to March 2015 van Nus, T., Moreira, P. May 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Marine Mammals
Block Island Wind Farm and Block Island Transmission System Environmental Report/Construction and Operations Plan Tetra Tech Inc. September 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Ecology of the brown crab (Cancer pagurus) and production potential for passive fisheries in Dutch offshore windfarms Tonk, L., Rozemeijer, M. October 2019 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates
Windpower and Grey Seals: An Impact Assessment of Potential Effects by Sea-Based Windpower Plants on a Local Seal Population Sundberg, J., Söderman, M. December 1999 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
User Guide for the MRSea Package: Marine Renewables Strategic Environmental Assessment Scott-Hayward, L., et al. October 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Marine Mammals
Compendium of Avian Occurrence Information for the Continental Shelf Waters along the Atlantic Coast of the United States: Final Report (Database Selection - Shorebirds) O'Connell, A., Spiegel, C., Johnson, S. April 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Shorebirds
Report of the Working Group on Marine Mammal Ecology (WGMME) International Council for the Exploration of the Sea April 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
East Anglia ONE Offshore Windfarm: Environmental Statement Environmental Resource Management November 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Virginia Offshore Wind Technology Advancement Project on the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf Offshore Virginia Environmental Assessment Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Office of Renewable Energy Programs December 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Ornithology Technical Report for the proposed Dogger Bank Creyke Beck Offshore Wind Farm projects Burton, N., et al. March 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds
Towards Standardised Seabirds at Sea Census Techniques in Connection with Environmental Impact Assessments for Offshore Wind Farms in the UK Camphuysen, K., et al. April 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds
Strategic Review of Offshore Wind Farm Monitoring Data Associated with FEPA License Conditions Centre for Environment Fisheries and Aquaculture Science (CEFAS) August 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
The European Offshore Wind Industry - Key Trends and Statistics 2013 Corbetta, G., Pineda, I., Moccia, J. January 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Environmental Impacts of Offshore Wind Power Production in the North Sea Draget, E. January 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Galloper Wind Farm Project: Environmental Statement - Chapter 14: Marine Mammals Galloper Wind Farm October 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Pinnipeds, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Effect Studies Offshore Wind Farm Egmond aan Zee: Progress Report on Fluxes and Behaviour of Flying Birds Krijgsveld, K., et al. March 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds
Foraging Ranges of Northern Gannets in Relation to Proposed Offshore Wind Farms in the UK: 2010-2012 Langston, R., Teuten, E., Butler, A. December 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds
Did the Pile Driving during the Construction of the Offshore Wind Farm Egmond aan Zee, the Netherlands, Impact Porpoises? Leopold, M., Camphuysen, K. February 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Did the Pile Driving during the Construction of the Offshore Wind Farm Egmond aan Zee, the Netherlands, Impact Local Seabirds? Leopold, M., Camphuysen, K. August 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Birds, Seabirds
Kentish Flats Wind Farm Development: Macrobenthic Ecology Study - 2007 Emu June 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Ecosystem
Hornsea Offshore Wind Farm Project One: Environmental Statement: Volume 5 - Offshore Annexes Chapter 5.5.1: Ornithology Technical Report RPS Group July 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Hornsea Offshore Wind Farm Project One: Reports - Habitat Regulations Assessment Report: Information to Support the Appropriate Assessment for Project One RPS Group July 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Nearfield Habitat
Kentish Flats Offshore Wind Farm: Diver Surveys 2009-10 Percival, S. November 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Waterfowl
Comparing Pre- and Post-Construction Distributions of Long-Tailed Ducks Clangula hyemalis in and around the Nysted Offshore Wind Farm, Denmark: A Quasi-Designed Experiment Accounting for Imperfect Detection, Local Surface Features and Autocorrelation Petersen, I., et al. January 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Waterfowl
Effect Studies Offshore Wind Egmond aan Zee: Cumulative Effects on Seabirds - A Modelling Approach to Estimate Effects on Population Levels in Seabirds Poot, M., et al. November 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds
Cumulative Impacts Assessment Guidelines: Guiding Principles for Cumulative Impacts Assessment in Offshore Wind Farms Renewable UK June 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Assessment of the Effects of the Offshore Wind Farm Egmond aan Zee (OWEZ) for Harbour Porpoise (comparison T0 and T1) Scheidat, M., et al. September 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Marine Mammals
Final Report on Aerial Monitoring of Seals near Nysted Offshore Wind Farm Teilmann, J., et al. April 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Dogger Bank Creyke Beck Environmental Statement - Chapter 11: Marine and Coastal Ornithology Thornton, P. March 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Report on a Red-throated Diver Agent-Based Model to Assess the Cumulative Impact from Offshore Wind Farms Topping, C., Petersen, I. November 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Waterfowl
Final Report on the Effect of Nysted Offshore Wind Farm on Harbour Porpoises Tougaard, J., et al. July 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals
Quieting Technologies for Reducing Noise During Seismic Surveying and Pile Driving Workshop CSA Ocean Sciences March 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
The European Offshore Wind Industry - Key Trends and Statistics 2014 Corbetta, G., et al. January 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Offshore Wind Submarine Cable Spacing Guidance TÜV SÜD PMSS, Red Penguin Associates December 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
D2.4 Collation of Off‐shore Wind‐Wave Dynamics Bredmose, H., et al. November 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
D4.06 Data Reports and Databases: Data on Coastal and Offshore Wind Measurements Courtney, M., et al. February 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A

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