Knowledge Base

The Knowledge Base provides access to information about the environmental effects of marine and wind energy, supporting OES-Environmental and WREN initiatives. Relevant documents and OES-Environmental metadata forms are compiled into a user-friendly table with advanced filtering. Filters may be selected on the right, or keywords entered in the Search Text box. Content may also be sorted alphabetically by clicking on column headers. More entries will load as you scroll down.


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Title Author* Date** Type of Content Technology Types Stressorssort ascending Receptors
The post-normal politics and science of wind power planning: Evidence from a Danish near-shore wind farm tender Johansen, K., Upham, P. July 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-Economics, Legal and Policy, Stakeholder Engagement
The politics of Estonia's offshore wind energy programme: Discourse, power and marine spatial planning Tafon, R., Howarth, D., Griggs, S. January 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-Economics, Legal and Policy, Marine Spatial Planning
Operational offshore wind farms and associated ship traffic cause profound changes in distribution patterns of Loons (Gavia spp.) Mendel, B., et al. February 2019 Journal Article Offshore Wind N/A Birds
External Effects of Renewable Energy Projects: Life Cycle Analysis-based Approach Salnikova, A., et al. May 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-Economics, Life Cycle Assessment
A modelling approach for offshore wind farm feasibility with respect to ecosystem-based marine spatial planning Pınarbaşı, K., et al. June 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-Economics, Marine Spatial Planning
Feeding home ranges of pacific coast feeding group gray whales Lagerquist, B., et al. February 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Hong Kong Offshore Wind Farm in Southeastern Waters - Environmental Impact Assessment BMT Asia Pacific Ltd March 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-Economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Standard Investigation of the Impacts of Offshore Wind Turbines on the Marine Environment (StUK4) Bundesamt fur Seeschifffahrt und Hydrographie (BSH) October 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Nearfield Habitat
Estimation of seabird numbers in the German North Sea throughout the annual cycle and their biogeographic importance Garthe, S., et al. January 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds
Site Selection of Hybrid Offshore Wind and Wave Energy Systems in Greece Incorporating Environmental Impact Assessment Loukogeorgaki, E., Vagiona, D., Vasileiou, M. August 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Feasibility Appraisal of an Offshore Wind Farm Located in Greece Soursou, P. October 2017 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Seabirds? What seabirds? An exploratory study into the origin of seabirds visiting the SE North Sea and their survival bottlenecks Leopold, M. May 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds
Bat 1: Estimate of bat populations at the southern North Sea - Supporting note to ZDV report no. 2016.031 Migrating bats at the southern North Sea Lagerveld, S., et al. March 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds
Migrating bats at the southern North Sea: Approach to an estimation of migration populations of bats at the southern North Sea Limpens, H., et al. March 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Bats
The influence of regulatory framework on environmental impact assessment in the development of offshore wind farms in Spain: Issues, challenges and solutions Salvador, S., Gimeno, L., Larruga, F. July 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Offshore wind farm in marine spatial planning and the stakeholders engagement: Opportunities and challenges for Taiwan Zhang, Y., et al. November 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Fisheries, Marine Spatial Planning, Stakeholder Engagement
Prioritisation of monitoring and research for diadromous fish in the context of Marine/Offshore Renewables: A summary of stakeholder engagement meetings between Marine Scotland, wild fisheries interests and wind, wave and tidal developers Hunter, D., Malcolm, I., Armstrong, J. March 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Fish, Human Dimensions, Fisheries, Stakeholder Engagement
Request for advice on the populations of cetaceans that might be involved in significant interactions with marine renewable energy developments in Scottish marine waters Northridge, S. August 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Population Trends of Breeding Seabird Colonies in Scottish SPAs Malcolm, F., Lye, G., Lewis, M. July 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds
Population Sizes of Seabirds breeding in Scottish Special Protection Areas Lewis, M., et al. July 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds
Lessons learned in marine governance: Case studies of marine spatial planning practice in the U.S. Smythe, T., McCann, J. August 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Legal and Policy, Marine Spatial Planning, Stakeholder Engagement
Wind in the sails or choppy seas?: People-place relations, aesthetics and public support for the United States’ first offshore wind project Firestone, J., et al. June 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Visual Impacts
Draft Generic Environmental Impact Statement for Procurement of Offshore Wind New York State Department of Public Service, Ecology and Environment, Inc. February 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
The Development of Ocean Test Beds for Ocean Technology Adaptation and Integration into the Emerging U.S. Offshore Wind Energy Industry Kirincich, A., et al. May 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Overcoming Biological Data Deficiencies in Environmental Permitting for Offshore Wind Energy Ryan, K. May 2018 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Is Marine Spatial Planning Enough to Overcome Biological Data Deficiencies? Ryan, K., Danylchuk, A., Jordaan, A. November 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
Thinking Globally and Siting Locally - Renewable Energy and Biodiversity in a Rapidly Warming World Allison, T., Root, T., Frumhoff, P. September 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Climate Change
Key Seabird Areas in Southern New England Identified Using a Community Occupancy Model Flanders, N., et al. August 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds
Classification of Birds and Bats Using Flight Tracks Cullinan, V., Matzner, S., Duberstein, C. May 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Offshore Wind Energy Development Site Assessment and Characterization: Evaluation of the Current Status and European Experience Rein, C., et al. August 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Stakeholder Engagement
Habitat Mapping and Assessment of Northeast Wind Energy Areas Guida, V., et al. December 2017 Report Offshore Wind N/A Ecosystem Processes, Fish, Invertebrates
Predicting the offshore distribution and abundance of marine birds with a hierarchical community distance sampling model Goyert, H., et al. September 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds
Avoidance Behaviour of Migrating Raptors Approaching an Offshore Wind Farm Jacobsen, E., Jensen, F., Blew, J. March 2019 Book Chapter Offshore Wind N/A Raptors
The proportion of flatfish recruitment in the North Sea potentially affected by offshore windfarms Barbut, L., et al. April 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Fish
OSPAR request to advise on the current state and knowledge of studies into the deployment and environmental impacts of wet renewable technologies and marine energy storage systems N/A April 2019 Report Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Barotrauma is a Significant Cause of Bat Fatalities at Wind Turbines Baerwald, E., et al. August 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Bats
Life cycle cost-benefit analysis of offshore wind energy under the climatic conditions in Southeast Asia – Setting the bottom-line for deployment Nian, V., Liu, Y., Zhong, S. January 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Life Cycle Assessment
A Life Cycle Co-Benefits Assessment of Wind Power in China Xue, B., et al. January 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Life Cycle Assessment
Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Electricity Generated by Offshore Wind Farms Reimers, B., Özdirik, B., Kaltschmitt, M. December 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Life Cycle Assessment
Consequential Environmental System Analysis of Expected Offshore Wind Electricity Production in Germany Pehnt, M., Oeser, M., Swider, D. May 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Sustainability and tourism: the effect of the United States’ first offshore wind farm on the vacation rental market Carr-Harris, A., Lang, C. August 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Recreation & Tourism, Visual Impacts
Refusal of planning consent for the Docking Shoal offshore wind farm: Stakeholder perspectives and lessons learned Broadbent, I., Nixon, C. June 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment, Legal & Policy, Stakeholder Engagement
Stakeholder Perspectives on the Value of Marine Spatial Planning Towards Advancing Offshore Wind in the U.S. Ryan, K., et al. April 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning, Stakeholder Engagement
Retrospective and Outlook for an Environmentally Sound Development of Offshore Wind Energy Lüdeke, J. January 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Imbalances in interaction for transboundary marine spatial planning: Insights from the Baltic Sea Region Janßen, H., et al. July 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
Camera technology for monitoring marine biodiversity and human impact Bicknell, A., et al. October 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Fish, Invertebrates, Human Dimensions
Failure Mode Identification and End of Life Scenarios of Offshore Wind Turbines: A Review Luengo, M., Kolios, A. August 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions
U.S. National Debate Topic 2014-2015: The Ocean H.W. Wilson Company January 2014 Book Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions
Renewable Energy and Marine Spatial Planning: Scientific and Legal Implications Kannen, A., et al. August 2013 Book Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy, Marine Spatial Planning
Handbook on Marine Environment Protection: Science, Impacts, and Sustainable Management Salomon, M., Markus, T. January 2018 Book Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Renewable Energy and the Public: from NIMBY to Participation Devine-Wright, P. January 2011 Book Marine Energy (General), Wave, Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions
Progress in Renewable Energies Offshore Soares, C. October 2016 Book Marine Energy (General), OTEC, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Recent Developments in Ocean Energy and Offshore Wind: Financial Challenges and Environmental Misconceptions Esteban, M., Gasparatos, A., Doll, C. September 2016 Book Chapter Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Environmental Impacts of Balancing Offshore Wind Power with Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) Bouman, E., Øberg, M., Hertwich, E. January 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment, Life Cycle Assessment
Assessing the Life Cycle Environmental Impacts of Wind Power: A Review of Present Knowledge and Research Needs Arvesen, A., Hertwich, E. October 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment, Life Cycle Assessment
Obligations and aspirations: A critical evaluation of offshore wind farm cumulative impact assessments Willsteed, E., et al. February 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment, Legal & Policy
A Markov Model for Planning and Permitting Offshore Wind Energy: A Case Study of Radio-Tracked Terns in the Gulf of Maine, USA Cranmer, A., et al. May 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds
Marine Renewable Energy Seascape Borthwick, A. March 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Resolving Conflicts Between Endangered Species Conservation and Renewable Energy Siting: Wiggle Room for Renewables? Badichek, G. January 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Climate Change, Legal & Policy
Report on Environmental Impact Assessment and Mitigation Strategies TROPOS July 2014 Report Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Humanity and the Sea: Marine Renewable Energy Technology and Environmental Interactions Shields, M., Payne, A. January 2014 Book Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Ecological Research at the Offshore Windfarm Alpha Ventus: Challenges, Results and Perspectives Beiersdorf, A., Radecke, A. January 2014 Book Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Environmental Impact of Wind Energy Mann, J., Teilmann, J. July 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Potential Scour for Marine Current Turbines Based on Experience of Offshore Wind Turbine Chen, L., Lam, W., Shamsuddin, A. June 2013 Conference Paper Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Proceedings of the Oregon Marine Renewable Energy Environmental Sciences Conference Boehlert, G., et al. April 2013 Conference Paper Marine Energy (General), Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Maine Deepwater Offshore Wind Report University of Maine, Rockefeller Brothers Fund September 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions
MERiFIC 3.2.1: Documentary Summary of the Environmental Impact of Renewable Marine Energy Sotta, C. September 2012 Report Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A N/A
West Coast Environmental Protocols Framework: Baseline and Monitoring Studies Klure, J., et al. September 2012 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Screening Analysis for the Environmental Risk Evaluation System - Environmental Effects of Offshore Wind Energy Copping, A., Hanna, L. September 2011 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Final Environmental Assessment of Maine's Deepwater Offshore Floating Wind Turbine Testing and Demonstration Project US Department of Energy September 2011 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Greening Blue Energy: Identifying and Managing the Biodiversity Risks and Opportunities of Offshore Renewable Energy Wilhelmsson, D., et al. July 2010 Report Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Ocean Wind Power Ecological Baseline Studies Final Report - Volume 1: Overview, Summary, and Application Geo-Marine July 2010 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Analyzing Coastal and Marine Changes – Offshore Wind Farming as a Case Study Lange, M., et al. January 2010 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions
Cape Wind Final Environmental Impact Statement Minerals Management Service January 2009 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Barrow Offshore Wind Farm Post-Construction Monitoring Report Barrow Offshore Wind January 2008 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Danish Offshore Wind: Key Environmental Issues DONG Energy, et al. November 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Horns Rev Offshore Wind Farm II: EIA Report Fish Jensen, B., Klaustrup, M., Skov, H. July 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Fish, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Review of the Current State of Knowledge on the Environmental Impacts of the Location, Operation and Removal/Disposal of Offshore Wind-Farms OSPAR Commission April 2006 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Ecological Research on Offshore Wind Farms: International Exchange of Experiences - Part B Zucco, C., et al. January 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Review Report 2004: The Danish Offshore Wind Farm Demonstration Project: Horns Rev and Nysted Offshore Wind Farms Environmental Impact Assessment and Monitoring Boesen, C., Kjær, J. October 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Gwynt y Môr Offshore Wind Farm Marine Ecology Technical Report Centre for Marine and Coastal Studies January 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Nature Conservation Guidance on Offshore Windfarm Development - A Guidance Note on the Implications of the EC Wild Birds and Habitats Directives for Developers Undertaking Offshore Windfarm Developments UK Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs March 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Sandeels in the Wind Farm Area at Horns Reef Jensen, H., Kristensen, P., Hoffmann, E. August 2004 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Fish, Physical Environment
Base Line Studies North Sea Wind Farms: Final Report Pelagic Fish Grift, R., et al. June 2004 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Fish
High Level Environmental Screening Study for Offshore Wind Farm Developments - Marine Habitats and Species Project Hiscock, K., Tyler-Walters, H., Jones, H. August 2002 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Environmental Consequences of Offshore Wind Power Generation Parkinson, K. April 2001 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Local support for renewable energy technologies? Attitudes towards local near-shore wind farms among second home owners and permanent area residents on the Danish coast Johansen, K. September 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Stakeholder Engagement, Visual Impacts
Challenges of decommissioning offshore wind farms: Overview of the European experience Topham, E., et al. May 2019 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Stakeholder Engagement
Mapping Fisheries for Marine Spatial Planning: Gear-Specific Vessel Monitoring System (VMS), Marine Conservation and Offshore Renewable Energy Campbell, M., et al. March 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Fish, Human Dimensions, Fisheries
Modelling the Biological Significance of Behavioural Change in Coastal Bottlenose Dolphins in Response to Disturbance New, L., et al. April 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Local and socio-political acceptance of wind farms in Germany Sonnenberg, M., Ruddat, M. November 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Nonmarket Valuation of Marine Resources in the Northeast: Implications for Recreational Fisheries Management and Offshore Wind Energy Development Carr-Harris, A. January 2019 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Fisheries, Visual Impacts
An Analysis of Offshore Wind Development: A Non-market, Stated Preference Approach to Measure Community Perceptions and Opinions and Estimate Willingness to Pay in Two Lake Michigan Regions Knapp, L., et al. April 2013 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Where Are All the People? A Study on the Integration of Socioeconomics and Marine Conservation Planning Feldman, L. May 2009 Thesis Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Valuation of Ecological and Amenity Impacts of an Offshore Windfarm as a Factor in Marine Planning Börger, T., Hooper, T., Austen, M. December 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Visual Impacts
A Well-Being Framework for Impact Evaluation: The Case of the UK Offshore Wind Industry Hattam, C., Hooper, T., Papathanasopoulou, E. April 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Understanding the Impacts of Offshore Wind Farms on Well-Being Hattam, C., Hooper, T., Papathanasopoulou, E. January 2015 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Wind Energy Essentials: Societal, Economic, and Environmental Impacts Walker, R., Swift, A. May 2015 Book Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Establishing an Agenda for Social Studies Research in Marine Renewable Energy Kerr, S., et al. April 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Establishing the Resilience of a Coastal-marine Social-ecological System to the Installation of Offshore Wind Farms Burkhard, B., Gee, K. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data

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