Knowledge Base

The Knowledge Base provides access to information about the environmental effects of marine and wind energy, supporting OES-Environmental and WREN initiatives. Relevant documents and OES-Environmental metadata forms are compiled into a user-friendly table with advanced filtering. Filters may be selected on the right, or keywords entered in the Search Text box. Content may also be sorted alphabetically by clicking on column headers. More entries will load as you scroll down.


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Title Author* Date**sort ascending Type of Content Technology Types Stressors Receptors
Offshore Wind Farms - Ecological Effects of Noise and Habitat Alteration on Fish Andersson, M. January 2011 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise, Static Device Ecosystem, Fish
Effect of the Horns Rev 1 Offshore Wind Farm on Fish Communities: Follow-up Seven Years after Construction Leonhard, S., Stenberg, C., Støttrup, J. January 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Fish
Local Birds in and around the Offshore Wind Farm Egmond aan Zee (OWEZ) Leopold, M., Dijkman, E., Teal, L. January 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds
Offshore Wind Farms: Foundations and Influence on the Littoral Processes Esteban, M., et al. January 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Comparing Pre- and Post-Construction Distributions of Long-Tailed Ducks Clangula hyemalis in and around the Nysted Offshore Wind Farm, Denmark: A Quasi-Designed Experiment Accounting for Imperfect Detection, Local Surface Features and Autocorrelation Petersen, I., et al. January 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Waterfowl
A Sustainability Index for Offshore Wind Farms and Open Water Aquaculture Benassai, G., et al. January 2011 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Intervisibility Analysis of an Offshore Wind Farm Using GIS Tools Errico, A., et al. January 2011 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device N/A
Is There a Conflict Between Cetacean Conservation and Marine Renewable-Energy Developments? Brown, V., Simmonds, M. December 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
MUSSEL CULTIVATION AS A CO-USE IN OFFSHORE WIND FARMS: POTENTIAL AND ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY Buck, B., Ebeling, M., Michler-Cieluch, T. December 2010 Journal Article Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates
Use of High Resolution Sonar for Near-Turbine Fish Observations (DIDSON) - WeSea 2007-002 Couperus, B., et al. November 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Fish
Public Engagement with Large-Scale Renewable Energy Technologies: Breaking the Cycle of NIMBYism Devine-Wright, P. November 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Minimizing Collision Risk Between Migrating Raptors and Marine Wind Farms: Development of a Spatial Planning Tool Baisner, A., et al. November 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
The Nature Of Scour Development And Scour Protection At Offshore Windfarm Foundations Whitehouse, R., et al. November 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Nearfield Habitat
Understanding the Environmental Impacts of Offshore Windfarms Collaborative Offshore Wind Research Into The Environment, Huddleston, J. November 2010 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Early Development of the Subtidal Marine Biofouling on a Concrete Offshore Windmill Foundation on the Thornton Bank (Southern North Sea): First Monitoring Results Kerckhof, F., et al. November 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Ecosystem, Nearfield Habitat
Kentish Flats Offshore Wind Farm: Diver Surveys 2009-10 Percival, S. November 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Waterfowl
Whooper Swan Cygnus cygnus Migration in Relation to Offshore Wind Farms Griffin, L., Rees, E., Hughes, B. October 2010 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Waterfowl
Kentish Flats Offshore Wind Farm Extension Environmental Scoping Study Royal Haskoning October 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Offshore Renewable Energy Development Plan (OREDP) For Ireland: Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA): Volume 1: Non - Technical Summary (NTS) Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland October 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Review of Literature and Studies on Electro Magnetic Fields (EMF) Generated by Undersea Power Cables and Associated Influence on Marine Organisms Switzer, T., Meggitt, D. September 2010 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF N/A
Simulation Of Wave Damping Near Coast Due To Offshore Wind Farms Alari, V., Raudsepp, U. September 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Ocean Management & Planning in the United States: From Competition to Cooperation Heimes, R. September 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Simulating Environmental Changes Due to Marine Hydrokinetic Energy Installations James, S., et al. September 2010 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Residence Time and Behaviour of Sole and Cod in the Offshore Wind Farm Egmond aan Zee Winter, H., Aarts, G., van Keeken, O. September 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Fish
Rampion Offshore Wind Farm - Scoping Report RSK Environment September 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Cultural Ecosystem Services in the Context of Offshore Wind Farming: A Case Study from the West Coast of Schleswig-Holstein Gee, K., Burkhard, B. September 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
Large-Scale Offshore Wind Power in the United States: Assessment of Opportunities and Barriers Musial, M., Ram, B. September 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics
Towards Best Environmental Practice for Cetacean Conservation in Developing Scotland's Marine Renewable Energy Dolman, S., Simmonds, M. September 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Disruption to Place Attachment and the Protection of Restorative Environments: A Wind Energy Case Study Devine-Wright, P., Howes, Y. September 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Approaches to Marine Mammal Monitoring at Marine Renewable Energy Developments Macleod, K., et al. August 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals
Environmental Impact Assessment of Offshore Wind Farms: A Simulation-Based Approach Lapeña, B., et al. August 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Assessing the Responses of Coastal Cetaceans to the Construction of Offshore Wind Turbines Thompson, P., et al. August 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Developing an Instrumentation Package for in-Water Testing of Marine Hydrokinetic Energy Devices Nelson, E. August 2010 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Statutory Nature Conservation Agency Protocol for Minimising the Risk of Injury to Marine Mammals from Piling Noise Joint Nature Conservation Committee August 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Strategic Review of Offshore Wind Farm Monitoring Data Associated with FEPA License Conditions Centre for Environment Fisheries and Aquaculture Science (CEFAS) August 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
The Legal Framework for Offshore Wind Farms: A Critical Analysis of the Consents Process Gibson, E., Howsamn, P. August 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Greening Blue Energy: Identifying and Managing the Biodiversity Risks and Opportunities of Offshore Renewable Energy Wilhelmsson, D., et al. July 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Burbo Bank Extension Offshore Wind Farm: Environmental Impact Assessment Scoping Report Sørensen, T., et al. July 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Triton Knoll Environmental Impact Assessment Scoping Report Wilson, M., Ireland, P. July 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Barriers to Movement: Modelling Energetic Costs of Avoiding Marine Wind Farms Amongst Breeding Seabirds Masden, E., et al. July 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Seabirds
The Effect of a Large Danish Offshore Wind Farm on Harbor and Gray Seal Haul-Out Behavior Edrén, S., et al. July 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Updated Summary of Knowledge: Selected Areas of the Pacific Coast Kaplan, B., et al. July 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Ecosystem, Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles, Socio-economics
Ocean Wind Power Ecological Baseline Studies Final Report - Volume 1: Overview, Summary, and Application Geo-Marine July 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Bats, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles
Ocean Wind Power Ecological Baseline Studies Final Report - Volume 3: Marine Mammal and Sea Turtle Studies Geo-Marine July 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Reptiles
Ocean Wind Power Ecological Baseline Studies Final Report - Volume 2: Avian Studies Geo-Marine July 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
Ocean Wind Power Ecological Baseline Studies Final Report - Volume 4: Fish and Fisheries Studies Geo-Marine July 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Fish
Fish And Sessile Assemblages Associated With Wind-turbine Constructions In The Baltic Sea Andersson, M., Öhman, M. June 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
An Overview Of Ocean Renewable Energy Technologies Bedard, R., et al. June 2010 Magazine Article Marine Energy general, OTEC, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Assessing Underwater Noise Levels during Pile-Driving at an Offshore Windfarm and its Potential Effects on Marine Mammals Bailey, H., et al. June 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
California Offshore Wind Energy Potential Dvorak, M., Archer, C., Jacobson, M. June 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Environmental and Ecological Effects of Ocean Renewable Energy Development: A Current Synthesis Boehlert, G., Gill, A. June 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy general, OTEC, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Nearfield Habitat
The Plan for Offshore Wind Energy in Scottish Territorial Waters Pre-Screening for Appropriate Assessment Halcrow Group June 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Quantifying the Relative Use of Coastal Waters by Breeding Terns: Towards Effective Tools for Planning & Assessing the Ornithological Impact of Offshore Wind Farms Perrow, M., et al. June 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds
Ocean Planning and the Gulf of Maine: Exploring Bi-National Policy Options Fanning, L., Heimes, R. May 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Monitoring and Researching Ecological Effects of Dutch Offshore Wind Farms Boon, A., et al. May 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Bats, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics
Decision Bias in Marine Spatial Planning of Offshore Wind Farms: Problems of Singular Versus Cumulative Assessments of Economic Impacts on Fisheries Berkenhagen, J., et al. May 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
Renewable Energy in Scotland Alldritt, D., Hopwood, D. May 2010 Magazine Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Adapting Offshore Wind Power Foundations to Local Environment Hammar, L., Andersson, S., Rosenberg, R. May 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device N/A
An Analysis of the Potential Acoustic Effects of Cape Wind's Offshore Wind Farm on Marine Mammal Populations Burgman, J. April 2010 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
Report of the Working Group on Marine Mammal Ecology (WGMME) International Council for the Exploration of the Sea April 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Offshore wind power development as affected by seascape values on the German North Sea coast Gee, K. April 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Aesthetics, Stakeholder Engagement
Planners to the Rescue: Spatial Planning Facilitating the Development of Offshore Wind Energy Jay, S. April 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device N/A
Near-Shore Wind Power - Protected Seascapes, Environmentalists' Attitudes, and the Technocratic Planning Perspective Wolsink, M. April 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Effects of Pile-Driving Noise on the Behaviour of Marine Fish Mueller-Blenkle, C., et al. March 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
A Further Review of Sediment Monitoring Data Carroll, B., et al. March 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Nearfield Habitat
Steel forests or smoke stacks: the politics of visualisation in the Cape Wind controversy Phadke, R. February 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Aesthetics
Offshore Wind Farms and Birds: Round 3 Zones, Extensions to Round 1 & Round 2 Sites & Scottish Territorial Waters Langston, R. February 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds
Offshore Wind Power Policy and Planning in Sweden Söderholm, P., Pettersson, M. February 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Risk Formulation For The Sonic Effects Of Offshore Wind Farms On Fish In The EU Region Kikuchi, R. February 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
The Effects of Landscape Modifications on the Long-Term Persistence of Animal Populations Nabe-Nielsen, J., et al. January 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Nearfield Habitat
General Models of the Spatial Distribution of Porpoises Require Representative Data and Parsimony: Comment on Skov & Thomsen (2008) Tougaard, J., Wisz, M. January 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals
Mitigation of Underwater Pile Driving Noise During Offshore Construction: Final Report Stokes, A., et al. January 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Analyzing Coastal and Marine Changes – Offshore Wind Farming as a Case Study Lange, M., et al. January 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Ecosystem, Fish, Socio-economics
Preliminary Assessment of the Conservation Importance of Benthic Species and Habitats off the West Coast of Orkney and in the Pentland Firth in Relation to the Development of Renewable Energy Schemes Moore, C. January 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates
Cumulative Impact Assessments and Bird/Wind Farm Interactions: Developing a Conceptual Framework Masden, E., et al. January 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Farfield Environment
Marine Renewable Energy Legislation for Nova Scotia Nova Scotia Department of Energy January 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Marine Wind Farms: Seabirds, White-Tailed Eagles, Eurasian Eagle-Owl and Waders - A Screening of Potential Conflict Areas Christensen-Dalsgaard, S., et al. January 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Raptors, Seabirds, Shorebirds
Offshore Wind Farms in the Belgian Part of the North Sea: Early Environmental Impact Assessment and Spatio-Temporal Variability Degraer, S., Brabant, R., Rumes, B. January 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, Dynamic Device, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Options and Opportunities for Marine Fisheries Mitigation Associated with Windfarms Blyth-Skyrme, R. January 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Fish, Socio-economics
Potential Climatic Impacts And Reliability Of Very Large-scale Wind Farms Wang, C., Prinn, G. January 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Review of Migratory Routes and Behaviour of Atlantic Salmon, Sea Trout and European Eel in Scotland's Coastal Environment: Implications for the Development of Marine Renewables Malcolm, I., Godfrey, J., Youngson, A. January 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Fish
Weighing Natural Variability and Anthropogenic Impacts: A Case Study of Demersal Fish and Epibenthic Communities in the Belgian Part of the North Sea De Backer, A., et al. January 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
Underwater Noise Produced by the Piling Activities During the Construction of the Belwind Offshore Wind Farm (Bligh Bank, Belgian Marine Waters) Norro, A., et al. January 2010 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Monitoring of Hydrodynamic and Morphological Changes at the C-Power and Belwind Offshore Windfarm Sites - A Synthesis Van den Eynde, D., et al. January 2010 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Nearfield Habitat
Development of Underwater Flora and Fauna Communities on Hard Substrates of the Offshore Wind Farm Egmond aan Zee Lengkeek, W., Bouma, S. December 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Ecosystem
Lynn and Inner Dowsing Hydrographic Monitoring Survey Emu December 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Marine Renewable Energy: Potential Benefits to Biodiversity? An Urgent Call for Research Inger, R., et al. December 2009 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Ecosystem
Status and Applications of Acoustic Mitigation and Monitoring Systems for Marine Mammals Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement November 2009 Workshop Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Spatial Planning of Offshore Wind Farms: A Windfall to Marine Environmental Protection? Punt, M., et al. November 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
Challenges and Solutions of Remote Sensing at Offshore Wind Energy Developments Kelly, T., West, T., Davenport, J. November 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Comparison of Visual and Digital Aerial Survey Results of Avian Abundance for Round 3, Norfolk Region Burt, L., Rexstad, E., Buckland, S. November 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds
Environmental Assessment of Offshore Wind Power Generation near Rhode Island: Acoustic and Electromagnetic Effects on Marine Animals [Presentation] Miller, J., et al. October 2009 Presentation Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Real-Time Environmental Monitoring from a Wind Farm Platform in the Texas Hypoxia Zone Mullins, R., et al. October 2009 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Environmental Assessment of Offshore Wind Power Generation near Rhode Island: Acoustic and Electromagnetic Effects on Marine Animals Miller, J., et al. October 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF, Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Ecosystem, Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles
A Comparison of Offshore Wind Power Development in Europe and the US: Patterns and Drivers of Development Snyder, B., Kaiser, M. October 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
An Integrated Risk Framework for Gigawatt-Scale Deployments of Renewable Energy: The U.S. Wind Energy Case Ram, B. October 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Stakeholder Perceptions of the Wave Hub Development in Cornwall, UK. West, J., Bailey, I., Whithead, I. September 2009 Conference Paper Offshore Wind N/A Stakeholder Engagement
Integrated Assessment of Coastal and Marine Changes Using the Example of Offshore Wind Farms: the Coastal Futures Approach Kannen, A., Burkhard, B. September 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Coastal Process Modelling for Offshore Windfarm Environmental Impact Assessment: Best Practice Guide Lambkin, D., et al. September 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal N/A
Influence of Behavior on Bird Mortality in Wind Energy Developments Smallwood, K., Rugge, L., Morrison, M. September 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Waterfowl

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