Knowledge Base

The Knowledge Base provides access to information about the environmental effects of marine and wind energy, supporting OES-Environmental and WREN initiatives. Relevant documents and OES-Environmental metadata forms are compiled into a user-friendly table with advanced filtering. Filters may be selected on the right, or keywords entered in the Search Text box. Content may also be sorted alphabetically by clicking on column headers. More entries will load as you scroll down.


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Title Author*sort descending Date** Type of Content Technology Types Stressors Receptors
Sustainable Seas Ko ngā moana whakauka: National Science Challenge Hall, J., et al. July 2015 Presentation Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
An Analytical Model for the Underwater Sound Pressure Waveforms Radiated when an Offshore Pile is Driven Hall, M. August 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Threshold for Onset of Injury in Chinook Salmon from Exposure to Impulsive Pile Driving Sounds Halvorsen, M., et al. June 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Power from the Brave New Ocean: Marine Renewable Energy and Ecological Risks Hammar, L. January 2014 Thesis Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Fish, Socio-economics
Adapting Offshore Wind Power Foundations to Local Environment Hammar, L., Andersson, S., Rosenberg, R. May 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device N/A
Assessing Ecological Risks of Offshore Wind Power on Kattegat Cod Hammar, L., Wikström, A., Molander, S. June 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, EMF, Noise, Static Device Fish
An analysis of the state of impact assessment research for low carbon power production: Building a better understanding of information and knowledge gaps Hanna, K., et al. April 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-Economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Small Scale Distribution of Fish in Offshore Wind Farms Hansen, K., Stenberg, C., Møller, P. September 2012 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Fish
Assessment of Entanglement Risk to Marine Megafauna due to Offshore Renewable Energy Mooring Systems Harnois, V., et al. September 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Marine Mammals
Effects on birds of Offshore Wind farm Egmond aan Zee (OWEZ): An overview and integration of insights obtained Hartman, J., et al. June 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds
Unforeseen Responses of a Breeding Seabird to the Construction of an Offshore Wind Farm Harwood, A., et al. February 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Seabirds
Use of an optical rangefinder to assess the reliability of seabird flight heights from boat‐based surveyors: implications for collision risk at offshore wind farms Harwood, A., Perrow, M., Berridge, R. October 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds
Delivering Community Benefits from Wind Energy Development: A Toolkit Hassan, G., Capener, P. May 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Effects of impulsive noise on marine mammals: investigating range‐dependent risk Hastie, G., et al. April 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Sound Exposure in Harbour Seals During the Installation of an Offshore Wind Farm: Predictions of Auditory Damage Hastie, G., et al. June 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Multiple-Pulse Sounds and Seals: Results of a Harbor Seal (Phoca vitulina) Telemetry Study During Wind Farm Construction Hastie, G., et al. January 2016 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Effects of Sound on Fish Hastings, M., Popper, A. January 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Collision Mortalities at Horseshoe Shoal of Bird Species of Special Concern Hatch, J., Brault, S. January 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
A Well-Being Framework for Impact Evaluation: The Case of the UK Offshore Wind Industry Hattam, C., Hooper, T., Papathanasopoulou, E. April 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Understanding the Impacts of Offshore Wind Farms on Well-Being Hattam, C., Hooper, T., Papathanasopoulou, E. January 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions
Assessing the Impact of Underwater Sounds on Fishes and Other Forms of Marine Life Hawkins, A., Popper, A. March 2014 Magazine Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Effects of Man-Made Sound on Fishes Hawkins, A., Popper, A. August 2018 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Responses of Free-Living Coastal Pelagic Fish to Impulsive Sounds Hawkins, A., Roberts, L., Cheesman, S. May 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
A Model for Passive Underwater Noise Suppression by Bubble Curtains Surrounding Point or Line Sources in Shallow Water Hay, T., et al. October 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Model for Underwater Noise Radiated by Submerged Wind Turbine Towers Hay, T., et al. June 2013 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Ocean Management & Planning in the United States: From Competition to Cooperation Heimes, R. September 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Framework for Assessing Ecological and Cumulative Effects of Offshore Wind Farms: Cumulative Effects of Impulsive Underwater Sound on Marine Mammals Heinis, F., de Jong, C. April 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
High-resolution sea duck distribution modeling: Relating aerial and ship survey data to food resources, anthropogenic pressures, and topographic variables Heinänen, S., et al. May 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Seabirds
Marine Renewable Energy and Environmental Interactions: Baseline Assessments of Seabirds, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles and Benthic Communities on the Oregon Shelf Henkel, S., Suryan, R., Lagerquist, B. February 2014 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles
Ocean sprawl facilitates dispersal and connectivity of protected species Henry, L., et al. August 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Ecosystem Processes, Fish, Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
The Effect of Simulated Seal Scarer Sounds on Harbour Porpoises Hermannsen, L., Mikkelsen, L., Tougaard, J. January 2017 Report Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Pinnipeds
Comparing offshore and onshore wind development considering acceptance costs Hevia-Koch, P., Jacobsen, H. February 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-Economics, Stakeholder Engagement
High Resolution Video Survey of Seabirds and Mammals in the Rhyl Flats Area Hexter, R. July 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds, Marine Mammals
Of birds, blades and barriers: Detecting and analysing mass migration events at alpha ventus Hill, R., et al. January 2014 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Offshore Wind Farms in the Western Great Lakes: An Interdisciplinary Analysis of their Potential Hingtgen, J. January 2003 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
High Level Environmental Screening Study for Offshore Wind Farm Developments - Marine Habitats and Species Project Hiscock, K., Tyler-Walters, H., Jones, H. August 2002 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Ecosystem, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
Developing offshore wind farm siting criteria by using an international Delphi method Ho, L., et al. February 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
Effects of Marine Windfarms on the Distribution of Fish, Shellfish and Marine Mammals in the Horns Rev Area Hoffmann, E., et al. May 2000 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Fish, Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Perceptions of fishers and developers on the co-location of offshore wind farms and decapod fisheries in the UK Hooper, T., Ashley, M., Austen, M. November 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Socio-economics, Fishing
Capturing benefits Hooper, T., Ashley, M., Austen, M. February 2018 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
The Co-Location of Offshore Windfarms and Decapod Fisheries in the UK: Constraints and Opportunities Hooper, T., Austen, M. January 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates
The Implications of Energy Systems for Ecosystem Services: A Detailed Case Study of Offshore Wind Hooper, T., Beaumont, N., Hattam, C. April 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Ecosystem
Recreational Use of Offshore Wind Farms: Experiences and Opinions of Sea Anglers in the UK Hooper, T., Hattam, C., Austen, M. April 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Socio-economics, Recreation
Evaluating Acoustic Technologies to Monitor Aquatic Organisms at Renewable Energy Sites: Final Report Horne, J., et al. June 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Density dependence and marine bird populations: are wind farm assessments precautionary? Horswill, C., O'Brien, S., Robinson, R. October 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Seabirds
Preliminary Assessment of Offshore Wind Development Impacts on Marine Ecosystems Huang, H., Hall, A. March 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Farfield Environment
Prediction of Structure Borne Noise Radiation and Propagation from Offshore Impact Pile Driving Huikwan, K. January 2014 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Humber Gateway Offshore Wind Farm: Offshore ES Description of the Physical Baseline Environment Humber Gateway Offshore Wind Farm January 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal, Static Device Farfield Environment
Humber Gateway Offshore Wind Farm: Offshore ES Description of the Biological Baseline Environment Humber Gateway Offshore Wind Farm January 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Ecosystem, Fish, Marine Mammals
Collision, Displacement and Barrier Effect Concept Note Humphreys, E., Cook, S., Burton, N. January 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors, Seabirds, Shorebirds
Prioritisation of monitoring and research for diadromous fish in the context of Marine/Offshore Renewables: A summary of stakeholder engagement meetings between Marine Scotland, wild fisheries interests and wind, wave and tidal developers Hunter, D., Malcolm, I., Armstrong, J. March 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Fish, Human Dimensions, Fisheries, Stakeholder Engagement
Buried Alive: The Behavioural Response of the Mussels, Modiolus modiolus and Mytilus edulis to Sudden Burial by Sediment Hutchison, Z., et al. March 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Invertebrates
Hydro-Acoustic Monitoring of Fish Communities at Offshore Wind Farms Hvidt, C., et al. May 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Bird Migration Studies and Potential Collision Risk with Offshore Wind Turbines Hüppop, O., et al. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Passerines
Bird collisions at an offshore platform in the North Sea Hüppop, O., et al. January 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds
Recommendations for project-related studies of possible impacts of marine wind farms during construction and operation on birds Hüppop, O., Exo, K., Garthe, S. January 2002 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds
Flight Call Rates of Migrating Thrushes: Effects of Wind Conditions, Humidity and Time of Day at an Illuminated Offshore Platform Hüppop, O., Hilgerloh, G. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Passerines
Effects of Pile Driving on the Residency and Movement of Tagged Reef Fish Iafrate, J., et al. November 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Fish
Inch Cape Offshore Wind Farm Environmental Statement Inch Cape Offshore June 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
Utgrunden Offshore Wind Farm Measurements of Underwater Noise Ingemansson Technology June 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Marine Renewable Energy: Potential Benefits to Biodiversity? An Urgent Call for Research Inger, R., et al. December 2009 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Ecosystem
Endangered Atlantic Sturgeon in the New York Wind Energy Area: implications of future development in an offshore wind energy site Ingram, E., et al. August 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Fish
ICES WGMBRED Report 2013: Report of the Working Group on Marine Benthal and Renewable Energy Developments (WGMBRED) International Council for the Exploration of the Sea March 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates
Report of the Working Group on Marine Mammal Ecology (WGMME) International Council for the Exploration of the Sea April 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Interim Report of the Working Group on Marine Benthal and Renewable Energy Developments (WGMBRED) International Council for the Exploration of the Sea March 2017 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
ICES SGWTE Report 2012: Report of the Study Group on Environmental Impacts of Wave and Tidal Energy International Council for the Exploration of the Sea May 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
ICES SGWTE Report 2013: Report of the Study Group on Environmental Impacts of Wave and Tidal Energy International Council for the Exploration of the Sea March 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
ICES WGMBRED Report 2018: Report of the Working Group on Marine Benthal and Renewable Energy Developments (WGMBRED) International Council for the Exploration of the Sea March 2018 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
JWGBIRD Report 2018: Report of the Joint OSPAR/HELCOM/ICES Working Group on Marine Birds (JWGBIRD) International Council for the Exploration of the Sea October 2018 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Seabirds
Tiree Onshore Scenario Mapping Ironside Farrar March 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Pathways of Effects for Offshore Renewable Energy in Canada Isaacman, L., Daborn, G. December 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Lighting, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Sea Turtles, Socio-economics
Interactions with Offshore Wind Energy: Birds and Bats Island Institute January 2012 Presentation Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Energy Removal, Static Device Bats, Birds, Seabirds
Avoidance Behaviour of Migrating Raptors Approaching an Offshore Wind Farm Jacobsen, E., Jensen, F., Blew, J. March 2019 Book Chapter Offshore Wind N/A Raptors
The Eagle Owl (Bubo bubo) on Sleneset and Windpower Jacobsen, K., Rov, N. January 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
Taming Hurricanes with Arrays of Offshore Wind Turbines Jacobson, M., Archer, C., Kempton, W. March 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Harbour Porpoises on Horns Reef Effects of the Horns Reef Wind Farm Jakob, T., et al. November 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise, Static Device Marine Mammals
Effect of low frequency electromagnetic field on the behavior and bioenergetics of the polychaete Hediste diversicolor Jakubowska, M., et al. September 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF Invertebrates
Observing Cable Laying and Particle Settlement During the Construction of the Block Island Wind Farm James, E., et al. March 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device N/A
Simulating Environmental Changes Due to Marine Hydrokinetic Energy Installations James, S., et al. September 2010 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Marine Renewable Energy: A Global Review of the Extent of Marine Renewable Energy Developments, the Developing Technologies and Possible Conservation Implications for Cetaceans James, V. November 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, EMF, Noise, Static Device Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Impact of Secondary Hard Substrate on the Distribution and Abundance of Aurelia aurita in the Western Baltic Sea Janßen, H., et al. October 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates
Imbalances in interaction for transboundary marine spatial planning: Insights from the Baltic Sea Region Janßen, H., et al. July 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment, Marine Spatial Planning, Stakeholder Engagement
Offshore Wind Farms in the Southwestern Baltic Sea: A Model Study of Regional Impacts on Oxygen Conditions Janßen, H., et al. January 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Ecosystem
An Evaluation of the Wildlife Impacts of Offshore Wind Development Relative to Fossil Fuel Power Production Jarvis, C. September 2005 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Socio-economics
North Sea Wind Farms NSW Lot 1 Benthic Fauna Jarvis, S., et al. February 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Ecosystem
Planners to the Rescue: Spatial Planning Facilitating the Development of Offshore Wind Energy Jay, S. April 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device N/A
ORECCA European Offshore Renewable Energy Roadmap Jeffrey, H., Sedgwick, J. September 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Horns Rev Offshore Wind Farm II: EIA Report Fish Jensen, B., Klaustrup, M., Skov, H. July 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Fish, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Life Cycle Assessment
The impact of on-shore and off-shore wind turbine farms on property prices Jensen, C., et al. May 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Static Device Socio-economics
Sandeels in the Wind Farm Area at Horns Reef Jensen, H., Kristensen, P., Hoffmann, E. August 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Local support for renewable energy technologies? Attitudes towards local near-shore wind farms among second home owners and permanent area residents on the Danish coast Johansen, K. September 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Socio-economics, Aesthetics, Stakeholder Engagement
The post-normal politics and science of wind power planning: Evidence from a Danish near-shore wind farm tender Johansen, K., Upham, P. July 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-Economics, Legal and Policy, Stakeholder Engagement
Impacts to Marine Fisheries Habitat from Nonfishing Activities in the Northeastern United States Johnson, M., et al. February 2008 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Fishing
Fisheries, the environment and offshore wind farms: location, location, location Johnson, M., Rodmell, D. January 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Ecosystem, Socio-economics, Fishing
Modelling Flight Heights of Marine Birds to More Accurately Assess Collision Risk with Offshore Wind Turbines Johnston, A., et al. February 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Statutory Nature Conservation Agency Protocol for Minimising the Risk of Injury to Marine Mammals from Piling Noise Joint Nature Conservation Committee August 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Improving visual biodiversity assessments of motile fauna in turbid aquatic environments Jones, R., et al. August 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Fish, Invertebrates, Marine Mammals
Identifying Space for Offshore Wind Energy in the North Sea. Consequences of Scenario Calculations for Interactions with Other Marine Uses Jongbloed, R., van der Wal, J., Lindeboom, H. May 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Socio-economics
Definition of a 5-MW Reference Wind Turbine for Offshore System Development Jonkman, J., et al. February 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Colonization of an Artificial Hard Substrate by Mytilus edulis in the German Bight Joschko, T., et al. October 2008 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates

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