Knowledge Base

The Knowledge Base provides access to information about the environmental effects of marine and wind energy, supporting OES-Environmental and WREN initiatives. Relevant documents and OES-Environmental metadata forms are compiled into a user-friendly table with advanced filtering. Filters may be selected on the right, or keywords entered in the Search Text box. Content may also be sorted alphabetically by clicking on column headers.


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Title Author* Date** Type of Content Technology Types Stressors Receptorssort descending
Monitoring of Hydrodynamic and Morphological Changes at the C-Power and Belwind Offshore Windfarm Sites - A Synthesis Van den Eynde, D., et al. January 2010 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Nearfield Habitat
Vegetation Types and Valuable Habitats at the Islets Sandholmene in Rost Municipality, Nordland County - Impact Assessment in Relation to Planned Construction of Wind Power Station Bjerke, J. March 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Nearfield Habitat
How Deep does an Anchor Penetrate the Seafloor? Maushake, C. November 2013 Workshop Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Nearfield Habitat
Cape Wind Submerged Aquatic Vegetation Diver Survey Woods Hole Group, Inc. July 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Nearfield Habitat
Submerged Aquatic Vegetation Investigation of the Cape Wind Energy Project ESS Group August 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Nearfield Habitat
The Airspace is Habitat Diehl, R. July 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Nearfield Habitat
Standard Investigation of the Impacts of Offshore Wind Turbines on the Marine Environment (StUK4) Bundesamt fur Seeschifffahrt und Hydrographie (BSH) October 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Nearfield Habitat
Habitats Regulations Appraisal of Draft Plan for Offshore Wind Energy in Scottish Territorial Waters: Appropriate Assessment Information Review APS Group Scotland January 2011 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment, Legal & Policy
Examples of State and International Guidance for Duration and Intensity of Pre-Construction and Post-Construction Monitoring US Fish and Wildlife Service January 2011 Report Wind Energy (General) N/A Nearfield Habitat, Physical Environment, Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Dogger Bank Creyke Beck Environmental Statement - Chapter 10: Marine Water and Sediment Quality Page, C. March 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Comparison of Recent Oil and Gas, Wind Energy, and Other Anthropogenic Landscape Alteration Factors in Texas Through 2014 Pierre, J., et al. May 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Physical Environment
Impact of substantial wind farms on the local and regional atmospheric boundary layer: Case study of Zhangbei wind power base in China Wang, Q., et al. September 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Seabed morphodynamics due to offshore wind farms van der Veen, H., Hulscher, S., Lapeña, B. July 2019 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
The Iowa Atmospheric Observatory: Revealing the Unique Boundary Layer Characteristics of a Wind Farm Takle, E., Rajewski, D., Purdy, S. March 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Modelling the Effects of Wind Farming on the Local Weather Using Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model Jawaheer, B., et al. January 2019 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
The Influence of Real‐World Wind Turbine Deployments on Local to Mesoscale Climate Pryor, S., Barthelmie, R., Shepherd, T. May 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Meteorological and Hydrological Effect of Wind Farm in Arid Areas Yin, R., et al. January 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Exploring the wakes of large offshore wind farms Emeis, S., et al. January 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Offshore Wind Farm Wake Effect on Stratification and Coastal Upwelling Paskyabi, M. December 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Changes in fluxes of heat, H2O, and CO2 caused by a large wind farm Rajewski, D., et al. August 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Numerical Study for Wave-Induced Seabed Response around Offshore Wind Turbine Foundation in Donghai Offshore Wind Farm, Shanghai, China Chang, K., Jeng, D. July 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Effects of Man-Made Structures on Sedimentary Oxygenation: Extent, Seasonality and Implications for Offshore Renewables Wilding, T. June 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Large Eddy Simulation Studies of the Effects of Alignment and Wind Farm Length Stevens, R., Gayme, D., Meneveau, C. April 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Crop Wind Energy Experiment (CWEX): Observations of Surface-Layer, Boundary Layer, and Mesoscale Interactions with a Wind Farm Rajewski, D., et al. May 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Evaluation of the nearshore impact of a hybrid wave-wind energy farm Diaconu, S., Onea, F., Rusu, E. February 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Spatiotemporal Structure of Wind Farm-atmospheric Boundary Layer Interactions Cervarich, M., Roy, S., Zhou, L. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Further evidence of impacts of large-scale wind farms on land surface temperature Walsh-Thomas, J., et al. October 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Numerical Calculation of the Impact of Offshore Wind Farm Power Stations on Hydrodynamic Conditions Zhang, W., Xia, H., Wang, B. January 2009 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
On The Influence Of Large Wind Farms On The Upper Ocean Circulation Broström, G. November 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Effects of Wind Farm Foundations on the Water Exchange between North Sea and Baltic Sea - A First Careful Assessment Derived from the QuantAS-Off Project Burchard, H., et al. January 2008 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Dynamics of Scour Pits and Scour Protection - Synthesis Report and Recommendations Whitehouse, R., Harris, J., Rees, J. January 2008 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Wake Effects on Middelgrund Windfarm Jørgensen, H., Frandsen, S., Vølund, P. July 2003 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Offshore Wind Turbine Wakes Measured by Sodar Barthelmie, J., et al. April 2003 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Wind turbine impact on near-ground air temperature Moravec, D., et al. August 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
The Expected Shoreline Effect of a Marine Energy Farm Operating Close to Sardinia Island Onea, F., Rusu, E. November 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Current and Wave Effects around Windfarm Monopile Foundations Miles, J., Martin, T, Goddard, L March 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Foundation Damping and the Dynamics of Offshore Wind Turbine Monopiles Carswell, W., et al. August 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Preliminary Assessment of Offshore Wind Development Impacts on Marine Ecosystems Huang, H., Hall, A. March 2015 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Human pressures on UK seabed habitats: a cumulative impact assessment Foden, J., Rogers, S., Jones, A. May 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Physical Environment
The Effect of a Giant Wind Farm on Precipitation in a Regional Climate Model Fiedler, B., Bukovsky, M. January 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
The Nature Of Scour Development And Scour Protection At Offshore Windfarm Foundations Whitehouse, R., et al. November 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Physical Environment
Land-Use Requirements of Modern Wind Power Plants in the United States Denholm, P., et al. August 2009 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Physical Environment
Seabed Morphology Off Southern Long Island: Studies of Artificial Reefs and Implications for Wind Farms Flood, R. January 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Physical Environment
Numerical simulation of spudcan-soil interaction using an improved smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method Wu, H., et al. July 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) N/A Physical Environment
Simulating impacts of real-world wind farms on land surface temperature using the WRF model: physical mechanisms Xia, G., et al. March 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Experimental study of the impact of large-scale wind farms on land–atmosphere exchanges Zhang, W., Markfort, C., Porte-Agel, F. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Physical Environment
First in situ evidence of wakes in the far field behind offshore wind farms Platis, A., et al. February 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Physical Environment
Unstructured Grid Modelling of Offshore Wind Farm Impacts on Seasonally Stratified Shelf Seas Cazenave, P., Torres, R., Allen, J. June 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow, Habitat Change Physical Environment
The expected efficiency and coastal impact of a hybrid energy farm operating in the Portuguese nearshore Onea, F., Rusu, E. February 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Experimental Analysis of the Wake of a Horizontal-Axis Wind-Turbine Model Lignarolo, L., et al. October 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Computationally Efficient Modelling of Dynamic Soil-Structure Interaction of Offshore Wind Turbines on Gravity Footings Damgaard, M., Andersen, L., Ibsen, L. August 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Physical Environment
Recent Developments of Ocean Environmental Description with Focus on Uncertainties Bitner-Gregersen, E., et al. August 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Physical Environment
Climatic Impacts of Wind Power Miller, L., Keith, D. December 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Physical Environment, Human Dimensions, Climate Change
Wave Climate and Coastline Response of the Dutch Coast: Investigating the effect of large-scale offshore wind farm developments in the North Sea Ballas, G. November 2018 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment, Sediment Transport
On the Multi-Scale Interactions Between an Offshore-Wind-Turbine Wake and the Ocean-Sediment Dynamics in an Idealized Framework - A Numerical Investigation Nagel, T., et al. January 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment, Sediment Transport
Offshore Wind Farms: Foundations and Influence on the Littoral Processes Esteban, M., et al. January 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment, Sediment Transport
Sediment Transport Patterns at Trafalgar Offshore Windfarm Besio, G., Losada, M. May 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment, Sediment Transport
Scroby Sands Offshore Wind Farm - Coastal Processes Monitoring Centre for Environment Fisheries and Aquaculture Science (CEFAS) July 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment, Sediment Transport
Sand Banks, Sand Transport and Offshore Wind Farms: Technical Report Kenyon, N., Cooper, B. May 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment, Sediment Transport
Potential Effects of Offshore Wind Developments on Coastal Processes Beiboer, F., Cooper, B. January 2002 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment, Sediment Transport
Numerical study of multi-scale flow-sediment-structure interactions using a multiphase approach Nagel, T. July 2018 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment, Sediment Transport
Observing Cable Laying and Particle Settlement During the Construction of the Block Island Wind Farm James, E., et al. March 2017 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Physical Environment, Sediment Transport
In situ observations of suspended particulate matter plumes at an offshore wind farm, southern North Sea Baeye, M., Fettweis, M. August 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment, Sediment Transport
Kármán vortex and turbulent wake generation by wind park piles Grashorn, S., Stanev, E. December 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment, Sediment Transport
Ormonde Project Scoping Study for Coastal and Seabed Processes Coates, T., Skipper, C., Cranmer, G. November 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment, Sediment Transport, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Coastal Process Modelling for Offshore Windfarm Environmental Impact Assessment: Best Practice Guide Lambkin, D., et al. September 2009 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment, Sediment Transport, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Simulating Environmental Changes Due to Marine Hydrokinetic Energy Installations James, S., et al. September 2010 Conference Paper Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment, Sediment Transport, Water Quality
On the Potential Impact of Lake Erie Wind Farms on Water Temperatures and Mixed‐Layer Depths: Some Preliminary 1‐D Modeling Using COHERENS Afsharian, S., Taylor, P. February 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment, Water Quality
Potential Impacts of Offshore Wind Farms on North Sea Stratification Carpenter, J., et al. August 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment, Water Quality
Home in the heat: Dramatic seasonal variation in home range of desert golden eagles informs management for renewable energy development Braham, M., et al. June 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Raptors
Wind turbines cause functional habitat loss for migratory soaring birds Marques, A.,, et al. February 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Displacement Raptors
Agassiz’s desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) activity areas are little changed after wind turbine-induced fires in California Lovich, J., et al. November 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Reptiles
Predator attack rates and anti-predator behavior of side-blotched lizards (Uta stansburiana) at Southern California wind farms, USA Keehn, J., Feldman, C. April 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Reptiles
An approach for evaluating changes in land-use from energy sprawl and other anthropogenic activities with implications for biotic resource management Wolaver, B., et al. March 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Reptiles
Nest-Guarding by Female Agassiz's Desert Tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) at a Wind-Energy Facility Near Palm Springs, California Agha, M., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind N/A Reptiles
Nesting Ecology of a Population of Gopherus agassizii at a Utility-Scale Wind Energy Facility in Southern California Ennen, J., et al. June 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Reptiles
Turtles and Culverts, and Alternative Energy Development: An Unreported but Potentially Significant Mortality Threat to the Desert Tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) Lovich, J., et al. July 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Entrapment, Habitat Change Reptiles
Effects of wind energy production on growth, demography, and survivorship of a desert tortoise population in Southern California with comparisons to natural populations Lovich, J., et al. June 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Reptiles
Long-Term Post-Fire Effects on Spatial Ecology and Reproductive Output of Female Agassiz's Desert Tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) at a Wind Energy Facility near Palm Springs, California, USA Lovich, J., et al. January 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Reptiles
Population-Level Effects of Wind Farms on a Desert Lizard Keehn, J., Shoemaker, K., Feldman, C. January 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Reptiles
Mammalian Mesocarnivore Visitation at Tortoise Burrows in a Wind Farm Agha, M., et al. August 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Noise Reptiles, Terrestrial Mammals
Black Bears (Ursus americanus) as a Novel Potential Predator of Agassiz's Desert Tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) at a California Wind Energy Facility Lovich, J., et al. April 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Reptiles, Terrestrial Mammals
JWGBIRD Report 2018: Report of the Joint OSPAR/HELCOM/ICES Working Group on Marine Birds (JWGBIRD) International Council for the Exploration of the Sea October 2018 Report Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Seabirds
The Energy Footprint: How Oil, Natural Gas, and Wind Energy Affect Land for Biodiversity and the Flow of Ecosystem Services Jones, N., Pejchar, L., Kiesecker, J. March 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind N/A Social & Economic Data
Multipurpose Marine Cadastre National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Bureau of Ocean Energy Management January 2012 Website Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Symposium Sound Solutions Report The North Sea Foundation February 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
The Lessons Learned from the Development of the Wind Energy Industry that Might be Applied to Marine Industry Renewables Garrad, A. January 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Development by Design: Mitigating Wind Development's Impacts on Wildlife in Kansas Obermeyer, B., et al. October 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Socio-economics
Wind Energy Myths EWEA December 2012 Presentation Wind Energy general N/A Socio-economics
A Probabilistic Approach to Introduce Risk Measurement Indicators to an Offshore Wind Project Evaluation - Improvement to an Existing Tool ECUME Douard, F., Domecq, C., Lair, W. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Technologies and their Influence on Future UK Marine Resource Development and Management Side, J., Jowitt, P. July 2002 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Wind of Change or Wind of Challenges: Implementation Factors Regarding Wind Energy Development, an International Perspective Gartman, V., et al. December 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Socio-economics
A Methodology for Multi-Criteria Design of Multi-Use Offshore Platforms for Marine Renewable Energy Harvesting Zanuttigh, B., et al. January 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Co-Creation of Individual-Based Models by Practitioners and Modellers to Inform Environmental Decision-Making Wood, K., Stillman, R., Goss-Custard, J. August 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Socio-economics
Sustainable Siting Process in Large Wind Farms Case Study in Crete Tsoutsos, T., et al. March 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Socio-economics
Northeast Offshore Wind Regional Market Characterization: A Report for the Roadmap Project for Multi-State Cooperation on Offshore Wind Grace, R., et al. October 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Determining the Infrastructure Needs to Support Offshore Floating Wind and Marine Hydrokinetic Facilities on the Pacific West Coast and Hawaii Porter, A., Phillips, S. January 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Impact of Wind Energy on the Electric Grid Walker, R., Swift, A. May 2015 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Environmental Impacts and Economics of Offshore Wind Energy Walker, R., Swift, A. May 2015 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Developing and Applying a GIS-Assisted Approach to Evaluate Visual Impact in Wind Farms Molina-Ruiz, J., et al. March 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Socio-economics, Aesthetics

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