Knowledge Base

The Knowledge Base provides access to information about the environmental effects of marine and wind energy, supporting OES-Environmental and WREN initiatives. Relevant documents and OES-Environmental metadata forms are compiled into a user-friendly table with advanced filtering. Filters may be selected on the right, or keywords entered in the Search Text box. Content may also be sorted alphabetically by clicking on column headers. More entries will load as you scroll down.


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Title Author* Date** Type of Content Technology Typessort descending Stressors Receptors
Wind Turbines and Bats - A Pilot Study Ahlén, I. December 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds, Passerines
Changes in the Abundance and Distribution of Upland Breeding Birds at an Operational Wind Farm Douglas, D., Bellamy, P., Pearce-Higgins, J. February 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Shorebirds
Synthesis and Comparison of Baseline Avian and Bat Use, Raptor Nesting and Mortality Information from Proposed and Existing Wind Developments Erickson, W., et al. December 2002 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds, Raptors, Waterfowl
Results of Bat and Bird Mortality Monitoring at the Expanded Buffalo Mountain Windfarm, 2005 Fiedler, J., et al. June 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds, Passerines
Investigating the Causes of Death for Wind Turbine-Associated Bat Fatalities Grodsky, S., et al. October 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Patterns of Pre-Construction Bat Acoustic Activity at the Proposed Resolute Wind Energy Project, Wyoming, 2009-2010 Hein, C., et al. October 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
The Impacts of Wind Power on Terrestrial Mammals - A Synthesis Helldin, J., et al. August 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds, Terrestrial Mammals
Mortality of Bats at a Large-Scale Wind Power Development at Buffalo Ridge, Minnesota Johnson, G., et al. January 2003 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Bat Activity, Composition, and Collision Mortality At a Large Wind Plant in Minnesota Johnson, G., et al. December 2004 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Health Effects and Wind Turbines: A Review of the Literature Knopper, L., Ollson, C. September 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise, Static Device Socio-economics
Effects of Wind Turbines and Other Physical Elements on Field Utilization by Pink-Footed Geese (Anser brachyrhynchus): A Landscape Perspective Larsen, J., Madsen, J. December 2000 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Waterfowl
Greening the Wind: Environmental and Social Considerations for Wind Power Development Ledec, G., Rapp, K., Aiello, R. December 2011 Book Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds, Ecosystem, Socio-economics
Assessing the Cumulative Impacts of Wind Farms on Peatland Birds: A Case Study of Golden Plover Pluvialis apricaria in Scotland Pearce-Higgins, J., et al. May 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Shorebirds
Spatial Pattern of Summer Bat Mortality from Collisions with Wind Turbines in Mixed-Grass Prairie Piorkowski, M., O'Connell, T. April 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
It's Not Easy Being Green: Wind Energy and a Declining Grassland Bird Pruett, C., Patten, M., Wolfe, D. March 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Nearfield Habitat
Bat Mortality at Wind Turbines in Northwestern Europe Rydell, J., et al. July 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Linking Turbine Collision Risks with Population Models to Assess Cumulative Impacts of Multiple Wind Farms on Threatened Birds Smales, I., et al. May 2011 Presentation Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
A Review of the Impacts of Wind Farms on Hen Harriers Circus cyaneus and an Estimation of Collision Avoidance Rates Whitfield, D., Madders, M. August 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Do wind turbines impact plant community properties in mountain region? Pătru-Stupariu, I., et al. August 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Nearfield Habitat
Simulating impacts of real-world wind farms on land surface temperature using the WRF model: physical mechanisms Xia, G., et al. March 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Detecting Wind Farm Impacts on Local Vegetation Growth in Texas and Illinois Using MODIS Vegetation Greenness Measurements Xia, G., Zhou, L. July 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Energy Removal Nearfield Habitat
Vegetation Cover Change of Çeşme Alaçatı Wind Power Plant Using Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) Balik, G., et al. September 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Nearfield Habitat
Nonlocal Inadvertent Weather Modification Associated with Wind Farms in the Central United States Lauridsen, M., Ancell, B. August 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Energy Removal Farfield Environment
The Influence of Real‐World Wind Turbine Deployments on Local to Mesoscale Climate Pryor, S., Barthelmie, R., Shepherd, T. May 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Energy Removal Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Offshore Wind Farm Wake Effect on Stratification and Coastal Upwelling Paskyabi, M. December 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Energy Removal N/A
Deriving an Avoidance Rate for Swans Suitable for Onshore Wind Farm Collision Risk Modelling Whitfield, D., Urquhart, B. February 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Ecological Baseline Studies for the Hatchet Ridge Wind Energy Project, Shasta County, California Young, D. Jr., et al. August 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Diablo Winds Wildlife Monitoring Progress Report, March 2005 - February 2006 Western Ecosystems Technology Inc (WEST) April 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Annual Report for the Maple Ridge Wind Power Project Post-construction Bird and Bat Fatality Study - 2006 Jain, A., et al. June 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Repowering Smøla Wind-Power Plant: An Assessment of Avian Conflicts Dahl, E., et al. June 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors
Impacts of climate change on wind energy power – Four wind farms in Spain Solaun, K., Emilio, C. January 2020 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Socio-economics, Climate Change
50 CFR Part 17: Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Status for Gunnison Sage-Grouse; Proposed Rule Gelat, P. January 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
2006 Rare Bird Survey at the Proposed Clayton Wind Project in Clayton, New York Stantec Consulting September 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
2010 Initial Bird Assessment of the Dennis Water District Wind Turbine Project Site Podolsky, R. October 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Passerines, Seabirds
Accounting for False-Positive Acoustic Detections of Bats Using Occupancy Models Clement, M., et al. October 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
ACME: A Partially Periodic Estimator of Avian & Chiropteran Mortality at Wind Turbines Wolpert, R. July 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Acoustic Noise Associated with the MOD-1 Wind Turbine: Its Source, Impact, and Control Kelley, N., et al. February 1985 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise N/A
Action on Multiple Fronts, Illegal Poisoning and Wind Farm Planning, is Required to Reverse the Decline of the Egyptian Vulture in Southern Spain Sanz-Aguilar, A., et al. July 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
Activity of Tree Bats at Anthropogenic Tall Structures: Implications for Mortality of Bats at Wind Turbines Jameson, J., Willis, C. November 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Addendum to Final: Seawest/KENETECH Windfarm Development Comparison, Carbon County, Wyoming TRC Mariah Associates November 1997 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Addendum to the Phase I Avian Risk Assessment for the Flat Rock Wind Power Project, Lewis County, New York: Phase One and Phase Two Kerlinger, P. March 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Altamont Avian Plan: Status Report to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service By the Consortium of Altamont Owners Richard Curry Associates December 1997 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
Analysis of Potential Wildlife/Wind Plant Interactions Bighorn Site, Klickitat County, Washington Johnson, G., Erickson, W. August 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Annual Report for the Maple Ridge Wind Power Project Post-Construction Bird and Bat Fatality Study - 2008 Jain, A., et al. May 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Shorebirds
Another Blown in the Wind: Bats and the Licensing of Wind Farms in Brazil Valença, R., Bernard, E. October 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Ashton Ridge Golf Course Wind Farm Project Environmental Screening Report Environmental Business Consultants March 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A N/A
Assessing Bat and Bird Fatality Risk at Wind Farm Sites using Acoustic Detectors Heist, K. August 2014 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Assessing Impacts to Birds from the Buffalo Ridge, Minnesota Windplant Development Erickson, W., et al. June 1997 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Waterfowl
Assessing Significance of Impacts from Onshore Windfarms on Birds Outwith Designated Areas Scottish Natural Heritage July 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Assessment And Prediction Of Bird And Bat Mortality At Wind Energy Facilities In The Southeastern United States Nicholson, C., et al. January 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds, Raptors
Assessment of Avian Use and Mortality Related to Wind Turbine Operations, Altamont Pass, Alameda and Contra Costa Counties, California, September 1988 through August 1989, Final Report Howell, J., Didonato, J. November 1991 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Assessment of Electromagnetic Interference Effects of the Solano Windfarm: Final Report Sengupta, D., Ferris, J., Senior, T. November 1981 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Socio-economics, Navigation
An Assessment of Potential Direct and Indirect Impacts to Black Bear at the Proposed Deerfield Wind Farm Based Upon a Literature Review Parsons, J. May 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Terrestrial Mammals
Assessment of the Environmental Impacts of a Wind Farm in Central Greece during its Life Cycle Abeliotis, K., Pactiti, D. January 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Socio-economics, Life Cycle Assessment
Auditory Recognition of Familiar and Unfamiliar Subjects with Wind Turbine Noise Maffei, L., et al. January 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise Socio-economics
Automated Systems for Monitoring Avian Interactions with Utility Structures and Evaluating the Effectiveness of Mitigative Measures Carlton, R., Harness, R. February 2001 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
Avian and Bat Mortality Associated with the Vansycle Wind Project, Umatilla County, Oregon 1999 Study Year Erickson, W., et al. February 2000 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Passerines, Raptors
Avian and Bat Mortality During the First Year of Operation at the Klondike Phase I Wind Project, Sherman County, Oregon Johnson, G., et al. March 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Avian and Bat Protection Plan: Iberdrola Renewables Iberdrola Renewables October 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds, Raptors
Avian and Bat Risk Assessment for the Montezuma II Wind Project, Solano County, California ICF International November 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Avian and Bat Studies for the Proposed Dairy Hills Wind Project, Wyoming County, New York Young, D. Jr., et al. October 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds, Raptors
Avian and Sensitive Species Baseline Study Final Report: Eurus Combine Hills Turbine Ranch Umatilla County, Oregon Young, D. Jr., et al. March 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
Avian Bat Mortality Associated with the Initial Phase of the Foote Creek Rim Windpower Project, Carbon County, Wyoming Young, D. Jr., et al. January 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
Avian Collision and Electrocution Risk Reduction Adaptive Management Plan for the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area Western Ecosystems Technology Inc (WEST) August 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Avian Monitoring and Risk Assessment at the San Gorgonio Wind Resource Area Anderson, R., et al. August 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Seabirds
Avian Monitoring Studies at the Buffalo Ridge, Minnesota Wind Resource Area: Results of a 4-Year Study Johnson, G., et al. September 2000 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Raptors
Avian Monitoring Study and Risk Assessment for the Shiloh Wind Power Project Solano County, California Kerlinger, P., et al. April 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
Avian Mortality at Man-Made Structures: An Annotated Bibliography Avery, M., Springer, P., Dailey, N. July 1978 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A N/A
Avian use of proposed KENETECH and CARES wind farm sites in Klickitat County, Washington: Technical report Jones & Stokes Associates January 1995 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors, Waterfowl
Avian/Wind Statistical Peer Review Project Surles, T., Vine, E. December 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Baseline Avian Studies for the Proposed Hopkins Ridge Wind Project, Columbia County, Washington: Final Report Young, D. Jr., et al. April 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
Baseline Avian Studies Mount Storm Wind Power Project, Grant County, West Virginia Young, D. Jr., et al. April 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Passerines, Shorebirds
Baseline Ecological Studies for the Klondike Wind Project, Sherman County, Oregon Johnson, G., et al. May 2002 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds, Raptors
Bat Acoustic Studies for the Georgia Mountain Community Wind Project Chittenden County, Vermont Gruver, J. February 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Bat Deaths and Wind Turbines - A Review of Current Knowledge, and of the Information Available in the Database for Germany Durr, T., Bach, L. January 2004 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Bat Fatalities at Wind Turbines: Investigating the Causes and Consequences Cryan, P. October 2015 Website Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Final progress report of a 12 month pre - construction bat monitoring study for the Proposed Waaihoek Wind Energy Facility near Utrecht, KwaZulu-Natal Kruger, C. August 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Bat Species Composition and Activity at the Proposed Glen Dhu Wind Development Site, Pictou County, Nova Scotia Broders, H., Henderson, L. November 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Behavior of the Hawaiian Hoary Bat (Lasiurus cinereus semotus) at Wind Turbines and its Distribution Across the North Ko'olau Mountains, O'ahu Gorresen, P., et al. May 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Biglow Canyon Wind Farm: Habitat Mitigation Plan Portland General Electric Company, Oregon Department of Energy May 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A N/A
Biglow Canyon Wind Farm: Wildlife Monitoring and Mitigation Plan Portland General Electric Company, Oregon Department of Energy May 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Bats, Birds, Raptors
Biological Assessment for the Federally Endangered Indiana Bat (Myotis sodalis) and Virginia Big-eared Bat (Corynorhinus townsendii virginianus): NedPower Mount Storm Wind Project, Grant County, West Virginia Johnson, G., Strickland, M. October 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Biological Effects of Repowering a Portion of the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area, California: The Diablo Winds Energy Project Smallwood, K. July 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
Biological Study Plan East Ridge Wind Energy Project Gerhardt, R., et al. September 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
Biological Study Report West Ridge Wind Energy Project Gerhardt, R., Gritski, R., Luginbuhl, J. November 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
Bird and Bat Interactions With Wind Turbines Castle River Wind Farm, Alberta, 2001-2002 Brown, W., Hamilton, B. July 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Bird and Bat Migration over Appalachian Ridges Progress Report, August 2006 Dawson, D., et al. August 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Bird and Bat Monitoring at the McBride Lake Wind Farm, Alberta 2003-2004 Brown, W., Hamilton, B. September 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Bird and Bat Species and Risks to Diurnal Migrants on the Clipper Windpower Criterion Project, Backbone Mountain, Garrett County, Maryland Gates, J., et al. June 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Bird Flight Characteristics Near Wind Turbines in Minnesota Osborn, R., et al. January 1998 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Passerines, Waterfowl
Bird Monitoring at Toronto's Exhibition Place Wind Turbine James, R., Coady, G. August 2004 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Bird Mortality at Rotor Swept Area Equivalents, Altamont Pass and Montezuma Hills, California Howell, J. January 1997 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Bird Movements and Collision Mortality at a Large Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine Byrne, S. January 1983 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Waterfowl
Bird Sensitivity Map to Provide Locational Guidance for Onshore Wind Farms in Scotland Bright, J., et al. June 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Birds and Bats: Potential Impacts and Survey Techniques Global Energy Concepts October 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Black Bear Corridor Crossings in the Vicinity of the Searsburg Wind Turbines as Investigated in 1995 Wallin, J. January 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Terrestrial Mammals
Blown in the Wind: Bats and Wind Farms in Brazil Bernard, E., et al. December 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Breeding Bird Survey for the Flat Rock Wind Power Project, Lewis County, New York, Fall 2004 Kerlinger, P., Dowdell, J. September 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Breeding Bird Survey for the Searsburg/Readsboro Expansion Wind Project, Bennington County, Vermont Kerlinger, P., Dowdell, J. August 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Passerines
California Guidelines for Reducing Impacts to Birds and Bats from Wind Energy Development Anderson, R., et al. September 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats

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