Knowledge Base

The Knowledge Base provides access to information about the environmental effects of marine and wind energy, supporting OES-Environmental and WREN initiatives. Relevant documents and OES-Environmental metadata forms are compiled into a user-friendly table with advanced filtering. Filters may be selected on the right, or keywords entered in the Search Text box. Content may also be sorted alphabetically by clicking on column headers. More entries will load as you scroll down.


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Titlesort ascending Author* Date** Type of Content Technology Types Stressors Receptors
The Effects of Wind Power on Marine Life - A Synthesis Bergström, L., et al. October 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Fish, Marine Mammals
The Effects of Wind Power on Human Interests - A Synthesis Henningsson, M., et al. January 2013 Report Wind Energy general N/A Socio-economics, Aesthetics, Recreation, Stakeholder Engagement
The Effects of Wind Power on Birds and Bats: An Updated Synthesis Report Rydell, J., et al. December 2017 Report Wind Energy general N/A Bats, Birds
The effects of temporary exclusion of activity due to wind farm construction on a lobster (Homarus gammarus) fishery suggests a potential management approach Roach, M., et al. February 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Fish, Socio-economics
The Effects of Sex, Energy, and Environmental Conditions on the Movement Ecology of Migratory Bats Jonassan, K. March 2017 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
The Effects of Landscape Modifications on the Long-Term Persistence of Animal Populations Nabe-Nielsen, J., et al. January 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Nearfield Habitat
The Effects of Human-Generated Sound on Fish Popper, A., Hastings, M. January 2009 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
The Effects Of Anthropogenic Sources Of Sound On Fishes Popper, A., Hastings, M. January 2009 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
The Effects of Anthropogenic Sound on Marine Mammals Boyd, I., et al. June 2008 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
The Effects of Aero-Generators on Moorland Bird Populations in the Orkney Islands, Scotland Meek, E., et al. January 1993 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds
The Effects of a Wind Farm on Birds in a Migration Point: The Strait of Gibraltar de Lucas, M., Janss, G., Ferrer, M. February 2004 Journal Article Wind Energy general Static Device Birds, Passerines
The Effects of a Large-Scale Wind Farm on Breeding Season Survival of Female Mallards and Blue-Winged Teal in the Prairie Pothole Region Gue, C., et al. August 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
The Effect of Wind Power on Birds and Bats - A Synthesis Rydell, J., et al. August 2012 Report Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
The Effect of Avoidance Rates on Bird Mortality Predictions Made by Wind Turbine Collision Risk Models Chamberlain, D., et al. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors, Seabirds, Waterfowl
The Effect of a Large Danish Offshore Wind Farm on Harbor and Gray Seal Haul-Out Behavior Edrén, S., et al. July 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
The Effect of a Giant Wind Farm on Precipitation in a Regional Climate Model Fiedler, B., Bukovsky, M. January 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Farfield Environment
The economics of visual disamenity reductions of offshore wind farms—Review and suggestions from an emerging field Ladenburg, J., Lutzeyer, S. December 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Aesthetics
The Ecology of Benthopelagic Fishes at Offshore Wind Farms: A Synthesis of 4 Years of Research Reubens, J., Degraer, S., Vincx, M. January 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Ecosystem, Fish
The Ecology of Benthopelagic Fish at Offshore Wind Farms - Towards an Integrated Management Approach Reubens, J. August 2013 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Fish
The Eagle Owl (Bubo bubo) on Sleneset and Windpower Jacobsen, K., Rov, N. January 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
The Distribution of Breeding Birds around Upland Wind Farms Pearce-Higgins, J., et al. September 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Shorebirds
The Development of Ocean Test Beds for Ocean Technology Adaptation and Integration into the Emerging U.S. Offshore Wind Energy Industry Kirincich, A., et al. May 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
The Development of Marine Based Wind Energy Generation and Inshore Fisheries in UK Waters: Are They Compatible? Rodmell, D., Johnson, M. January 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Fish, Socio-economics
The Development of Benthic Communities on Hard Substrates within OWEZ, the First Dutch Offshore Wind Farm Noordzee Wind September 2012 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
The Development and Use of Individuals-Based Models to Predict the Effects of Habitat Loss and Disturbance on Waders and Waterfowl West, A., Caldow, R. March 2006 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Shorebirds, Waterfowl, Nearfield Habitat
The Development and Use of a Method to Fill Time Gaps in Migration Counts Mateos-Rodriguez, M., Thomas, L., Arroyo, G. February 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds
The determinants of wind energy growth in the United States: Drivers and barriers to state-level development Schumacher, K., Yang, Z. December 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
The Current State of Offshore Wind Energy Technology Development Sun, X., Huang, D., Wu, G. May 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
The Cumulative Effect on Sound Levels from Multiple Underwater Anthropogenic Sound Sources in Shallow Coastal Waters Pine, M., Jeffs, A., Radford, C. February 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
The Costs of Chronic Noise Exposure for Terrestrial Organisms Barber, J., Crooks, K., Fristrup, K. March 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general Noise N/A
The contingent valuation study of the wind farm Búrfellslundur - Willingness to pay for preservation Einarsdóttir, S., Cook, D., Davíðsdóttir, B. February 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
The consequences of seabird habitat loss from offshore wind turbines: a research plan for five selected species van Kooten, T., Soudijn, F., Leopold, M. September 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Seabirds, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
The Co-Location of Offshore Windfarms and Decapod Fisheries in the UK: Constraints and Opportunities Hooper, T., Austen, M. January 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates
The climate and air-quality benefits of wind and solar power in the United States Millstein, D., et al. September 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Socio-economics, Climate Change
The Challenges of Addressing Wildlife Impacts When Repowering Wind Energy Projects Smallwood, K. February 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Birds
The Catchment Area of Wind Farms for European Bats: A Plea for International Regulations Voigt, C., et al. September 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
The Case for Offshore Wind Farms, Artificial Reefs and Sustainable Tourism in the French Mediterranean Westerberg, V., Jacobsen, J., Lifran, R. February 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Socio-economics
The British Ornithologists' Union Annual Spring Conference 2005 University of Leicester, 1-3 April 2005 Lanchbery, J., et al. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Birds
The Birds of Blyth Harbour Still, D., et al. June 1994 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Shorebirds
The bird migration monitoring in the AES Geo Power Wind Park territory, Kaliakra region in autumn 2008 Zehtindjiev, P. January 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Passerines
The BIO-acoustic feature extraction and classification of bat echolocation calls Mirzaei, G., et al. May 2012 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
The Bats and Wind Energy Cooperative: Synthesis of Activities (2004-2011), Key Findings and Next Steps Arnett, E., Hein, C., Patterson, R. October 2011 Report Wind Energy general N/A Bats
The Avoidance Rates of Collision Between Birds and Offshore Turbines Cook, A., et al. December 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds
The Avian Benefits of Wind Energy: A 2009 Update Sovacool, B. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
The avian and wildlife costs of fossil fuels and nuclear power Sovacool, B. December 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
The Aversive Effect of Electromagnetic Radiation on Foraging Bats - A Possible Means of Discouraging Bats from Approaching Wind Turbines Nicholls, B., Racey, P. July 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general EMF Bats
The auditory attributes of Golden Eagles: Do Golden (Aquila chrysaetos) and Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) share the same auditory space? Walsh, E., et al. October 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Birds
The association of windmills with conservation of pollinating insects and wild plants in homogeneous farmland of western Poland Pustkowiak, S., et al. March 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device N/A
The Airspace is Habitat Diehl, R. July 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Nearfield Habitat
The Adhesion of Corrosion Protection Coating Systems for Offshore Wind Power Constructions after Three Years under Offshore Exposure Momber, A., Plagemann, P., Stenzel, V. March 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals N/A
The Added Value of 'Small-Scale' Monitoring of the Soft-Sediment Endobenthos around Offshore Wind Farms in the Belgian Part of the North Sea Coates, D., Vanaverbeke, M., Magda, V. September 2012 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Thanet Extension Offshore Wind Farm Environmental Impact Assessment Report to Inform Scoping Royal Haskoning December 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Texturizing Wind Turbine Towers to Reduce Bat Mortality Bennett, V., Hale, A. July 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Tethys: Developing a Commons for Understanding Environmental Effects of Marine Renewable Energy Copping, A., et al. December 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Testing the Performances of Automated Identification of Bat Echolocation Calls: A Request for Prudence Rydell, J., et al. July 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Bats
Testing the Effectiveness of an Experimental Acoustic Bat Deterrent at the Maple Ridge Wind Farm Horn, J., et al. June 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Testing for errors in estimating bird mortality rates at wind farms and power lines Farfan, M., et al. September 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Tern Observations Near Monomoy Island ESS Group December 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds
Temporal Variation in Environmental Conditions and the Structure of Fish Assemblages around an Offshore Oil Platform in the North Sea Fujii, T. July 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Fish
Temporal Patterns in Capture Rate and Sex Ratio of Forest Bats in Arkansas Perry, R., Carter, S., Thill, R. October 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Bats
Telemetry for migratory bats - a feasibility study Lagerveld, S., et al. February 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Bats
Telemetric Monitoring of Montagu’s Harrier in Schleswig-Holstein Grajetzky, B., Nehls, G. April 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Raptors
Technologies and their Influence on Future UK Marine Resource Development and Management Side, J., Jowitt, P. July 2002 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Technical Manual for Evaluating Wildlife Impacts of Wind Turbines Requiring Coastal Permits NJ Department of Environmental Protection September 2010 Report Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles
Taming Hurricanes with Arrays of Offshore Wind Turbines Jacobson, M., Archer, C., Kempton, W. March 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Taiwanese white dolphins and offshore wind farms Tougaard, J., Mikaelsen, M. December 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Tafila Region Wind Power Projects: Cumulative Effects Assessment International Finance Corporation January 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Farfield Environment
TADS Investigations of Avian Collision Risk at Nysted Offshore Wind Farm Desholm, M. January 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Passerines, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Sørfjord Windpark, Tysfjord Municipality: Impact Assessment, Evaluation of Natural Environment Jacobsen, K., Arnesen, G., Johnsen, T. April 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Synthesis of Wind Energy Development and Potential Impacts on Wildlife in the Pacific Northwest, Oregon and Washington Mockrin, M., Gravenmier, R. July 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Nearfield Habitat
Synthesis and Comparison of Baseline Avian and Bat Use, Raptor Nesting and Mortality Information from Proposed and Existing Wind Developments Erickson, W., et al. December 2002 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds, Raptors, Waterfowl
Synopsis des internationalen Kenntnisstandes zum Einfluss der Windenergie auf Fledermäuse und Vögel und Spezifizierung für die Schweiz Muller, J., et al. November 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Symposium Sound Solutions Report The North Sea Foundation February 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Symbiotic Offshore Energy Harvesting and Storage Systems Slocum, A. September 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds
Swimming Speed of a Harbor Porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) During Playbacks of Offshore Pile Driving Sounds Kastelein, R., Van de Voorde, S., Jennings, N. January 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Swimming Behavior of Roach (Rutilus rutilus) and Three-spined Stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) in Response to Wind Power Noise and Single-tone Frequencies Andersson, M., et al. December 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Sveti Nikola Wind Farm Bat Monitoring Report 2011 RSK Environment July 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Sveti Nikola Wind Farm 2010 Bat Surveys Report RSK Environment July 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Sustainably reconciling offshore renewable energy with Natura 2000 sites: An interim adaptive management framework Le Lièvre, C. June 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general N/A Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Sustainable Siting Process in Large Wind Farms Case Study in Crete Tsoutsos, T., et al. March 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Socio-economics
Sustainable Seas Ko ngā moana whakauka: National Science Challenge Hall, J., et al. July 2015 Presentation Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Sustainable renewable energy planning and wind farming optimization from a biodiversity perspective Dhunny, A., et al. October 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Socio-economics, Climate Change, Marine Spatial Planning
Sustainable Development for Welsh Seas: Our Approach to Marine Planning in Wales Welsh Assembly Government February 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Sustainable Decommissioning of an Offshore Wind Farm Topham, E., McMillan, D. March 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
Sustainability and tourism: the effect of the United States’ first offshore wind farm on the vacation rental market Carr-Harris, A., Lang, C. August 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Aesthetics
Surveys of Hard Bottom Communities on Foundations in Nysted Offshore Wind Farm and Schönheiders Pulle in 2004 Birklund, J. May 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates
Survey of Possible Operational Impacts on Bats by Wind Facilities in Southern Germany Brinkmann, R., Schauer-Weisshahn, H. January 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Survey of Beached Birds and Mammals: Sao Jãcinto - Torreira (Portugal) - March 2014 to March 2015 van Nus, T., Moreira, P. May 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Marine Mammals
Survey of Bat Mortalities at a Wind-Energy Facility in North Dakota Bicknell, L., Gilliam, E. June 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Survey Methods for Use in Assessment the Impacts of Onshore Wind Farms on Bird Communities Scottish Natural Heritage November 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Surface Texture Discrimination by Bats: Implications for Reducing Bat Mortality at Wind Turbines Bienz, C. May 2016 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Bats
Surface Texture Differentiation Using Synthetic Bat Echolocation Calls: Implications for Reducing Bat Fatalities at Wind Turbines Yuen, B. December 2015 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Bats
Supplement to the Phase I Avian Risk Assessment and Breeding Bird Study for the Deerfield Wind Project, Bennington County, Vermont Kerlinger, P. January 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Passerines
Summer-Fall 2006 Bat Detector Survey and Two-year Summary at the Proposed Deerfield Wind Project in Searsburg and Readsboro, Vermont Stantec Consulting January 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Summer Distribution of Semi-Domesticated Reindeer Relative to a New Wind-Power Plant Colman, J., et al. December 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device N/A
Summer 2006 Indiana Bat Surveys at the Proposed Clayton Wind Project in Clayton, New York Stantec Consulting November 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Summer 2005 Breeding Birds Surveys at the Proposed Top Notch Wind Project in Fairfield and Norway, New York Stantec Consulting December 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Passerines, Raptors
Summary on Seal Monitoring 1999-2005 around Nysted and Horns Rev Offshore Wind Farms Teilmann, J., et al. November 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise, Static Device Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Summary on Harbour Porpoise Monitoring 1999-2006 around Nysted and Horns Rev Offshore Wind Farms Teilmann, J., Tougaard, J., Carstensen, J. November 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise, Static Device Marine Mammals
Summary of Wind Turbine Impacts on Bats - Assessment of a Conflict Bach, L., Rahmel, U. January 2004 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Bats

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