Knowledge Base

The Knowledge Base provides access to information about the environmental effects of marine and wind energy, supporting OES-Environmental and WREN initiatives. Relevant documents and OES-Environmental metadata forms are compiled into a user-friendly table with advanced filtering. Filters may be selected on the right, or keywords entered in the Search Text box. Content may also be sorted alphabetically by clicking on column headers. More entries will load as you scroll down.


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Titlesort ascending Author* Date** Type of Content Technology Types Stressors Receptors
Phase I Bat Risk Assessment: Mount Wachusett Community College Wind Energy Project Worcester County, Massachusetts Reynolds, D., Veilleux, J. December 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Phase I Avian Risk Assessment: Herkimer Wind Farm Herkimer County, New York Kerlinger, P., Guarnaccia, J. April 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Phase I Avian Risk Assessment: Clayton Wind Farm Jefferson County, New York Kerlinger, P., Guarnaccia, J. April 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Phase I Avian Risk Assessment for the Windmar Project, Guyanilla, Puerto Rico Kerlinger, P. March 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Phase I Avian Risk Assessment for the Flat Rock Wind Power Project, Lewis County, New York Kerlinger, P. February 2002 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Phase 2 - Bay of Fundy, Nova Scotia including the Outer Bay of Fundy Tidal Energy Project Site - Mi’kmaq Ecological Knowledge Study Moore, D., Hodder, C. May 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general N/A Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
Phase 1 - Bay of Fundy, Nova Scotia including the Fundy Tidal Energy Demonstration Project Site - Mi’kmaq Ecological Knowledge Study Moore, D., Hodder, G. August 2009 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general N/A Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
Permitting and Leasing for Marine Offshore Wind Energy Projects Thaler, J. January 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Performance Test and Verification of an Off the Shelf Automated Avian Radar Tracking System May, R., et al. August 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Birds
Performance and Integrity of Protective Coating Systems for Offshore Wind Power Structures after Three Years Under Offshore Site Conditions Momber, A., Plagemann, P., Stenzel, V. February 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals N/A
Perceptions of fishers and developers on the co-location of offshore wind farms and decapod fisheries in the UK Hooper, T., Ashley, M., Austen, M. November 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Socio-economics, Fishing
Perceptions of Commercial and Recreational Fishers on the Potential Ecological Impacts of the Block Island Wind Farm (US) ten Brink, T., Dalton, T. November 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Fishing
Perception of Low-Frequency Acoustic Signals by a Harbour Porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) in the Presence of Simulated Offshore Wind Turbine Noise Lucke, K., et al. January 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Perceived Concerns and Possible Management Strategies for Governing 'Wind-Farm Mariculture Integration' Michler-Cieluch, T., Krause, G. November 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Socio-economics
Pennsylvania Game Commission Wind Energy Voluntary Cooperation Agreement: Amendment I Pennsylvania Game Commission July 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Socio-economics
Pelagic effects of offshore wind farm foundations in the stratified North Sea Floeter, J., et al. August 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Farfield Environment, Fish
Peatland Vulnerability to Energy-Related Developments from Climate Change Policy in Ireland: The Case of Wind Farms Renou-Wilson, F., Farrell, C. May 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Patterns of Pre-Construction Bat Activity Determined Using Acoustic Monitoring at a Proposed Wind Facility in South-Central Wisconsin Redell, D., et al. August 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Patterns of Pre-Construction Bat Activity at the Proposed Hoosac Wind Energy Project, Massachusetts, 2006-2007 Hein, C., et al. May 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Patterns of Pre-Construction Bat Activity at a Proposed Wind Facility in South-Central Pennsylvania Arnett, E., Hayes, J., Huso, M. August 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Patterns of Pre-Construction Bat Activity at a Proposed Wind Facility in Northwest Massachusetts: 2006 Annual Report Arnett, E., et al. September 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Bats
Patterns of Pre-Construction Bat Acoustic Activity at the Proposed Resolute Wind Energy Project, Wyoming, 2009-2010 Hein, C., et al. October 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Patterns of migrating soaring migrants indicate attraction to marine wind farms Skov, H., et al. December 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Raptors
Patterns of Bat Fatality at the Casselman Wind Project in South-Central Pennsylvania: 2008 Annual Report Arnett, E., et al. June 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Patterns of Bat Fatalities at Wind Energy Facilities in North America Arnett, E., et al. January 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Patterns of Avian and Bat Mortality at a Utility-Scaled Wind Farm on the Southern High Plains Miller, A. August 2008 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Patterns of activity and fatality of migratory bats at a wind energy facility in Alberta, Canada Baerwald, E., Barclay, R. July 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Patterns of Acoustical Activity of Bats Prior to and Following White-Nose Syndrome Occurrence Ford, W., et al. January 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Pattern of bat fatalities at wind turbines in Europe: comparing north and south Dubourg-Savage, M., et al. May 2011 Presentation Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Pathways of Effects for Offshore Renewable Energy in Canada Isaacman, L., Daborn, G. December 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Lighting, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Sea Turtles, Socio-economics
Past, present and future environmental footprint of the Danish wind turbine fleet with LCA_WIND_DK, an online interactive platform Besseau, R., et al. July 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment, Life Cycle Assessment
Particle Motion Measured at an Operational Wind Turbine in Relation to Hearing Sensitivity in Fish Sigray, P., Andersson, M. July 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Partial Re-Assessment of an Adaptive management Plan for the APWRA: Accounting for Turbine Size Smallwood, S., Spiegel, L. March 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Overview of the U.S. Department of Energy/National Renewable Energy Laboratory Avian Research Program Sinclair, K., Morrison, M. June 1997 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Overview of ocean power technology Wilberforce, T., et al. May 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Overview of Issues Related to Bats and Wind Energy Cryan, P. February 2008 Presentation Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Overview of Issues Faced by Wind Energy Walker, R., Swift, A. May 2015 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Overlap Between Wind Power Plants and Griffon Vultures Gyps fulvus in Spain Telleria, J. May 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Raptors, Shorebirds
Overcoming Biological Data Deficiencies in Environmental Permitting for Offshore Wind Energy Ryan, K. May 2018 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Over the Sea and Far Away? A Consideration of the Planning, Politics and Public Perception of Offshore Wind Farms Haggett, C. August 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Legal and Policy, Marine Spatial Planning
Out of Sight of Wind Turbine-Reindeer Response to Wind Farms in Operation Skarin, A., Sandström, P, Alam, M. October 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Terrestrial Mammals
Other Environmental Issues of Wind Energy Development: Aesthetics, Cultural Resources, Land Use Compatibility, Water Resources, and Site Restoration Walker, R., Swift, A. May 2015 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Aesthetics
OSPAR request to advise on the current state and knowledge of studies into the deployment and environmental impacts of wet renewable technologies and marine energy storage systems N/A April 2019 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal, Noise Birds, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics, Aesthetics
Ornithology Technical Report for the proposed Dogger Bank Creyke Beck Offshore Wind Farm projects Burton, N., et al. March 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds
Ormonde Project Scoping Study for Coastal and Seabed Processes Coates, T., Skipper, C., Cranmer, G. November 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal, Static Device Nearfield Habitat
Ormonde Offshore Wind Farm 2010 Construction Environmental Monitoring Report Saunders, S. January 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal, Noise Birds, Waterfowl, Marine Mammals
ORJIP Bird Collision and Avoidance Study Skov, H., et al. April 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds
Origins and Migratory Patterns of Bats Killed by Wind Turbines in Southern Alberta: Evidence from Stable Isotopes Baerwald, E., Patterson, W., Barclay, R. September 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Oregon's High Desert and Wind Energy: Opportunities and Strategies for Responsible Development Oregon Natural Desert Association May 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Oregon Columbia Plateau Ecoregion Wind Energy: Siting and Permitting Guidelines Iberdrola Renewables, et al. September 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device N/A
ORECCA European Offshore Renewable Energy Roadmap Jeffrey, H., Sedgwick, J. September 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Options and Opportunities for Marine Fisheries Mitigation Associated with Windfarms Blyth-Skyrme, R. January 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Fish, Socio-economics
Optimizing Wind Power Generation while Minimizing Wildlife Impacts in an Urban Area Bohrer, G., et al. February 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Optimizing Conservation Strategies for Mexican Free-Tailed Bats: A Population Viability and Ecosystem Services Approach Wiederholt, R., et al. September 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Ecosystem
Opposition "overblown"? Community response to wind energy siting in the Western United States Giordono, L., et al. September 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Socio-economics
Opportunistically collected data reveal habitat selection by migrating Whooping Cranes in the US Northern Plains Niemuth, N., et al. May 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
Opening address to Wind, Fire and Water: Renewable Energy and Birds Morley, E. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A N/A
Open Ocean Aquaculture and Offshore Wind Farms. A feasibility study on the multifunctional use of offshore wind farms and offshore mariculture in the North Sea area Buck, B. January 2002 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Fishing
Onshore Environmental Impact Statement for Lincs, Docking Shoal, and Race Bank OSW Farms Centrica Energy June 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Nearfield Habitat
Onshore and Offshore Wind Energy: An Introduction Lynn, P. December 2011 Book Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Onset of Barotrauma Injuries Related to Number of Pile Driving Strike Exposures in Hybrid Striped Bass Casper, B., et al. June 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
On-Shore Bird and Bat Pre- and Post-Construction Monitoring Protocol for Commercial Wind Energy Facilities in Ohio: An Addendum to the Ohio Department of Natural Resources Voluntary Cooperative Agreement Ohio Department of Natural Resources May 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
On the Prediction of Pile Driving Induced Underwater Sound Pressure Levels Over Long Ranges Lippert, T., et al. July 2013 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Farfield Environment
On the Potential Impact of Lake Erie Wind Farms on Water Temperatures and Mixed‐Layer Depths: Some Preliminary 1‐D Modeling Using COHERENS Afsharian, S., Taylor, P. February 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Farfield Environment
On the Multi-Scale Interactions Between an Offshore-Wind-Turbine Wake and the Ocean-Sediment Dynamics in an Idealized Framework - A Numerical Investigation Nagel, T., et al. January 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Farfield Environment
On The Influence Of Large Wind Farms On The Upper Ocean Circulation Broström, G. November 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Farfield Environment
On the Effect of Structure-Induced Resistance and Mixing on Inflows into the Baltic Sea: A Numerical Model Study Rennau, H., Schimmels, S., Burchard, H. February 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Nearfield Habitat
On the Effect of Offshore Wind Farms on the Atmosphere and Ocean Dynamics Ludewig, E. January 2015 Book Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Farfield Environment
On Certain Problems Concerning Environmental Impact Assessment of Wind Turbines in Scope of Acoustic Effects Wszolek, T., et al. January 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise Bats, Birds, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
On a Hybrid Model for the Prediction of Pile Driving Noise from Offshore Wind Farms Lippert, T., von Estorff, O. April 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Olivebranches and Idiot's Guides: Frameworks for Community Engagement in Australian Wind Farm Development Howard, T. March 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Socio-economics
Oil and gas platforms as artificial substrates for epibenthic North Sea fauna: Effects of location and depth Schutter, M., et al. November 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Fish, Invertebrates
Oil and gas infrastructure decommissioning in marine protected areas: System complexity, analysis and challenges Burdon, D., et al. October 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Offshore Windmills and the Effects of Electromagnetic Fields on Fish Öhman, M., Sigray, P., Westerberg, H. December 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF Fish
Offshore Windmill Farms: Threats to or Possibilities for the Marine Environment Petersen, J., Malm, T. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Nearfield Habitat
Offshore Windfarms Severinsen, G. January 2018 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Offshore wind zoning in China: Method and experience Ou, L., et al. January 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Offshore Wind Turbines: An Overview of the Effects on the Marine Environment Riefolo, L., et al. July 2016 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Offshore Wind Turbine Wakes Measured by Sodar Barthelmie, J., et al. April 2003 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Nearfield Habitat
Offshore Wind Turbine Visibility and Visual Impact Threshold Distances Sullivan, R., et al. March 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Aesthetics
Offshore Wind Turbine Foundations: Staying Afloat in Deepwaters Sunderasan, S. January 2015 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Offshore Wind Submarine Cable Spacing Guidance TÜV SÜD PMSS, Red Penguin Associates December 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Offshore Wind Power Reef Effects and Reef Fauna Roles Krone, R. May 2012 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Ecosystem
Offshore Wind Power Policy and Planning in Sweden Söderholm, P., Pettersson, M. February 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Offshore wind power development as affected by seascape values on the German North Sea coast Gee, K. April 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Aesthetics, Stakeholder Engagement
Offshore Wind Park Monitoring Programmes, Lessons Learned and Recommendations for the Future Lindeboom, H., et al. September 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Nearfield Habitat
Offshore Wind Market and Economic Analysis Navigant Consulting February 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Offshore Wind Farms: Their Impacts, and Potential Habitat Gains as Artificial Reefs, in Particular for Fish Wilson, J. September 2007 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Ecosystem, Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Offshore Wind Farms: Foundations and Influence on the Littoral Processes Esteban, M., et al. January 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Offshore Wind Farms, New Players in Marine Ecosystems Lindeboom, H. October 2012 Presentation Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Ecosystem
Offshore Wind Farms Measuring Instruction for Underwater Sound Monitoring Müller, A., Zerbs, C. October 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Offshore Wind Farms in the Western Great Lakes: An Interdisciplinary Analysis of their Potential Hingtgen, J. January 2003 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Offshore Wind Farms in the Southwestern Baltic Sea: A Model Study of Regional Impacts on Oxygen Conditions Janßen, H., et al. January 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Ecosystem
Offshore Wind Farms in the Belgian Part of the North Sea: State of the Art After Two Years of Environmental Monitoring Degraer, S., Brabant, R. January 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Ecosystem, Fish, Invertebrates, Marine Mammals
Offshore Wind Farms in the Belgian Part of the North Sea: Selected findings from the baseline and targeted monitoring Degraer, S., Brabant, R., Rumes, B. January 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Offshore Wind Farms in the Belgian Part of the North Sea: Heading for an Understanding of Environmental Impacts Degraer, S., Brabant, R., Rumes, B. January 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Offshore Wind Farms in the Belgian Part of the North Sea: Early Environmental Impact Assessment and Spatio-Temporal Variability Degraer, S., Brabant, R., Rumes, B. January 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Invertebrates, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Offshore wind farms in Southern Europe – Determining tourist preference and social acceptance Westerberg, V., Jacobsen, J., Lifran, R. November 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Aesthetics, Recreation
Offshore Wind Farms Development in Relation to Environmental Protected Areas Spiropoulou, I., Karamanis, D., Kehayias, G. February 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Offshore Wind Farms as Productive Sites or Ecological Traps for Gadoid Fishes? - Impact on Growth, Condition Index and Diet Composition Reubens, J., et al. September 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Fish

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