Knowledge Base

The Knowledge Base provides access to information about the environmental effects of marine and wind energy, supporting Annex IV and WREN initiatives. Relevant documents and Annex IV metadata forms are compiled into a user-friendly table with advanced filtering. Filters may be selected on the right, or keywords entered in the Search Text box. Content may also be sorted alphabetically by clicking on column headers. More entries will load as you scroll down.


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Titlesort descending Author* Date** Type of Content Technology Types Stressors Receptors
Bat Evaluation Monitoring Studies at the Fowler Ridge Wind Farm Benton County, Indiana: August 3 - October 14, 2015 Good, R., Iskali, G., Nasman, K. January 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Bat Evaluation Monitoring Studies at the Fowler Ridge Wind Farm Benton County, Indiana: August 4 - October 14, 2014 Good, R., Iskali, G., Adachi, K. January 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Bat fatalities at different wind facilities in Northwest Germany Bach, P., et al. February 2013 Presentation Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Bat fatalities at two wind farms in Tasmania, Australia: bat characteristics, and spatial and temporal patterns Hull, C., Cawthen, L. November 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Bat Fatalities at Wind Farms in North-Eastern Greece Georgiakakis, P., et al. December 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Bat Fatalities at Wind Farms in Northern Spain - Lessons to be Learned Camina, A. June 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Bats
Bat fatalities at wind farms in Taiwan Chou, C., et al. June 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Bat Fatalities at Wind Turbines: Investigating the Causes and Consequences Cryan, P. October 2015 Website Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Bat Fatality at a Wind Energy Facility in the Western Cape, South Africa Aronson, J., Thomas, A., Jordaan, S. April 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Bat Flight Analysis around Wind Turbines - A Feasibility Study Lagerveld, S., et al. March 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Bats
Bat flight height monitored from wind masts predicts mortality risk at wind farms Roemer, C., et al. November 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Bat Interactions With Wind Turbines at the Buffalo Ridge, Minnesota Wind Resource Area: An Assessment of Bat Activity, Species Composition, and Collision Mortality Johnson, G., et al. November 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Bat Migration Across the Southern North Sea and Possible Implications for Offshore Wind Farms Lagerveld, S., Platteeuw, M. March 2016 Presentation Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Bats
Bat Monitoring Studies at the Fowler Ridge Wind Energy Facility Benton County, Indiana: April 1 - October 31, 2011 Good, R., et al. January 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Bat Monitoring Studies at the Fowler Ridge Wind Energy Facility Benton County, Indiana: April 13 – October 15, 2010 Good, R., et al. January 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Bat Monitoring System for Wind Farms Correia, R., et al. September 2013 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Bat Mortalities at a Wind Energy Facility in North Dakota Bicknell, L., Gilliam, E. November 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Bat Mortality and Activity at a Northern Iowa Wind Resource Area Jain, A., et al. January 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Bat Mortality at a Wind Power Facility in Central Canada Jameson, J., Willis, C. November 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Bat Mortality at a Wind-Energy Facility in Southeastern Wisconsin Grodsky, S., et al. September 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Bat Mortality at Wind Turbines in Northwestern Europe Rydell, J., et al. July 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Bat mortality due to collision with wind turbines in Kutch District, Gujarat, India Kumar, S., Samsoor-Ali, A., Arun, P. September 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Bat Mortality Due to Wind Turbines in Canada Zimmerling, J., Francis, C. November 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Bat Species Composition and Activity at the Proposed Glen Dhu Wind Development Site, Pictou County, Nova Scotia Broders, H., Henderson, L. November 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Bat Surveys – Good Practice Guidelines (2nd edition): Surveying for Onshore Wind Turbines Hundt, L., et al. January 2012 Report Wind Energy general N/A Bats
Bat Surveys: Good Practice Guidelines Sowler, S., et al. January 2012 Book Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Bats and Bat Habitats: Guidelines for Wind Power Projects Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources July 2011 Report Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Bats and Offshore Wind Turbines Studied in Southern Scandinavia Ahlén, I., et al. July 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Bats and Onshore Wind Farms: Site-by-Site Assessment and Post-Construction Monitoring Protocols Catherine, C., Spray, S. June 2009 Magazine Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Bats and onshore wind turbines Natural England February 2009 Report Wind Energy general N/A Bats
Bats and Wind Energy - A Literature Synthesis and Annotated Bibliography Ellison, L. January 2012 Report Wind Energy general N/A Bats
Bats and Wind Energy Cooperative 3rd Science and All Committees Meeting: 2012 Workshop Proceedings Bats and Wind Energy Cooperative January 2012 Workshop Article Wind Energy general N/A Bats
Bats and Wind Energy Cooperative 4th Science and All Committees Meeting: Final 2015 Workshop Proceedings Bats and Wind Energy Cooperative January 2015 Workshop Article Wind Energy general N/A Bats
Bats and Wind Energy Cooperative 5th Science and All Committees Meeting: 2018 Workshop Proceedings Bats and Wind Energy Cooperative June 2018 Workshop Article Wind Energy general N/A Bats
Bats and Wind Energy Cooperative: 2008 Workshop Proceedings Energetics January 2008 Workshop Article Wind Energy general N/A Bats
Bats and Wind Energy: Impacts, Mitigation, and Tradeoffs Allison, T. November 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Bats and wind power -investigations required for risk assessment in Denmark and Sweden Ahlén, I., Baagøe, H. February 2013 Presentation Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Bats are not birds and other problems with Sovacool's (2009) analysis of animal fatalities due to electricity generation Willis, C., et al. April 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Bats Avoid Radar Installations: Could Electromagnetic Fields Deter Bats from Colliding with Wind Turbines? Racey, P., Nicholls, B. March 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, EMF Bats
Bats in a Mediterranean Mountainous Landscape: Does Wind Farm Repowering Induce Changes at Assemblage and Species Level? Ferri, V., Battisti, C., Soccini, C. June 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Bats in a tropical wind farm: species composition and importance of the spatial attributes of vegetation cover on bat fatalities Bolivar-Cime, B., et al. July 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Bats in Dutch Offshore Wind Farms in Autumn 2012 Lagerveld, S., et al. January 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Bats
Bats in the Anthropocene: Conservation of Bats in a Changing World Voigt, C., Kingston, T. January 2016 Book Wind Energy general N/A Bats
Bats Killed in Large Numbers at United States Wind Energy Facilities Hayes, M. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Bats May Eat Diurnal Flies that Rest on Wind Turbines Rydell, J., et al. May 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Bats
Bats probe the aerosphere during landscape-guided altitudinal flights Voigt, C., Roeleke, M., Bumrungsri, S. November 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Bats, Bugs, and Wind Turbines - Is There a Connection? Cochran, C. May 2013 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Bats
Battered by harsh winds - must bats pay the price for wind energy? Tuttle, M. October 2005 Magazine Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Beauty in motion: Expectations, attitudes, and values of wind energy development in the rural U.S Fergen, J., Jacquet, J. January 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Socio-economics, Aesthetics, Stakeholder Engagement
Behavior and Turbine Avoidance Rates of Eagles at Two Wind Farms in Tasmania, Australia Hull, C., Muir, S. March 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
Behavior of Bats at Wind Turbines Cryan, P., et al. October 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Behavior of Red-Tailed Hawks in a Wind Turbine Development Hoover, S., Morrison, M. January 2005 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors
Behavior of the Hawaiian Hoary Bat (Lasiurus cinereus semotus) at Wind Turbines and its Distribution Across the North Ko'olau Mountains, O'ahu Gorresen, P., et al. May 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Behavioral accommodation of nesting hawks to wind turbines Watson, J., Keren, I, Davies, R. June 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
Behavioral Reactions of Harbor Porpoise to Pile-Driving Noise Tougaard, J., et al. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Behavioral Responses of a Harbor Porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) to Playbacks of Broadband Pile Driving Sounds Kastelein, R., et al. December 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Behavioral Responses of Bats to Operating Wind Turbines Horn, J., Arnett, E., Kunz, T. March 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Bats
Behaviour of migrating birds exposed to X-band radar and a bright light beam Bruderer, B., Peter, D., Steuri, T. May 1999 Journal Article Wind Energy general EMF, Lighting Birds
Behaviour related flight speeds of Sandwich Terns and their implications for wind farm collision rate modelling and impact assessment Fijn, R., Gyimesi, A. July 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds
Behavioural and Environmental Correlates of Soaring-Bird Mortality at On-Shore Wind Turbines Barrios, L., Rodríguez, A. February 2004 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Behavioural Observations of White-Tailed Sea Eagles in the Vicinity of Wind Turbines Grunkorn, T., et al. April 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Raptors
Behavioural Reactions of Cod (Gadus morhua) and Plaice (Pleuronectes platessa) to Sound Resembling Offshore Wind Turbine Noise Mueller, C. December 2007 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Behavioural Reactions of Free-Ranging Porpoises and Seals to the Noise of a Simulated 2 MW Windpower Generator Koschinski, S., et al. December 2003 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Benthic and Fish Aggregation Inside an Offshore Wind Farm: Which Effects on the Trophic Web Functioning? Raoux, A., et al. January 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Ecosystem
Benthic biodiversity on old platforms, young wind farms, and rocky reefs Coolen, J., et al. July 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates
Benthic Communities at Horns Rev Before, During and After Construction of Horns Rev Offshore Wind Farm: Final Report Vattenfall May 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Benthic Communities on Hard Substrates of the Offshore Wind Farm Egmond aan Zee (OWEZ) Bouma, S., Lengkeek, W. February 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates
Benthic effects of offshore renewables: identification of knowledge gaps and urgently needed research Dannheim, J., et al. March 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general N/A Benthic Invertebrates
Benthic Monitoring and Sampling Design and Effort to Detect Spatial Changes: A Case Study using Data from Offshore Wind Farm Sites Franco, A., Quintino, V., Elliott, M. October 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates
Best Management Practices for Bats in New Mexico Balistreri, M. January 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Best Management Practices for siting, developing, operating, and monitoring renewable energy in the Intermountain West: A Conservationist's Guide Jones, A. March 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Raptors, Terrestrial Mammals
Best Practice Guidance for the Use of Remote Techniques for Observing Bird Behaviour in Relation to Offshore Wind Farms Desholm, M., Fox, A., Beasley, P. January 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds, Shorebirds
Biases in the Literature on Direct Wildlife Mortality from Energy Development Loss, S., Dorning, M., Diffendorfer, J. April 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general N/A N/A
Big Blue Wind Energy Project Avian and Bat Protection Plan Western Ecosystems Technology Inc (WEST) January 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Biglow Canyon Wind Farm: Habitat Mitigation Plan Portland General Electric Company, Oregon Department of Energy May 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A N/A
Biglow Canyon Wind Farm: Wildlife Monitoring and Mitigation Plan Portland General Electric Company, Oregon Department of Energy May 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Bats, Birds, Raptors
Biodiversity & Wind Energy: A Bird's and Bat's Perspective Mascarenhas, M., et al. January 2015 Book Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Biodiversity and wind energy in Kenya: Revealing landscape and wind turbine perceptions in the world’s wildlife capital Nordman, E., Mutinda, J. September 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Socio-economics, Aesthetics
Biodiversity and Wind Farms in Portugal: Current Knowledge and Insights for an Integrated Impact Assessment Process Mascarenhas, M., et al. January 2018 Book Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Bats, Birds, Terrestrial Mammals
Biodiversity Offsets for Offshore Wind Farm Projects: The Current Situation in Europe Vaissière, A., et al. September 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Ecosystem
Biological Assessment for the Federally Endangered Indiana Bat (Myotis sodalis) and Virginia Big-eared Bat (Corynorhinus townsendii virginianus): NedPower Mount Storm Wind Project, Grant County, West Virginia Johnson, G., Strickland, M. October 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Biological Effects of Repowering a Portion of the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area, California: The Diablo Winds Energy Project Smallwood, K. July 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
Biological Study Plan East Ridge Wind Energy Project Gerhardt, R., et al. September 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
Biological Study Report West Ridge Wind Energy Project Gerhardt, R., Gritski, R., Luginbuhl, J. November 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
Biology and Video Surveys of North Hoyle Wind Turbines 11th-13th August 2004 Bunker, F. August 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
Bird and Bat Behavior and Mortality at a Northern Iowa Windfarm Jain, A. January 2005 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds, Waterfowl
Bird and Bat Collision Risks & Wind Energy Facilities Willmott, J., et al. December 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Bird and Bat Conservation Strategy Deuel Harvest North Wind Farm Deuel County, South Dakota Simon, S., Welch-Acosta, B. March 2019 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Bird and Bat Fatality Studies Fowler Ridge III Wind-Energy Facility Benton County, Indiana: April 2 - June 10, 2009 Johnson, G., et al. April 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Bird and Bat Impacts and Behaviors at Old Wind Turbines at Forebay, Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area Smallwood, K., Neher, L. November 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Bats, Birds
Bird and Bat Interactions With Wind Turbines Castle River Wind Farm, Alberta, 2001-2002 Brown, W., Hamilton, B. July 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Bird and Bat Migration over Appalachian Ridges Progress Report, August 2006 Dawson, D., et al. August 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Bird and Bat Monitoring at the McBride Lake Wind Farm, Alberta 2003-2004 Brown, W., Hamilton, B. September 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Bird and bat mortality at Portuguese wind farms Bernardino, J., et al. May 2012 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Bird and Bat Responses to Wind Energy Development in Iowa Gillespie, M. January 2013 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Bird and Bat Species and Risks to Diurnal Migrants on the Clipper Windpower Criterion Project, Backbone Mountain, Garrett County, Maryland Gates, J., et al. June 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Bird and Bat Species' Global Vulnerability to Collision Mortality at Wind Farms Revealed Through a Trait-Based Assessment Thaxter, C., et al. September 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Bird and Bird Habitats: Guidelines for Wind Power Projects Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources December 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Bird Casualties Caused by a Wind Energy Project in an Estuary Musters, C., Noordervliet, M., terKeurs, W. March 1996 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
Bird collision with power lines: estimating carcass persistence and detection associated with ground search surveys Borner, L., et al. December 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds

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