Knowledge Base

The Knowledge Base provides access to information about the environmental effects of marine and wind energy, supporting OES-Environmental and WREN initiatives. Relevant documents and OES-Environmental metadata forms are compiled into a user-friendly table with advanced filtering. Filters may be selected on the right, or keywords entered in the Search Text box. Content may also be sorted alphabetically by clicking on column headers.


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Title Author* Date** Type of Content Technology Types Stressorssort descending Receptors
Design and Initial Component Tests of an Integrated Avian and Bat Collision Detection System for Offshore Wind Turbines Flowers, J., et al. April 2014 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Joint Fact Finding and Stakeholder Consensus Building at the Altamont Wind Resource Area in California Bartlett, G. July 2011 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Socio-economics, Legal and Policy, Stakeholder Engagement
Discrimination Between Parametric Survival Models for Removal Times of Bird Carcasses in Scavenger Removal Trials at Wind Turbines Sites Bispo, R., et al. January 2013 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
The BIO-acoustic feature extraction and classification of bat echolocation calls Mirzaei, G., et al. May 2012 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Fuzzy Clustering in Avian Infrared Imagery Application Mirzaei, G., et al. June 2014 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Overview of the U.S. Department of Energy/National Renewable Energy Laboratory Avian Research Program Sinclair, K., Morrison, M. June 1997 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Proceedings of the National Avian - Wind Power Planning Meeting LGL April 1995 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Thresholds for Bats Killed by Wind Turbines Arnett, E., Barclay, R., Hein, C. May 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Geographic Variation in Activity and Fatality of Migratory Bats at Wind Energy Facilities Baerwald, E., Barclay, R. December 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Applying Research to Conservation: Science-Based Strategies Can Save Bats at Wind Farms Baerwald, E., Barclay, R. June 2014 Magazine Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
A Large-Scale Mitigation Experiment to Reduce Bat Fatalities at Wind Energy Facilities Baerwald, E., et al. September 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
A New Stochastic Dynamic Tool to Improve the Accuracy of Mortality Estimates for Bats Killed at Wind Farms Bastos, R., Santos, M., Cabral, J. November 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Wind Turbine Fatalities Approach a Level of Concern in a Raptor Population Bellebaum, J., et al. December 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Survey of Bat Mortalities at a Wind-Energy Facility in North Dakota Bicknell, L., Gilliam, E. June 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Post-Construction Avian Mortality Monitoring at Project West Wind Bull, L., Fuller, S., Sim, D. February 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
The Influence of Group Size and Social Interactions on Collision Risk with Obstacles Croft, S., et al. December 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Birds
Evidence of Late-Summer Mating Readiness and Early Sexual Maturation in Migratory Tree-Roosting Bats Found Dead at Wind Turbines Cryan, P., et al. October 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Assessment of bat and avian mortality at a pilot wind turbine at Coega, Port Elizabeth, Eastern Cape, South Africa Doty, A., Martin, A. December 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Modelled Sensitivity of Avian Collision Rate at Wind Turbines Varies with Number of Hours of Flight Activity Input Data Douglas, D., et al. October 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Model-Based Estimation of Collision Risks of Predatory Birds with Wind Turbines Eichhorn, M., et al. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
A Comprehensive Analysis of Small-Passerine Fatalities from Collision with Turbines at Wind Energy Facilities Erickson, W., et al. September 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Is Male-Biased Collision Mortality of Whooping Cranes (Grus americana) in Florida Associated with Flock Behavior Folk, M., Dellinger, T., Leone, E. June 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Bats Killed in Large Numbers at United States Wind Energy Facilities Hayes, M. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Assessing Avian-Wind Turbine Collision Risk: An Approach Angle Dependent Model Holmstrom, L., et al. June 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Accounting for Unsearched Areas in Estimating Wind Turbine-Caused Fatality Huso, M., Dalthorp, D. February 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
A Comment on Novel Scavenger Removal Trials Increase Wind Turbine-Caused Avian Fatality Estimates Huso, M., Erickson, W. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Investigation on Design for a 500 W Wind Turbine Composite Blade Considering Impact Damage Kong, C., Choi, S., Park, H. January 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Estimating Bat and Bird Mortality Occurring at Wind Energy Turbines from Covariates and Carcass Searches Using Mixture Models Korner-Nievergelt, F., et al. July 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Wind Farm Facilities in Germany Kill Noctule Bats from Near and Far Lehnert, L., et al. August 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Whirly Birds Linn, A. March 1995 Magazine Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Wind Turbines and Bat Mortality: Rotor Detectability Profiles Long, C., et al. October 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Effectiveness of Search Dogs Compared with Human Observers in Locating Bat Carcasses at Wind-Turbine Sites: A Blinded Randomized Trial Mathews, F., et al. March 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Bird Mortality Associated with Wind Turbines at the Buffalo Ridge Wind Resource Area, Minnesota Osborn, R., et al. January 2000 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Estimation of Bird and Bat Mortality at Wind-Power Farms with Superpopulation Models Peron, G., et al. June 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Calculation of Wind Farm Production Losses via MERRA Data in Consequence of Bat Based Temporary Wind Turbine Shut Downs Raabe, J., Schorer, T., Junge, J. February 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
A Forensic Investigation Into the Etiology of Bat Mortality at a Wind Farm: Barotrauma or Traumatic Injury? Rollins, K., et al. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Estimating Wind Turbine Caused Bird Mortality Smallwood, K. November 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Comparing Bird and Bat Fatality-Rate Estimates Among North American Wind-Energy Projects Smallwood, K. March 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Avian and Bat Fatality Rates at Old-Generation and Repowered Wind Turbines in California Smallwood, K., Karas, B. September 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds, Raptors
Bird Mortality in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area, California Smallwood, K., Thelander, C. January 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Sex-Based Mortality of Common Tern in Farm Collisions Stienen, E., et al. January 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds
Using a Collision Model to Design Safer Wind Turbine Rotors for Birds Tucker, V. November 1996 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Scavenger removal: Bird and bat carcass persistence in a tropical wind farm Villegas-Patraca, R., et al. August 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
The Catchment Area of Wind Farms for European Bats: A Plea for International Regulations Voigt, C., et al. September 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Effectiveness of Changing Wind Turbine Cut-in Speed to Reduce Bat Fatalities at Wind Facilities 2009 Arnett, E., et al. April 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Clocaenog Forest Wind Farm Collision Risk Report Model George, A. August 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Avian Mortality at Rotor Swept Area Equivalents, Altamont Pass and Montezuma Hills, California Howell, J. January 1997 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Golden Eagles in a Perilous Landscape: Predicting the Effects of Mitigation for Wind Turbine Blade Strike Mortality Hunt, G. July 2002 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Avian Risk Behavior and Fatalities at the Altamont Wind Resource Area: March 1998 to February 1999 Thelander, C., Rugge, L. May 2000 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Reducing Bat Fatalities from Interactions with Operating Wind Turbines National Wind Technology Center November 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Cape Blanco Wind Farm Feasibility Study Technical Report No. 11: Terrestrial Ecology Portland General Electric Company April 1986 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
A Population Study of Golden Eagles in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area: Population Trend Analysis 1994-1997 Hunt, W., et al. June 1999 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Assessment of Bat Mortality and Activity at Buffalo Mountain Windfarm, Eastern Tennessee Fiedler, J. August 2004 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Migratory Stopover of Songbirds in the Western Lake Erie Basin Johnson, P. January 2013 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Application of GIS and Spatial Analysis of Golden Eagle Fatalities Caused by Wind Turbines at the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Pinger, A. April 2013 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Estimates of Bird Collision Mortality at Wind Facilities in the Contiguous United States of America Loss, S., Will, T., Marra, P. December 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Minimization of Motion Smear: Reducing Avian Collisions with Wind Turbines: Period of Performance: July 12, 1999 - August 31, 2002 Hodos, W. August 2003 Report Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
A Roadmap for PIER Research on Avian Collisions with Wind Turbines in California Sterner, D. December 2002 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds, Raptors
Bird Communities and Wind Farms: A Phylogenetic and Morphological Approach Herrera-Alsina, L., et al. September 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Birds
Modelling Flight Heights of Marine Birds to More Accurately Assess Collision Risk with Offshore Wind Turbines Johnston, A., et al. February 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Assessment of Offshore Wind Farm Effects on Birds and Needs to Plan their Future Development in Spain Mateos-Rodriguez, M., Muñoz, A., Arroyo, G. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds
Bird Casualties Caused by a Wind Energy Project in an Estuary Musters, C., Noordervliet, M., terKeurs, W. March 1996 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
Predicting the Weather-Dependent Collision Risk for Birds at Wind Farms Skov, H., Heinänen, S. January 2015 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
How to Mitigate Impacts of Wind Farms on Bats? A Review of Potential Conservation Measures in the European Context Peste, F., et al. February 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Fauna Collisions with Wind Turbines: Effects and Impacts, Individuals and Populations. What Are We Trying to Assess? Smales, I. January 2015 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Wildlife and Renewable Energy: German Politics Cross Migratory Bats Voigt, C., et al. April 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Towards a Cumulative Collision Risk Assessment of Local and Migrating Birds in North Sea Offshore Wind Farms Brabant, R., et al. September 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Passerines, Seabirds
Massive Bat Migration Across the Alps: Implications for Wind Energy Development Bontadina, F., et al. October 2014 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Quantifying the Impact of Offshore Wind Farms on Gannet Populations: A Strategic Ringing Project Furness, R., Wanless, S. January 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Search Areas for Monitoring Bird and Bat Carcasses at Wind Farms using a Monte-Carlo Model Hull, C., Muir, S. June 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Searches for dead birds in Smøla wind-power plant area 2011 - annual report Reitan, O. January 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
Evaluation of the DTBird Video-System at the Smøla Wind-Power Plant: Detection Capabilities for Capturing Near-Turbine Avian Behaviour May, R., et al. December 2012 Report Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Birds
Searches for Dead Birds in Smøla Wind-Power Plant Area 2012: Annual Report Reitan, O. January 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Searches for Dead Birds in Smøla Wind-Power Plant Area 2011-2013 Reitan, O. June 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
A Collision Risk Model to Predict Avian Fatalities at Wind Facilities: An Example Using Golden Eagles, Aquila chrysaetos New, L., et al. July 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Results of Bat and Bird Mortality Monitoring at the Expanded Buffalo Mountain Windfarm, 2005 Fiedler, J., et al. June 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds, Passerines
Investigating the Causes of Death for Wind Turbine-Associated Bat Fatalities Grodsky, S., et al. October 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Mortality of Bats at a Large-Scale Wind Power Development at Buffalo Ridge, Minnesota Johnson, G., et al. January 2003 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Wind Turbines and Bat Mortality: Interactions of Bat Echolocation Pulses with Moving Turbine Rotor Blades Long, C., et al. January 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Bats
Spatial Pattern of Summer Bat Mortality from Collisions with Wind Turbines in Mixed-Grass Prairie Piorkowski, M., O'Connell, T. April 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Bat Mortality at Wind Turbines in Northwestern Europe Rydell, J., et al. July 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Linking Turbine Collision Risks with Population Models to Assess Cumulative Impacts of Multiple Wind Farms on Threatened Birds Smales, I., et al. May 2011 Presentation Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Three Dimensional Tracking of a Wide-Ranging Marine Predator: Flight Heights and Vulnerability to Offshore Wind Farms Cleasby, I., et al. December 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds
Assessing Bat and Bird Fatality Risk at Wind Farm Sites using Acoustic Detectors Heist, K. August 2014 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Assessment of Avian Use and Mortality Related to Wind Turbine Operations, Altamont Pass, Alameda and Contra Costa Counties, California, September 1988 through August 1989, Final Report Howell, J., Didonato, J. November 1991 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Avian Bat Mortality Associated with the Initial Phase of the Foote Creek Rim Windpower Project, Carbon County, Wyoming Young, D. Jr., et al. January 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
Bird Movements and Collision Mortality at a Large Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine Byrne, S. January 1983 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Waterfowl
Camera-Trapping as a Methodology to Assess the Persistence of Wildlife Carcasses Resulting from Collisions with Human-Made Structures Paula, J., et al. February 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device N/A
Collision Mortality of Local and Migrant Birds at a Large-Scale Wind-Power Development on Buffalo Ridge, Minnesota Johnson, G., et al. August 2002 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
A Comment on "Bats Killed in Large Numbers at United States Wind Energy Facilities" Huso, M., Dalthorp, D. June 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
A Continued Examination of Avian Mortality in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area Orloff, S., Flannery, A. June 1996 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Design and Testing of an Integrated Wildlife-Wind Turbine Interactions Detection System Flowers, J. March 2015 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Do Habitat Characteristics Determine Mortality Risk for Bats at Wind Farms? Modelling Susceptible Species Activity Patterns and Anticipating Possible Mortality Events Ferreira, D., et al. July 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Estimates and Correlates of Bird and Bat Mortality at Small Wind Turbine Sites Minderman, J., et al. March 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Estimating Wind-Turbine Caused Bird and Bat Fatality when Zero Carcasses are Observed Huso, M., et al. July 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
FatalityCMR - Capture-Recapture Software to Correct Raw Counts of Wildlife Fatalities using Trial Experiments for Carcass Detection Probability and Persistence Time Peron, G., Hines, J. January 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device N/A
First Report on Bat Mortalities on Wind Farms in Chile Escobar, L., et al. January 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
First Year Post-Construction Monitoring of Bats and Birds at Wind Turbine Test Centre Østerild Therkildsen, O., Elmeros, M. January 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Game Birds do not Surrogate for Raptors in Trials to Calibrate Observed Raptor Collision Fatalities Urquhart, B., Hulka, S., Duffy, K. June 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Impacts of Wind Energy on Environment: A Review Wang, S., Wang, S. September 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds

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