Knowledge Base

The Knowledge Base provides access to information about the environmental effects of marine and wind energy, supporting OES-Environmental and WREN initiatives. Relevant documents and OES-Environmental metadata forms are compiled into a user-friendly table with advanced filtering. Filters may be selected on the right, or keywords entered in the Search Text box. Content may also be sorted alphabetically by clicking on column headers. More entries will load as you scroll down.


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Title Author* Date** Type of Content Technology Types Stressors Receptorssort ascending
Thanet Extension Offshore Wind Farm Environmental Impact Assessment Report to Inform Scoping Royal Haskoning December 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Triton Knoll Environmental Impact Assessment Scoping Report Wilson, M., Ireland, P. July 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Hornsea Project Three Offshore Wind Farm RPS Group March 2018 Website Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Environmental Impact Assessment Methods: An Overview of the Process for Wind Farms’ Different Phases - From Pre-construction to Operation Santos, J., et al. September 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general N/A Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Final Environmental Assessment LEEDCo Project Icebreaker Lake Erie, City of Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, Ohio Parker, R., et al. September 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
East Anglia THREE: Preliminary Environmental Information Report (PEIR) Royal Haskoning May 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Hong Kong Offshore Wind Farm in Southeastern Waters - Environmental Impact Assessment BMT Asia Pacific Ltd March 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Draft Generic Environmental Impact Statement for Procurement of Offshore Wind New York State Department of Public Service, Ecology and Environment, Inc. February 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Consideration of scales in offshore wind environmental impact assessments Ryan, K., Danylchuk, A., Jordaan, A. March 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Offshore gas production infrastructure reutilisation for blue energy production Sedlar, D., et al. April 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
ICES SGWTE Report 2012: Report of the Study Group on Environmental Impacts of Wave and Tidal Energy International Council for the Exploration of the Sea May 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
ICES SGWTE Report 2013: Report of the Study Group on Environmental Impacts of Wave and Tidal Energy International Council for the Exploration of the Sea March 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Offshore Renewable Energy Development Plan (OREDP) For Ireland: Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA): Volume 1: Non - Technical Summary (NTS) Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland October 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Potential impacts of energy development on shrublands in western North America Pocewicz, A., Copeland, H., Kiesecker, J. December 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Guidance Note for Environmental Impact Assessment in Respect of FEPA and CPA Requirements Centre for Environment Fisheries and Aquaculture Science (CEFAS) June 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Offshore Renewables - Guidance on Assessing the Impact on Coastal Landscape and Seascape: Guidance for Scoping an Environmental Statement Scottish Natural Heritage March 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Is EIA Part of the Wind Power Planning Problem? Smart, D., Stojanovic, T., Warren, C. November 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
An Integrated Visual Impact Assessment Model for Offshore Windfarm Development Depellegrin, D., Blažauskas, N., Egarter-Vigl, L. September 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Wind Energy and Environmental Assessments - A Hard Look at Two Forerunners' Approaches: Germany and the United States Geißler, G., Köppel, J., Gunther, P. October 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) for Wind Energy Planning: Lessons from the United Kingdom and Germany Phylip-Jones, J., Fischer, T. January 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
GIS-Based Environmental Assessment of Wind Energy Systems for Spatial Planning: A Case Study from Western Turkey Aydin, N., Kentel, E., Duzgun, S. January 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Key Criteria for Sustainable Wind Energy Planning - Lessons from an Institutional Perspective on the Impact Assessment Literature Thygesen, J., Agarwal, A. November 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Block Island Wind Farm and Block Island Transmission System Environmental Report/Construction and Operations Plan Tetra Tech Inc. September 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Virginia Offshore Wind Technology Advancement Project on the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf Offshore Virginia Environmental Assessment Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Office of Renewable Energy Programs December 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Involving the Public in the Impact Assessment of Offshore Renewable Energy Facilities Portman, M. March 2009 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Cumulative Impacts Assessment Guidelines: Guiding Principles for Cumulative Impacts Assessment in Offshore Wind Farms Renewable UK June 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
An analysis of the state of impact assessment research for low carbon power production: Building a better understanding of information and knowledge gaps Hanna, K., et al. April 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Dogger Bank Creyke Beck Environmental Statement - Chapter 22: Socio-Economics Beeden, D. March 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Dogger Bank Creyke Beck Environmental Statement - Chapter 29: Noise and Vibration Wigham, S. March 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Underwater Noise Modelling for Environmental Impact Assessment Farcas, A., Thompson, P., Merchant, N. February 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Guidelines on the Environmental Impact Assessment for Wind Farms Ivanović, S., et al. June 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Holberg Wind Energy Assessment Report British Columbia Environmental Assessment Office October 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Stakeholder Outcomes in a Wind Turbine Investment; Is the Irish Energy Policy Effective in Reducing GHG Emissions by Promoting Small-Scale Embedded Turbines in SME's? Kealy, T. February 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Socio-economics, Climate Change, Stakeholder Engagement
Sustainable renewable energy planning and wind farming optimization from a biodiversity perspective Dhunny, A., et al. October 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Socio-economics, Climate Change, Marine Spatial Planning
Input-Output Life Cycle Environmental Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Utility Scale Wind Energy in the United States Kumar, I., Tyner, W., Sinha, K. February 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Socio-economics, Climate Change, Life Cycle Assessment
Life Cycle Energy and Carbon Footprint of Offshore Wind Energy: Comparison With Onshore Counterpart Kaldellis, J., Apostolou, D. August 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Socio-economics, Climate Change, Life Cycle Assessment
Environmental impact analysis of power generation from biomass and wind farms in different locations Gao, C., et al. March 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Socio-economics, Climate Change, Life Cycle Assessment
Life cycle energy and greenhouse emissions analysis of wind turbines and the effect of size on energy yield Crawford, R. December 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Socio-economics, Climate Change, Life Cycle Assessment
Floating offshore wind - Economic and ecological challenges of a TLP solution Kausche, M., et al. October 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Climate Change, Life Cycle Assessment
Consequential Environmental System Analysis of Expected Offshore Wind Electricity Production in Germany Pehnt, M., Oeser, M., Swider, D. May 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Climate Change, Life Cycle Assessment
Energy and CO2 Life-Cycle Analyses of Wind Turbines - Review and Applications Lenzen, M., Munksgaard, J. July 2002 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Socio-economics, Climate Change, Life Cycle Assessment
Corrigendum: Environmental Implications of Large-Scale Adoption of Wind Power: A Scenario-Based Life Cycle Assessment Arvesen, A., Hertwich, E. July 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general Static Device Socio-economics, Climate Change, Life Cycle Assessment
Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Electricity Generated by Offshore Wind Farms Reimers, B., Özdirik, B., Kaltschmitt, M. December 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Climate Change, Life Cycle Assessment
Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Renewable Energy Sources: A Review of Lifecycle Considerations Amponsah, N., et al. August 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general N/A Socio-economics, Climate Change, Life Cycle Assessment
A Life Cycle Co-Benefits Assessment of Wind Power in China Xue, B., et al. January 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Climate Change, Life Cycle Assessment
Marine Renewable Energy Seascape Borthwick, A. March 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Socio-economics, Climate Change, Legal and Policy
Impact of Wind-Energy Generation on Climate: A Rising Spectre Abbasi, S., Abbasi, T., Abbasi, T. June 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Socio-economics, Climate Change
Ground-Level Climate at a Peatland Wind Farm in Scotland is Affected by Wind Turbine Operation Armstrong, A., et al. April 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Socio-economics, Climate Change
The Life-Cycle Energy and Environmental Emissions of a Typical Offshore Wind Farm in China Yang, J., et al. April 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals Socio-economics, Climate Change
Thinking Globally and Siting Locally - Renewable Energy and Biodiversity in a Rapidly Warming World Allison, T., Root, T., Frumhoff, P. September 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Climate Change
The Impacts of Chinese Wind Farms on Climate Sun, H., et al. May 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Socio-economics, Climate Change
Critical challenges and capacity building needs for renewable energy deployment in Pacific Small Island Developing States (Pacific SIDS) Lucas, H., et al. August 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general N/A Socio-economics, Climate Change
Co-benefits analysis on climate change and environmental effects of wind-power: A case study from Xinjiang, China Ma, Z., et al. September 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Socio-economics, Climate Change
The Health and Environmental Benefits of Wind and Solar Energy in the United States, 2007-2015 Millstein, D., et al. January 2017 Presentation Wind Energy general Chemicals Socio-economics, Climate Change
The climate and air-quality benefits of wind and solar power in the United States Millstein, D., et al. September 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Socio-economics, Climate Change
The vulnerability of wind power to climate change in Brazil Pereira de Lucena, A., et al. May 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Socio-economics, Climate Change
Wind Energy and Air Emission Reduction Benefits: A Primer Jacobson, D., High, C. February 2008 Report Wind Energy general N/A Socio-economics, Climate Change
Influence of Concrete Mix Design on CO2 Emissions for Large Wind Turbine Foundations Berndt, M. November 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Climate Change
Assessing the Impact of Climate Conditions on Harnessing Coastal (Offshore) Wind Energy Akter, S., Loo, J., Hannan, M. November 2018 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Climate Change
Impacts of climate change on wind energy power – Four wind farms in Spain Solaun, K., Emilio, C. January 2020 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Socio-economics, Climate Change
A 30-year projection of the future wind energy resources in the coastal environment of the Black Sea Rusu, E. September 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Climate Change
Evaluation of the near future wave energy resources in the Black Sea under two climate scenarios Rusu, L. November 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Climate Change
Research frontiers in sustainable development of energy, water and environment systems in a time of climate crisis Kılkış, Ş., et al. November 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general N/A Socio-economics, Climate Change
Renewable energy projections for climate change mitigation: An analysis of uncertainty and errors Indra al Irsyad, M., Halog, A., Nepal, R. January 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general N/A Socio-economics, Climate Change
Welcoming the Wind? Determinants of Wind Power Development Among U.S. States Bohn, C., Lant, C. January 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Socio-economics, Aesthetics, Stakeholder Engagement
Valuing the visual impact of wind farms: An application in South Evia, Greece Mirasgedis, S., et al. November 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general Static Device Socio-economics, Aesthetics, Stakeholder Engagement
The Vindication of Don Quixote: The Impact of Noise and Visual Pollution from Wind Turbines Jensen, C., Panduro, T., Lundhede, T. November 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general Noise Socio-economics, Aesthetics, Stakeholder Engagement
Fencing in the bay? Place attachment, social representations of energy technologies and the protection of restorative environments Devine-Wright, P. January 2011 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Aesthetics, Stakeholder Engagement
Trade-offs between seascape and offshore wind farming values: An analysis of local opinions based on a cognitive belief framework Gee, K. May 2013 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Aesthetics, Stakeholder Engagement
Offshore wind power development as affected by seascape values on the German North Sea coast Gee, K. April 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Aesthetics, Stakeholder Engagement
Spoiled darkness? Sense of place and annoyance over obstruction lights from the world’s largest wind turbine test centre in Denmark Rudolph, D., et al. March 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Lighting Socio-economics, Aesthetics, Stakeholder Engagement
Stakeholder empowerment through participatory planning practices: The case of electricity transmission lines in France and Norway Späth, L., Scolobig, A. January 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Socio-economics, Aesthetics, Stakeholder Engagement
Beauty in motion: Expectations, attitudes, and values of wind energy development in the rural U.S Fergen, J., Jacquet, J. January 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Socio-economics, Aesthetics, Stakeholder Engagement
Altamont: Public Perceptions of a Wind Energy Landscape Thayer, R., Freeman, C. January 1987 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Socio-economics, Aesthetics, Stakeholder Engagement
Stakeholders or Subject Matter Experts, who Should be consulted? Alberts, D. April 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy general Noise Socio-economics, Aesthetics, Stakeholder Engagement
From NIMBY to Acceptance: Toward a Novel Framework - VESPA - For Organizing and Interpreting Community Concerns Petrova, M. February 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Socio-economics, Aesthetics, Stakeholder Engagement
Public Opinion and the Environmental, Economic and Aesthetic Impacts of Offshore Wind Bush, D., Hoagland, P. February 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Aesthetics, Stakeholder Engagement
The Effects of Wind Power on Human Interests - A Synthesis Henningsson, M., et al. January 2013 Report Wind Energy general N/A Socio-economics, Aesthetics, Recreation, Stakeholder Engagement
Impacts of Wind-Energy Development on Humans National Research Council August 2007 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise, Static Device Socio-economics, Aesthetics, Recreation
When tourists meet transmission lines: The effects of electric transmission lines on tourism in Iceland Stefánsson, P., Sæþórsdóttir, A., Hall, C. December 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Socio-economics, Aesthetics, Recreation
Offshore wind farms in Southern Europe – Determining tourist preference and social acceptance Westerberg, V., Jacobsen, J., Lifran, R. November 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Aesthetics, Recreation
The memory of place disruption, senses, and local opposition to Korean wind farms Kim, E., Chung, J. August 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Socio-economics, Aesthetics, Legal and Policy, Stakeholder Engagement
Who cares? European attitudes towards marine and coastal environments Potts, T., et al. October 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Aesthetics, Fishing, Stakeholder Engagement
Public views on renewable energy in the Rocky Mountain region of the United States: Distinct attitudes, exposure, and other key predictors of wind energy Olson-Hazboun, S., Krannich, R., Robertson, P. November 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Socio-economics, Aesthetics, Climate Change
Human Perception of Sound from Wind Turbines Pedersen, E., Forssén, J., Waye, K. June 2010 Report Wind Energy general Noise Socio-economics, Aesthetics
An Indicator to Objectively Quantify the Visual Impact of an Offshore Wind Farm Gonzalez-Rodriguez, A. April 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Aesthetics
Siting and Designing Wind Farms in the Landscape - Version 3 Scottish Natural Heritage February 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Socio-economics, Aesthetics
Evaluating the Visual Impact of an Offshore Wind Farm Maslov, N., et al. May 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Aesthetics
Method to Estimate the Visual Impact of an Offshore Wind Farm Maslov, N., et al. October 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Aesthetics
Wind Turbines and Landscape van Grieken, M., Dower, B. May 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Socio-economics, Aesthetics
Other Environmental Issues of Wind Energy Development: Aesthetics, Cultural Resources, Land Use Compatibility, Water Resources, and Site Restoration Walker, R., Swift, A. May 2015 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Aesthetics
NEPA Review of Offshore Wind Farms: Ensuring Emission Reduction Benefits Outweigh Visual Impacts Bisbee, D. January 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Aesthetics
Valuing the visual impact of wind farms: A calculus method for synthesizing choice experiments studies Wen, C., et al. October 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general Static Device Socio-economics, Aesthetics
Local Impacts of Wind Farms on Property Values: A Spatial Difference-in-Differences Analysis Sunak, Y., Madlener, R. October 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Socio-economics, Aesthetics
Where should wind energy be located? A review of preferences and visualisation approaches for wind turbine locations Hevia-Koch, P., Ladenburg, J. July 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Socio-economics, Aesthetics
Offshore Wind Turbine Visibility and Visual Impact Threshold Distances Sullivan, R., et al. March 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Aesthetics
The implications for visual simulation and analysis of temporal variation in the visibility of wind turbines Bishop, I. April 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Socio-economics, Aesthetics
The influence of wind turbine visibility on the health of local residents: a systematic review Freiberg, A., et al. January 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general Lighting, Noise Socio-economics, Aesthetics
The economics of visual disamenity reductions of offshore wind farms—Review and suggestions from an emerging field Ladenburg, J., Lutzeyer, S. December 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Aesthetics
Steel forests or smoke stacks: the politics of visualisation in the Cape Wind controversy Phadke, R. February 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Aesthetics

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