Knowledge Base

The Knowledge Base provides access to information about the environmental effects of marine and wind energy, supporting Annex IV and WREN initiatives. Relevant documents and Annex IV metadata forms are compiled into a user-friendly table with advanced filtering. Filters may be selected on the right, or keywords entered in the Search Text box. Content may also be sorted alphabetically by clicking on column headers. More entries will load as you scroll down.


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Title Author* Date** Type of Content Technology Types Stressors Receptorssort descending
The Aversive Effect of Electromagnetic Radiation on Foraging Bats - A Possible Means of Discouraging Bats from Approaching Wind Turbines Nicholls, B., Racey, P. July 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general EMF Bats
The Impacts of Wind Farms on Animal Species Jana, S., Pogacnik, M. May 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Bats
Regional Analysis of Wind Turbine-Caused Bat Mortality Drake, D., et al. June 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Testing the Effectiveness of an Experimental Acoustic Bat Deterrent at the Maple Ridge Wind Farm Horn, J., et al. June 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Bat Mortality Due to Wind Turbines in Canada Zimmerling, J., Francis, C. November 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
When the Excrement Hits the Fan: Fecal Surveys Reveal Species-Specific Bat Activity at Wind Turbines Bennett, V., Hale, A., Williams, D. November 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Bats
Acoustic mirrors as sensory traps for bats Greif, S., Zsebok, S. September 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general Static Device Bats
How anthropogenic noise affects foraging Luo, J., Siemers, B., Koselj, K. September 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general Noise Bats
Impacts of Wind Energy Development on Bats: Implications for Conservation Arnett, E., Baerwald, E. July 2013 Book Chapter Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Bats
Impact of wind facilities on bats in the Neotropics Rodríguez-Durán, A., Feliciano-Robles, W. December 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Bats in a tropical wind farm: species composition and importance of the spatial attributes of vegetation cover on bat fatalities Bolivar-Cime, B., et al. July 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Inconspicuous echolocation in hoary bats (Lasiurus cinereus) Corcoran, A., Weller, T. May 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Bat flight height monitored from wind masts predicts mortality risk at wind farms Roemer, C., et al. November 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Resource Availability May Not Be a Useful Predictor of Migratory Bat Fatalities or Activity at Wind Turbines Bennett, V., Hale, A. June 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Bats
Echolocation activity of migratory bats at a wind energy facility: testing the feeding-attraction hypothesis to explain fatalities Reimer, J., Baerwald, E., Barlay, R. December 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Bats
Habitat use of migratory bats killed during autumn at wind turbines Voigt, C., et al. April 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Bats
Large-scale citizen science improves assessment of risk posed by wind farms to bats in southern Scotland Newson, S., et al. November 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Bats
Bat fatalities at wind farms in Taiwan Chou, C., et al. June 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Composition and activity of arthropodivorous bat community in wind farms in the Mexican Tropics Garcia-Luis, M., Briones-Salas, M. December 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Bats
Bat activity during autumn relates to atmospheric conditions: implications for coastal wind energy development Smith, A., McWilliams, S. December 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Static Device Bats
Evidence of the migratory bat, Pipistrellus nathusii, aggregating to the coastlines in the Northern Baltic Sea Ijas, A., et al. June 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Bats
Genetic Diversity in Migratory Bats: Results from RADseq Data for Three Tree Bat Species at an Ohio Windfarm Sovic, M., Carstens, B., Gibbs, H. January 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Networking Networks for Global Bat Conservation Kingston, T., et al. January 2016 Book Chapter Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Bats
Effects of wind energy generation and white-nose syndrome on the viability of the Indiana bat Erickson, R., et al. December 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Bats
Monitoring Seasonal Bat Activity on a Coastal Barrier Island in Maryland, USA Johnson, J., Gates, J., Zegre, N. February 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general Static Device Bats
Bats and onshore wind turbines Natural England February 2009 Report Wind Energy general N/A Bats
Comparing Field Methods Used to Determine Bird and Bat Fatalities Paula, J., et al. January 2018 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Day of Year, Temperature, Wind, and Precipitation Predict Timing of Bat Migration Pettit, J., O'Keefe October 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Carcass Age and Searcher Identity Affect Morphological Assessment of Sex of Bats Nelson, D., et al. November 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Wind Energy and Wildlife: 20 Years of Translational Ecology in Action Allison, T., Arnold, A. August 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Bats
Species composition and mortality of bats at the Osorio Wind Farm, southern Brazil Barros, M., de Magalhaes, R., Rui, A. January 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Impacts of Wind Energy Development on Bats: A Global Perspective Arnett, E., et al. January 2016 Book Chapter Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Draft Bat Monitoring Studies at the Fowler Ridge Wind Farm Benton County, Indiana: August 3 - Octoboer 12, 2016 Good, R., et al. January 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Bat Evaluation Monitoring Studies at the Fowler Ridge Wind Farm Benton County, Indiana: August 1 - October 15, 2017 Good, R., et al. January 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Bat Evaluation Monitoring Studies at the Fowler Ridge Wind Farm Benton County, Indiana: August 3 - October 14, 2015 Good, R., Iskali, G., Nasman, K. January 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Bat Evaluation Monitoring Studies at the Fowler Ridge Wind Farm Benton County, Indiana: August 4 - October 14, 2014 Good, R., Iskali, G., Adachi, K. January 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Mitigating the negative impacts of tall wind turbines on bats: Vertical activity profiles and relationships to wind speed Wellig, S., et al. March 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Migrating bats at the southern North Sea: Approach to an estimation of migration populations of bats at the southern North Sea Limpens, H., et al. March 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Bats
Bats and Wind Energy: Impacts, Mitigation, and Tradeoffs Allison, T. November 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
A Summary of Bat Fatality Data in a Nationwide Database Allison, T., Butryn, R. July 2018 Report Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Bats
An Acoustic Study of Bat Activity at the Proposed Roaring Brook Wind Project, New York, Spring - Fall 2008 Hein, C., Schwab, N., Mabee, T. January 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
A Visual and Acoustic Study of Nocturnal Bird and Bat Migration at the Proposed Roaring Brook Wind Project, New York, Fall 2007 Mabee, T., Schwab, N. January 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Bat Surveys – Good Practice Guidelines (2nd edition): Surveying for Onshore Wind Turbines Hundt, L., et al. January 2012 Report Wind Energy general N/A Bats
Bat Flight Analysis around Wind Turbines - A Feasibility Study Lagerveld, S., et al. March 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Bats
Bat Acoustic Studies for the Pleasant Ridge Wind Resource Area - Livingston County, Illinois - Final Report July 15 - October 21, 2009 Good, R., et al. February 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Pre-Construction Impact Assessment of Wind Development on Bats: Grande Prairie Wind Project, Holt County, Nebraska Midwest Wind Energy, LLC. January 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Multi-Year Acoustic Monitoring of Bats at the Maple Ridge Wind Project New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) December 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Telemetry for migratory bats - a feasibility study Lagerveld, S., et al. February 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Bats
Wind Farm Le Peuchapatte: Analysis of Bat Recordings and Evaluation of Mitigation Measures Brossard, C., et al. March 2018 Report Wind Energy general N/A Bats
Wind Energy and Bat Conservation - A Review by the Canadian Wind Energy Association Barnes, R., Hill, M., Peters, K. August 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Understanding the Risk of European Protected Species (Bats) at Onshore Wind Turbine Sites to Inform Risk Management Mathews, F., et al. October 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Migratory bats are attracted by red light but not by warm-white light: Implications for the protection of nocturnal migrants Voigt, C., et al. September 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Bats
Multi-state occupancy models of foraging habitat use by the Hawaiian hoary bat (Lasiurus cinereus semotus) Gorresen, P., et al. October 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Bats
Ultrasonic Bat Deterrent Technology Kinzie, K. June 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
South African Good Practice Guidelines for Operational Monitoring for Bats at Wind Energy Facilities Aronson, J., et al. July 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Impacts of Wind Energy Development on Bats: A Global Perspective Arnett, E., et al. January 2016 Book Chapter Wind Energy general N/A Bats
Bats in the Anthropocene: Conservation of Bats in a Changing World Voigt, C., Kingston, T. January 2016 Book Wind Energy general N/A Bats
Bats and Wind Energy Cooperative 5th Science and All Committees Meeting: 2018 Workshop Proceedings Bats and Wind Energy Cooperative June 2018 Workshop Article Wind Energy general N/A Bats
An evidence-based approach to specifying survey effort in ecological assessments of bat activity Richardson, S., et al. March 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
A smart curtailment approach for reducing bat fatalities and curtailment time at wind energy facilities Hayes, M., et al. April 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Effects of a wind farm installation on the understory bat community of a highly biodiverse tropical region in Mexico Briones-Salas, M., Lavariega, M., Moreno, C. June 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Bats
Evidence that Bats Perceive Wind Turbine Surfaces to be Water McAlexander, A. December 2013 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Bats
Bats, Bugs, and Wind Turbines - Is There a Connection? Cochran, C. May 2013 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Bats
Assessing changes in bat activity in response to an acoustic deterrent? Implications for decreasing bat fatalities at wind energy facilities Lindsey, C. May 2017 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Aerial-Hawking Bats Can Glean Prey Items From Surfaces Similar to Wind Turbine Towers: Implications for Reducing Bat Fatalities at Wind Facilities Jarzombek, L. May 2016 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Bats
Surface Texture Discrimination by Bats: Implications for Reducing Bat Mortality at Wind Turbines Bienz, C. May 2016 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Bats
Surface Texture Differentiation Using Synthetic Bat Echolocation Calls: Implications for Reducing Bat Fatalities at Wind Turbines Yuen, B. December 2015 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Bats
The Impacts of Small and Medium Wind Turbines on Bats Moyle, A. July 2016 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Using Deuterium and GARP To Estimate Geographic Extents of Source Populations of Hoary (Lasiurus cinereus) and Eastern Red (Lasiurus borealis) Bats Killed at a Central Illinois Wind Facility Van Essen, R. April 2014 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
The Effects of Sex, Energy, and Environmental Conditions on the Movement Ecology of Migratory Bats Jonassan, K. March 2017 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Assessing and Analyzing Bat Activity with Acoustic Monitoring: Challenges and Interpretations Adams, A. July 2013 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
The Role of Islands in the Migration of Bats Across Lake Erie and Lake Ontario: Lasiurus borealis, Lasiurus cinereus and Perimyotis subflavus Thorne, T. January 2015 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Developing an Understanding of the Drivers of Bat Activity Patterns Relevant to Wind Turbines Thwaits, T. January 2014 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Assessment of Bat Mortality and Activity at Buffalo Mountain Windfarm, Eastern Tennessee Fiedler, J. August 2004 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Overview of Issues Related to Bats and Wind Energy Cryan, P. February 2008 Presentation Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Bat Fatalities at Wind Turbines: Investigating the Causes and Consequences Cryan, P. October 2015 Website Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Coastal And Offshore Wind Energy Generation: Is It Environmentally Benign? Wilson, J., et al. June 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general EMF, Noise, Static Device Bats, Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Bird and bat mortality at Portuguese wind farms Bernardino, J., et al. May 2012 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Preliminary Methodology to Assess the National and Regional Impact of U.S. Wind Energy Development on Birds and Bats Diffendorfer, J., et al. May 2015 Report Wind Energy general N/A Bats, Birds
Experimental Evidence for the Effect of Small Wind Turbine Proximity and Operation on Bird and Bat Activity Miderman, J., et al. July 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Wind and Wildlife in the Northern Great Plains: Identifying Low-Impact Areas for Wind Development Fargione, J., et al. July 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Bats, Birds
Estimating Bat and Bird Mortality Occurring at Wind Energy Turbines from Covariates and Carcass Searches Using Mixture Models Korner-Nievergelt, F., et al. July 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Impacts of onshore wind energy production on birds and bats: recommendations for future life cycle impact assessment developments Laranjeiro, T., May, R., Verones, F. February 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Climate Change, Wind Energy, and Conservation: A Survey of Conflicting Issues Bauman, D. March 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Are Flying Wildlife Attracted to (or do they Avoid) Wind Turbines? Larkin, R. March 2010 Report Wind Energy general Static Device Bats, Birds
Wildlife and Wind Farms - Conflicts and Solutions, Volume 2 Onshore: Monitoring and Mitigation Perrow, M. April 2017 Book Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Assessing local population vulnerability with branching process models: an application to wind energy development Erickson, R., et al. December 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Investigation of the Effectiveness of Bat and Bird Detection of the DTBat and DTBird Systems at Calandawind Turbine - Final Report Hanagasioglu, M., et al. May 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Biodiversity & Wind Energy: A Bird's and Bat's Perspective Mascarenhas, M., et al. January 2015 Book Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Comparing Bird and Bat Fatality-Rate Estimates Among North American Wind-Energy Projects Smallwood, K. March 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Impacts of Wind Energy Developments on Wildlife: A Southern Hemisphere Perspective Parsons, S., Battley, P. February 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
The avian and wildlife costs of fossil fuels and nuclear power Sovacool, B. December 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Baseline investigations of bats and birds at wind turbine test Centre Asterild Therkildsen, O., et al. September 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
A Habitat-Based Wind-Wildlife Collision Model with Application to the Upper Great Plains Region Forcey, G. August 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Avian and Bat Protection Plan: AWA Goodhue Wind Project Westwood Professional Services December 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Spatial Pattern of Summer Bat Mortality from Collisions with Wind Turbines in Mixed-Grass Prairie Piorkowski, M., O'Connell, T. April 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Megawatts are not megawatt-hours and other responses to Willis et al. Sovacool, B. April 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Wind & Wildlife Key Research Topics National Wind Coordinating Collaborative May 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Post-construction monitoring report for avian and bat mortality at the NPPD Ainsworth Wind Farm Derby, C., et al. February 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Bird and Bat Interactions With Wind Turbines Castle River Wind Farm, Alberta, 2001-2002 Brown, W., Hamilton, B. July 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds

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