Knowledge Base

The Knowledge Base provides access to information about the environmental effects of marine and wind energy, supporting Annex IV and WREN initiatives. Relevant documents and Annex IV metadata forms are compiled into a user-friendly table with advanced filtering. Filters may be selected on the right, or keywords entered in the Search Text box. Content may also be sorted alphabetically by clicking on column headers. More entries will load as you scroll down.


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Title Author* Date** Type of Content Technology Typessort descending Stressors Receptors
Wind Turbines and Birds in Flanders: Preliminary Study Results and Recommendations Everaert, J. January 2003 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Birds
Development of a Cost-Effective System to Monitor Wind Turbines for Bird and Bat Collisions. Phase 1: Sensor System Feasibility Study Pandey, A., Hermence, J., Harness, R. March 2007 Report Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Proceedings of the Onshore Wildlife Interactions with Wind Developments: Research Meeting V Schwartz, S. March 2005 Conference Paper Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Bats Avoid Radar Installations: Could Electromagnetic Fields Deter Bats from Colliding with Wind Turbines? Racey, P., Nicholls, B. March 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, EMF Bats
Proceedings of the NWCC Wildlife Workgroup Research Planning Meeting VI Schwartz, S. March 2007 Conference Paper Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Night Migrant Fatalities And Obstruction Lighting At Wind Turbines In North America Kerlinger, P., et al. December 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Lighting Birds
Can Large Wind Farms Affect Local Meteorology? Baidya Roy, S., Pacala, S., Walko, R. October 2004 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Nearfield Habitat
Weak Relationship Between Risk Assessment Studies and Recorded Mortality in Wind Farms Ferrer, M., et al. February 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Proceedings of the Wind Wildlife Research Meeting VIII Schwartz, S. April 2011 Conference Paper Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Migration of Bats Past a Remote Island Offers Clues toward the Problem of Bat Fatalities at Wind Turbines Cryan, P., Brown, A. September 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Bats
Wind in power: 2013 European statistics European Wind Energy Association February 2014 Report Wind Energy general N/A N/A
Avian Interactions with Wind Power Structures Electric Power Research Institute March 2003 Conference Paper Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Wind Turbines and Bats - Guidelines for an Assessment Study and for Planning Aspects Rahmel, U., et al. January 2004 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Bats
Bats and Bat Habitats: Guidelines for Wind Power Projects Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources July 2011 Report Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Avian Hearing and the Avoidance of Wind Turbines Dooling, R. June 2002 Report Wind Energy general Noise Birds
Comparing bird and bat fatality-rate estimates among North American wind-energy projects Smallwood, S. March 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Bats, Birds
Opening address to Wind, Fire and Water: Renewable Energy and Birds Morley, E. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A N/A
A Multi-Method Approach to Determine the Impact of Existing Wind Power Plants on Bird and Bat Migration on the Island of Fehmarn, Germany Reichenbach, M., Grunkorn, T. May 2011 Presentation Wind Energy general N/A Bats, Birds
Life Cycle Assessment of a Wind Farm and Related Externalities Schleisner, L. July 2000 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Socio-economics, Life Cycle Assessment
Understanding Bird Collisions With Man-made Objects: A Sensory Ecology Approach Martin, G. March 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Collision Risk in White-Tailed Eagles Modelling Kernel-Based Collision Risk Using Satellite Telemetry Data in Smøla Wind-Power Plant May, R., et al. May 2011 Report Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Bat Surveys: Good Practice Guidelines Sowler, S., et al. January 2012 Book Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Environmental Issues Associated with Wind Energy - A Review Dai, K., et al. March 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, EMF, Noise, Static Device N/A
Application of the Analytic Hierarchy Process to a Sustainability Assessment of Coastal Beach Exploitation: A Case Study of the Wind Power Projects on the Coastal Beaches of Yancheng, China Tian, W., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Ecosystem, Socio-economics
The Effect of Avoidance Rates on Bird Mortality Predictions Made by Wind Turbine Collision Risk Models Chamberlain, D., et al. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Samlet belastning av vindkraftutbygging på fugl: standardvilkår for for- og etterundersøkelser May, R., et al. December 2010 Report Wind Energy general N/A Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl, Farfield Environment
Energy and CO2 Life-Cycle Analyses of Wind Turbines - Review and Applications Lenzen, M., Munksgaard, J. July 2002 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Socio-economics, Climate Change, Life Cycle Assessment
Birds and Wind Projects Across the Pond: A UK Perspective Rowena, H., Langston, W. March 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Collision Fatality of Raptors in Wind Farms does not Depend on Raptor Abundance de Lucas, M., et al. October 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
The Relation Between Birds and Wind Turbines and Other Aerial Obstacles - A Literature Survey Nygård, T., Bevanger, K., Reitan, O. November 2008 Report Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Proceedings of Wind Energy and Wildlife: The Good, the Bad... the Possible Kathy, B., MacGregor, G., Grodner, S. May 2005 Conference Paper Wind Energy general N/A Birds, Ecosystem
Research Priorities for Wind Energy and Migratory Wildlife Piorkowski, M., et al. April 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Conference on Wind Energy and Wildlife Impacts 2011: Proceedings May, R., Bevanger, K. May 2011 Conference Paper Wind Energy general N/A N/A
Barriers to Movement: Impacts of Wind Farms on Migrating Birds Masden, E., et al. February 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general Static Device Birds, Waterfowl
Bats and Wind Energy - A Literature Synthesis and Annotated Bibliography Ellison, L. January 2012 Report Wind Energy general N/A Bats
Wind Power Siting, Incentives, and Wildlife Guidelines in the United States Stemler, J. October 2007 Report Wind Energy general N/A N/A
Windfarms and Birds: An Analysis of the Effects of Windfarms on Birds, and Guidance on Environmental Assessment Criteria and Site Selection Issues Langston, R., Pullan, J. September 2003 Report Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Examples of State and International Guidance for Duration and Intensity of Pre-Construction and Post-Construction Monitoring US Fish and Wildlife Service January 2011 Report Wind Energy general N/A Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Human Perception of Sound from Wind Turbines Pedersen, E., Forssén, J., Waye, K. June 2010 Report Wind Energy general Noise Socio-economics, Aesthetics
Corrigendum: Environmental Implications of Large-Scale Adoption of Wind Power: A Scenario-Based Life Cycle Assessment Arvesen, A., Hertwich, E. July 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general Static Device Socio-economics, Climate Change, Life Cycle Assessment
Pre- and Post-Construction Studies of Conflicts Between Birds and Wind Turbines in Coastal Norway (Bird Wind): Progress Report 2009 Bevanger, K., et al. December 2009 Report Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
Environmental Interview: Wind Power, Birds and Bats Green, M., Rydell, J. March 2016 Video Wind Energy general N/A Bats, Birds
Improving Australia's Renewable Energy Project Policy and Planning: A Multiple Stakeholder Analysis Martin, N., Rice, J. September 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
The Effects of Wind Power on Birds and Bats: An Updated Synthesis Report Rydell, J., et al. December 2017 Report Wind Energy general N/A Bats, Birds
Strategisk konsekv ensutredning for landbasert vindkraft. En evaluering av regionale planer for vindkraft May, R. December 2011 Report Wind Energy general N/A Socio-economics
Wind Energy Facts EWEA December 2012 Presentation Wind Energy general N/A Socio-economics
Re-powering Scotland: Wind Farms and the 'Energy or Environment?' Debate Warren, C., Birnie, R. August 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A N/A
Genetic Approaches to Understanding the Population-Level Impact of Wind Energy Development on Migratory Bats Vonhof, M., Russell, A. September 2013 Report Wind Energy general N/A Bats
Assessing the State of Knowledge of Utility-Scale Wind Energy Development and Operation on Non-Volant Terrestrial and Marine Wildlife Lovich, J., Ennen, J. March 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles
Renewable Energy Respecting Nature: A Synthesis of Knowledge on Environmental Impacts of Renewable Energy Financed by the Research Council of Norway May, R., et al. October 2012 Report Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Fish, Socio-economics
U.S. Geological Survey - Energy and Wildlife Research Annual Report for 2017 Khalil, M. December 2017 Report Wind Energy general N/A Bats, Birds, Fish, Terrestrial Mammals
Stakeholders or Subject Matter Experts, who Should be consulted? Alberts, D. April 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy general Noise Socio-economics, Aesthetics, Stakeholder Engagement
Environmental Interview: The Effects of Wind Power on Human Interests Henningsson, M. March 2016 Video Wind Energy general N/A Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
Impact of Wind Turbines on Birds - Status of present Knowledge and Perspectives Clausager, I., Nohr, H. January 1995 Report Wind Energy general N/A Birds
Proceedings of the Wind Wildlife Research Meeting VII Schwartz, S. June 2009 Conference Paper Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Birds and Windfarms: What are the Real Issues? Percival, S. April 2005 Magazine Article Wind Energy general N/A Birds, Raptors
Low Frequency Noise and Infrasound from Wind Turbines O'Neal, R., Hellweg, R., Lampeter, R. March 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general Noise N/A
Developing High-Resolution Spatial Data of Migration Corridors for Avian Species of Concern in Regions of High Potential Wind Development Katzner, T. June 2014 Report Wind Energy general N/A Birds, Raptors
Estimating the Political, Economic and Environmental Factors' Impact on the Installed Wind Capacity Development: A System GMM Approach Biresselioglu, M., et al. October 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Farfield Environment, Socio-economics
Mitigation Measures for Wildlife in Wind Energy Development, Consolidating the State of Knowledge - Part 2: Operation, Decommissioning Gartman, V., et al. June 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A N/A
Wind Turbine Sound and Health Effects: An Expert Panel Review Colby, W., et al. December 2009 Report Wind Energy general Noise Socio-economics
Impacts on Biodiversity of Exploitation of Renewable Energy Sources: The Example of Birds and Bats Hötker, H., Thomsen, K., Jeromin, H. January 2006 Report Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Wind Energy Myths EWEA December 2012 Presentation Wind Energy general N/A Socio-economics
DTBird System Pilot Installation in Sweden. Possibilities for Bird Monitoring Systems around Wind Farms. Experiences from Sweden's First DTBird Installation Litsgård, F., et al. December 2016 Report Wind Energy general N/A Birds
Proceedings of the Wind-Wildlife Research Meeting IX American Wind Wildlife Institute November 2012 Conference Paper Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds, Nearfield Habitat
Wind Energy Technology, Environmental Impacts of Morrison, M., Sinclair, K. June 2004 Book Chapter Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Causes of Bat Fatalities at Wind Turbines: Hypotheses and Predictions Cryan, P., Barclay, R. December 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Bats
Wind Power, Wildlife, and the Migratory Bird Treaty Act: A Way Forward Lilley, M., Firestone, J. November 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Birds
Recommended Protocols for Monitoring Impacts of Wind Turbines on Birds Canadian Wildlife Service April 2007 Report Wind Energy general N/A Birds
Environmental and Social Footprint of Offshore Wind Energy: Comparison with Onshore Counterpart Kaldellis, J., et al. July 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A N/A
Land Trust Response to Renewable Energy Siting Challenges in New York Adkins, C. May 2017 Thesis Wind Energy general N/A N/A
Assessing Impacts of Wind-Energy Development on Nocturnally Active Birds and Bats: A Guidance Document Kunz, T., et al. November 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
From NIMBY to Acceptance: Toward a Novel Framework - VESPA - For Organizing and Interpreting Community Concerns Petrova, M. February 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Socio-economics, Aesthetics, Stakeholder Engagement
Large Scale Risk-Assessment of Wind-Farms on Population Viability of a Globally Endangered Long-Lived Raptor Carrete, M., et al. December 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors
Technical Manual for Evaluating Wildlife Impacts of Wind Turbines Requiring Coastal Permits NJ Department of Environmental Protection September 2010 Report Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles
Characterization of the Ultrasonic Acoustic Field of a Wind Turbine Pereira, M., Fonseca, C., Inácio, O. October 2014 Conference Paper Wind Energy general N/A Bats
Assessing the Cumulative Impacts of Wind Farms on Birds Masden, E. April 2010 Thesis Wind Energy general N/A N/A
Testing the Performances of Automated Identification of Bat Echolocation Calls: A Request for Prudence Rydell, J., et al. July 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Bats
Wind Turbine Sensor Array for Monitoring Avian and Bat Collisions Hu, C., Albertani, R., Suryan, R. April 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Tradeoff Analysis of Energy Harvesting and Noise Emission for Distributed Wind Turbines Shaltout, M., et al. June 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general Noise N/A
Environmental Impact and Control Measures of New Wind Power Projects Zheng, L., Zheng, L., Wei, L. January 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A N/A
Bats May Eat Diurnal Flies that Rest on Wind Turbines Rydell, J., et al. May 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Bats
The Influence of Group Size and Social Interactions on Collision Risk with Obstacles Croft, S., et al. December 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Birds
Ecological Impacts of Wind Farms on Birds: Questions, Hypotheses, and Research Needs Wang, S., Wang, S., Smith, P. April 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Birds
Wind Energy: Increasing Deployment, Rising Environmental Concerns Tabassum-Abbasi, et al. March 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general Energy Removal, Noise Farfield Environment, Socio-economics
Environmental Impact of Wind Energy Saidur, R., et al. June 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Bats, Birds, Nearfield Habitat
Wind Turbines and Birds: A Background Review for Environmental Assessment Kingsley, A., Whittam, B. May 2005 Report Wind Energy general N/A Bats, Birds
Wind Turbine Noise and Natural Sounds - Masking, Propagation and Modeling Bolin, K. April 2009 Thesis Wind Energy general Noise N/A
Bat Activity at Nacelle Height Over Forest Reers, H., et al. February 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general N/A Bats
A Method to Assess the Population-Level Consequences of Wind Energy Facilities on Bird and Bat Species Diffendorfer, J., et al. February 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general N/A Bats, Birds
Sharing Information on Environmental Effects of Wind Energy Development: WREN Hub Copping, A., Hanna, L., Whiting, J. February 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general N/A N/A
Future Research Directions to Reconcile Wind Turbine - Wildlife Interactions May, R., et al. February 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general N/A N/A
Wind Turbines and Birds in Germany - Examples of Current Knowledge, New Insights and Remaining Gaps Reichenbach, M. February 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general N/A Birds
Wind Farms in Areas of High Ornithological Value - Conflicts, Solutions, Challenges: The Case of Thrace, Greece Kafetzis, A., et al. February 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
The Challenges of Addressing Wildlife Impacts When Repowering Wind Energy Projects Smallwood, K. February 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Birds
Red Kites and Wind Farms - Telemetry Data from the Core Breeding Range Hötker, H., et al. February 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Birds, Passerines
Mitigating Bat Mortality with Turbine-Specific Curtailment Algorithms: A Model Based Approach Behr, O., et al. February 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Bats
Radar Assisted Shutdown on Demand Ensures Zero Soaring Bird Mortality at a Wind Farm Located in a Migratory Flyway Tomé, R., et al. February 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Birds
Life Cycle Assessment for Emerging Technologies: Case Studies for Photovoltaic and Wind Power Jungbluth, N., et al. November 2004 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Socio-economics, Life Cycle Assessment
Bird Communities and Wind Farms: A Phylogenetic and Morphological Approach Herrera-Alsina, L., et al. September 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Birds

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