Knowledge Base

The Knowledge Base provides access to information about the environmental effects of marine and wind energy, supporting OES-Environmental and WREN initiatives. Relevant documents and OES-Environmental metadata forms are compiled into a user-friendly table with advanced filtering. Filters may be selected on the right, or keywords entered in the Search Text box. Content may also be sorted alphabetically by clicking on column headers. More entries will load as you scroll down.


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Titlesort ascending Author* Date** Type of Content Technology Types Stressors Receptors
Ökobilanzierung von Schweizer Windenergie Eymann, L., et al. November 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Socio-economics, Climate Change, Life Cycle Assessment
Zooplankton Community Responses and the Relation to Environmental Factors from Established Offshore Wind Farms within the Rudong Coastal Area of China Wang, T., et al. July 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Nearfield Habitat
Year-Round Spatiotemporal Distribution of Harbour Porpoises Within and Around the Maryland Wind Energy Area Wingfield, J., et al. May 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Marine Mammals
WT-Bird: Bird Collision Recording for Offshore Wind Farms Wiggelinkhuizen, E., et al. November 2004 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds
WT-Bird: A Low Cost Solution for Detecting Bird Collisions Verhoef, J., et al. April 2004 Report Wind Energy general N/A Birds
Worldwide Synthesis and Analysis of Existing Information Regarding Environmental Effects of Alternative Energy Uses on the Outer Continental Shelf Michel, J., et al. July 2007 Report Marine Energy general, Ocean Current, OTEC, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles, Socio-economics
Worldviews as predictors of wind and solar energy support in Austria: Bridging social acceptance and risk perception research Sposato, R., Hampl, N. August 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Socio-economics
Wintering Sandhill Crane Exposure to Wind Energy Development in the Central and Southern Great Plains, USA Pearse, A., Brandt, D., Krapu, G. April 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Winter Resource Selection by Mule Deer on the Wyoming-Colorado Border Prior to Wind Energy Development Webb, S., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device N/A
Windy Business: Exploring a Local Wind Power Project in Germany Dennis, K. June 2017 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Winds of change – Predicting water-based recreationists' support and opposition for offshore wind energy development in the Great Lakes Ferguson, M., et al. February 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Recreation
Windpower and reindeer Strand, O., et al. March 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Terrestrial Mammals
Windpower and Grey Seals: An Impact Assessment of Potential Effects by Sea-Based Windpower Plants on a Local Seal Population Sundberg, J., Söderman, M. December 1999 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Windfarms and Birds: Calculating a Theoretical Collision Risk Assuming No Avoiding Action Band, W. January 2000 Report Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Windfarms and Birds: An Analysis of the Effects of Windfarms on Birds, and Guidance on Environmental Assessment Criteria and Site Selection Issues Langston, R., Pullan, J. September 2003 Report Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Windfarm Impacts on Blanket Peat Habitats in Scotland Dargie, T. May 2004 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Windfarm Design in the Light of Previous Experience Lloyd, A. January 1997 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Wind turbines in high quality habitat cause disproportionate increases in collision mortality of the white-tailed eagle Heuck, C., et al. August 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Wind turbines impact bat activity, leading to high losses of habitat use in a biodiversity hotspot Millon, L., et al. March 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Bats, Nearfield Habitat
Wind Turbines do Not Negatively Affect Nest Success in the Dickcissel (Spiza americana) Hatchett, W., et al. July 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
Wind turbines cause functional habitat loss for migratory soaring birds Marques, A.,, et al. February 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Raptors
Wind turbines cause chronic stress in badgers (Meles meles) in Great Britain Agnew, R., Smith, V., Fowkes, R. July 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Terrestrial Mammals
Wind Turbines as Overwintering Sites Attractive to an Invasive Lady Beetle, Harmonia axyridis Pallas (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) Dudek, K., Dudek, M., Tryjanowski, P. December 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A N/A
Wind turbines as landscape impediments to the migratory connectivity of bats Cryan, P. May 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Bats
Wind Turbines and Sensitive Bird Populations: A Spatial Planning Guide for On-Shore Wind Farm Developments in Cumbria Youngs, T., Shackleton, D. December 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Wind Turbines and Migratory Birds: Avoiding a Collision Between the Energy Industry and the Migratory Bird Treaty Act Evans, R. January 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Wind Turbines and Landscape van Grieken, M., Dower, B. May 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Socio-economics, Aesthetics
Wind Turbines and Coastal Recreation Demand Landry, C., et al. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Socio-economics, Recreation
Wind Turbines and Birds: A Guidance Document for Environmental Assessment Canadian Wildlife Service April 2007 Report Wind Energy general N/A Birds
Wind Turbines and Birds: A Background Review for Environmental Assessment Kingsley, A., Whittam, B. May 2005 Report Wind Energy general N/A Bats, Birds
Wind Turbines and Birds in Germany - Examples of Current Knowledge, New Insights and Remaining Gaps Reichenbach, M. February 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general N/A Birds
Wind Turbines and Birds in Flanders: Preliminary Study Results and Recommendations Everaert, J. January 2003 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Birds
Wind Turbines and Birds in Flanders (Belgium): Preliminary Summary of the Mortality Research Results Everaert, J., Kuijken, E. June 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Wind Turbines and Bats - Guidelines for an Assessment Study and for Planning Aspects Rahmel, U., et al. January 2004 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Bats
Wind Turbines and Bats - A Pilot Study Ahlén, I. December 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds, Passerines
Wind Turbines and Bat Mortality: Rotor Detectability Profiles Long, C., et al. October 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Wind Turbines and Bat Mortality: Interactions of Bat Echolocation Pulses with Moving Turbine Rotor Blades Long, C., et al. January 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Bats
Wind turbines and bat mortality: Doppler shift profiles and ultrasonic bat-like pulse reflection from moving turbine blades Long, C., Flint, J., Lepper, P. October 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Bats
Wind Turbines - Low Level Noise Sources Interfering with Restoration? Pedersen, E., Waye, K. January 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A N/A
Wind Turbine Underwater Noise and Marine Mammals: Implications of Current Knowledge and Data Needs Madsen, P., et al. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Wind Turbine Sound and Health Effects: An Expert Panel Review Colby, W., et al. December 2009 Report Wind Energy general Noise Socio-economics
Wind Turbine Sensor Array for Monitoring Avian and Bat Collisions Hu, C., Albertani, R., Suryan, R. April 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Wind Turbine Noise and Sleep: Pilot Studies on the Influence of Noise Characteristics Morsing, J., et al. November 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise Socio-economics
Wind Turbine Noise and Natural Sounds - Masking, Propagation and Modeling Bolin, K. April 2009 Thesis Wind Energy general Noise N/A
Wind Turbine Noise and Meteorological Influences Ramakrishnan, R., Sylvestre-Williams, N. September 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy general Noise N/A
Wind Turbine Noise - An Overview Bastasch, T., et al. January 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general Noise N/A
Wind Turbine Interactions with Wildlife and their Habitats: A Summary of Research Results and Priority Questions American Wind Wildlife Institute January 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Wind Turbine Interactions with Birds, Bats, and their Habitats: A Summary of Research Results and Priority Questions National Wind Coordinating Collaborative March 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds, Nearfield Habitat
Wind Turbine Interactions with Birds and Bats: A Summary of Research Results and Remaining Questions National Wind Coordinating Committee November 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Wind turbine impact on near-ground air temperature Moravec, D., et al. August 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Farfield Environment
Wind Turbine Guidelines Advisory Committee Recommendations US Fish and Wildlife Service March 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds, Fish
Wind Turbine Fatalities Approach a Level of Concern in a Raptor Population Bellebaum, J., et al. December 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Wind Turbine Effects on Avian Activity, Habitat Use, and Mortality in the Altamont Pass and Solano County Wind Resource Areas, 1989-1991 Orloff, S., Flannery, A. March 1992 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
Wind Turbine Bird Strike Prevention System Method and Apparatus Piesinger, G. June 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Wind Turbine Acoustic Standards Shepherd, K., Stephens, D., Grosveld, F. May 1981 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise N/A
Wind Power, Wildlife, and the Migratory Bird Treaty Act: A Way Forward Lilley, M., Firestone, J. November 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Birds
Wind Power Siting, Incentives, and Wildlife Guidelines in the United States Stemler, J. October 2007 Report Wind Energy general N/A N/A
Wind Power Siting Regulations and Wildlife Guidelines in the United States Stemler, J. April 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Wind Power Plants and the Conservation of Birds and Bats in Spain: A Geographical Assessment Telleria, J. June 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Bats, Birds, Raptors, Shorebirds
Wind Power in Wyoming: Doing it Smart from the Start Biodiversity Conservation Alliance November 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Wind power gone bad: Critiquing wind power planning processes in northeastern Brazil Gorayeb, A., et al. June 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Wind Power Deployment as a Stressor for Ecosystem Services: A Comparative Case Study from Germany and Sweden Lauf, T., et al. February 2019 Book Chapter Wind Energy general N/A Socio-economics
Wind Power Compensation is not for the Birds: An Opinion from an Environmental Economist Cole, S. February 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors
Wind Power Company Compliance with Mitigation Plans in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area Smallwood, K. April 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Wind Power and the Local Environment - No Free Lunches Plowden, B. March 1992 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Wind Power and Planning: The Environmental Impact of Windfarms in the UK Coles, R., Taylor, J. July 1993 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Noise, Static Device Birds, Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Wind Power and Externalities Zerrahn, A. November 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Socio-economics
Wind power and community benefits: Challenges and opportunities Aitken, M. October 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Socio-economics
Wind Power and Birds at Smøla 2003-2006 Follestad, A., et al. June 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors
Wind of Change or Wind of Challenges: Implementation Factors Regarding Wind Energy Development, an International Perspective Gartman, V., et al. December 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Socio-economics
Wind Industry in Portugal and Its Impacts on Wildlife: Special Focus on Spatial and Temporal Distribution on Bird and Bat Fatalities Marqués, J., et al. September 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Wind in the sails or choppy seas?: People-place relations, aesthetics and public support for the United States’ first offshore wind project Firestone, J., et al. June 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Aesthetics
Wind in power: 2013 European statistics European Wind Energy Association February 2014 Report Wind Energy general N/A N/A
Wind in our Sails - The Coming of Europe's Offshore Wind Energy Industry European Wind Energy Association November 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Wind farms, farmland occupation and compensation: Evidences from landowners’ preferences through a stated choice survey in Italy Sardaro, R., Faccilongo, N., Roselli, L. October 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
Wind farms' deadly reputation hard to shift Marris, E., Fairless, D. May 2007 Magazine Article Wind Energy general N/A Birds
Wind Farms Threaten Southern Africa's Cliff-Nesting Vultures Rushworth, I., Kruger, S. May 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Wind farms in Thrace: Updating the proposal for proper site selection WWF Greece September 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
Wind Farms in Areas of High Ornithological Value - Conflicts, Solutions, Challenges: The Case of Thrace, Greece Kafetzis, A., et al. February 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Wind farms have cascading impacts on ecosystems across trophic levels Thaker, M., Zambre, A., Bhosale, H. December 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors, Ecosystem
Wind Farms and Mires in the Basque Country and North-West Navarra, Spain Heras, P., Infante, M. July 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Nearfield Habitat
Wind Farms and Birds: Interim Standards For Risk Assessment Brett Lane & Associates, ARIA Professional Services July 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Wind Farms and Birds: An Updated Analysis of the Effects of Wind Farms on Birds, and Best Practice Guidance on Integrated Planning and Impact Assessment Gove, B., et al. September 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind N/A Birds
Wind Farms and Biodiversity: Improving Environmental Risk Assessments Boothroyd, I., Barea, L. January 2015 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Ecosystem
Wind farms affect the occurrence, abundance and population trends of small passerine birds: The case of the Dupont's lark Gomez-Catasus, J., Garza, V., Traba, J. July 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Passerines
Wind farms - Where and how to place them? A choice experiment approach to measure consumer preferences for characteristics of wind farm establishments in Sweden Ek, K., Persson, L. September 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
Wind Farm Related Mortality Among Avian Migrants - A Remote Sensing Study and Model Analysis Desholm, M. August 2006 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Wind Farm Potential is Higher in Prime Habitat for Uncommon Soil Crust Lichens Root, H., McCune, M., McCune, B. May 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates
Wind Farm Planning at the Gulf of Suez Clausen, N., et al. November 2004 Report Wind Energy general N/A Birds
Wind Farm Noise Assessment in Australia and Model Comparison Tickell, C. June 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general Noise N/A
Wind Farm Location and Environmental Impact Clarke, A. January 1989 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise, Static Device Birds
Wind Farm Le Peuchapatte: Analysis of Bat Recordings and Evaluation of Mitigation Measures Brossard, C., et al. March 2018 Report Wind Energy general N/A Bats
Wind Farm Facilities in Germany Kill Noctule Bats from Near and Far Lehnert, L., et al. August 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Wind farm externalities and public preferences for community consultation in Ireland: A discrete choice experiments approach Brennan, N., Van Rensburg, T. July 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
Wind Farm Construction Impacts Reindeer Migration and Movement Corridors Skarin, A., et al. October 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A N/A
Wind Energy’s Impacts on Birds in South Africa: A Preliminary Review of the Results of Operational Monitoring at the First Wind Farms of the Renewable Energy Independent Power Producer Procurement Programme in South Africa Ralston-Paton, S., et al. January 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Wind energy: Trends and enabling technologies Kumar, Y., et al. January 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A N/A
Wind energy: renewable energy and the environment Nelson, V., Starcher, K. January 2019 Book Wind Energy general N/A N/A
Wind Energy: Increasing Deployment, Rising Environmental Concerns Tabassum-Abbasi, et al. March 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general Energy Removal, Noise Farfield Environment, Socio-economics
Wind Energy: A Reference Handbook Newton, D. November 2014 Book Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Noise, Static Device Socio-economics

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