Knowledge Base

The Knowledge Base provides access to information about the environmental effects of marine and wind energy, supporting OES-Environmental and WREN initiatives. Relevant documents and OES-Environmental metadata forms are compiled into a user-friendly table with advanced filtering. Filters may be selected on the right, or keywords entered in the Search Text box. Content may also be sorted alphabetically by clicking on column headers. More entries will load as you scroll down.


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Titlesort ascending Author* Date** Type of Content Technology Types Stressors Receptors
WT-Bird: Bird Collision Recording for Offshore Wind Farms Wiggelinkhuizen, E., et al. November 2004 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Windfarm Impacts on Blanket Peat Habitats in Scotland Dargie, T. May 2004 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Windfarm Design in the Light of Previous Experience Lloyd, A. January 1997 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Wind Turbine Acoustic Standards Shepherd, K., Stephens, D., Grosveld, F. May 1981 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise N/A
Wind Power and the Local Environment - No Free Lunches Plowden, B. March 1992 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Wind Energy Development, Prescribed Fire and Migratory Land Birds in the Southeastern United States: Breeding, Stopover, and Wintering Habitat Relationships Brennan, L., Ballard, B., Kuvlesky, W. October 2009 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Nearfield Habitat
Wind and Wildlife Fauna Collisions with Wind Turbines: Effects and Impacts, Individuals and Populations. What Are We Trying to Assess? Smales, I. October 2014 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Whooping Crane and Sandhill Crane Monitoring at Five Wind Energy Facilities Derby, C., Welsch, M., Thorn, T. January 2018 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Shorebirds
Whooper Swan Cygnus cygnus Migration in Relation to Offshore Wind Farms Griffin, L., Rees, E., Hughes, B. October 2010 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Waterfowl
Warning Sounds and Color for Reducing Bird and Bat Mortality at Wind Turbines Khan, S. October 2014 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Visual Impact Assessment: There's More to it than Meets the Eye! Robotham, A., Quilleash, P., Hempstead, H. March 1992 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Socio-economics, Aesthetics
Underwater Noise Generated from Marine Piling Robinson, S., Theobald, P., Lepper, P. January 2013 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Ultrasonic noise emissions from wind turbines: Potential effects on bat species Long, C., Lepper, P., Flint, J. July 2011 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise Bats
Turbine Height as a Management Tool for Collision Risk to Birds at Offshore Wind Farms Davies, I., Band, B. September 2012 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Towers, Turbines, Power Lines, and Buildings-Steps Being Taken by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to Avoid or Minimize Take of Migratory Birds at these Structures Manville, A. October 2009 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
The New Noise Mitigation System 'Hydro Sound Dampers': History of Development with Several Hydro Sound and Vibration Measurements Burns, B., et al. November 2014 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
The Measurement of the Underwater Radiated Noise from Marine Piling Including Characterisation of a "Soft Start" Period Robinson, S., Lepper, P., Ablitt, J. June 2007 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
The Development of Benthic Communities on Hard Substrates within OWEZ, the First Dutch Offshore Wind Farm Noordzee Wind September 2012 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
The Birds of Blyth Harbour Still, D., et al. June 1994 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Shorebirds
The BIO-acoustic feature extraction and classification of bat echolocation calls Mirzaei, G., et al. May 2012 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
The Added Value of 'Small-Scale' Monitoring of the Soft-Sediment Endobenthos around Offshore Wind Farms in the Belgian Part of the North Sea Coates, D., Vanaverbeke, M., Magda, V. September 2012 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Status of the U.S. Department of Energy/National Renewable Energy Laboratory Avian Research Program Sinclair, K. June 1999 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Status of Avian Research at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory Sinclair, K. June 2001 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Soundscape Analysis and Wildlife Presence in the Vicinity of a Wind Turbine Florentin, J., et al. June 2015 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise N/A
Small Scale Distribution of Fish in Offshore Wind Farms Hansen, K., Stenberg, C., Møller, P. September 2012 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Fish
Simulating Environmental Changes Due to Marine Hydrokinetic Energy Installations James, S., et al. September 2010 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Review of the Current State of Knowledge on the Environmental Impacts of the Location, Operation and Removal/Disposal of Offshore Wind-Farms OSPAR Commission April 2006 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Birds, Socio-economics
Review of Literature and Studies on Electro Magnetic Fields (EMF) Generated by Undersea Power Cables and Associated Influence on Marine Organisms Switzer, T., Meggitt, D. September 2010 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF N/A
Responses of Harbour Porpoises to Pile Driving on a Temporal and Spatial Scale Braasch, A., Joost, M., Ketzer, C. February 2013 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Report of the IWG on Wind Turbines and Bat Populations 2018 Rodrigues, L. May 2018 Conference Paper Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Report of the IWG on Wind Turbines and Bat Populations 2017 Rodrigues, L. March 2017 Conference Paper Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Report of the IWG on Wind Turbines and Bat Populations 2016 Rodrigues, L. April 2016 Conference Paper Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Report of the IWG on Wind Turbines and Bat Populations 2015 Rodrigues, L. March 2015 Conference Paper Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Report of the IWG on Wind Turbines and Bat Populations 2014 Rodrigues, L. April 2014 Conference Paper Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Report of the IWG on Wind Turbines and Bat Populations 2013 Rodrigues, L. April 2013 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Report of the IWG on Wind Turbines and Bat Populations 2012 Rodrigues, L. May 2012 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Report of the Intersessional Working Group on Wind Turbines and Bat Populations Rodrigues, L., et al. April 2005 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Renewable Energy Resources and Wildlife: Impacts and Opportunities Arnett, E., Strickland, M., Morrison, M. February 2007 Conference Paper Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds, Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Climate Change
Real-Time Environmental Monitoring from a Wind Farm Platform in the Texas Hypoxia Zone Mullins, R., et al. October 2009 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Quantification of Bird Migration Using Doppler Weather Surveillance Radars (NEXRAD) Mirzaei, G., et al. April 2013 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Proceedings of Wind Energy and Wildlife: The Good, the Bad... the Possible Kathy, B., MacGregor, G., Grodner, S. May 2005 Conference Paper Wind Energy general N/A Birds, Ecosystem
Proceedings of the Wind-Wildlife Research Meeting XII PNWWRM XII March 2019 Conference Paper Wind Energy general N/A N/A
Proceedings of the Wind-Wildlife Research Meeting XI Schwartz, S. May 2017 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device N/A
Proceedings of the Wind-Wildlife Research Meeting X Schwartz, S. April 2015 Conference Paper Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Proceedings of the Wind-Wildlife Research Meeting IX American Wind Wildlife Institute November 2012 Conference Paper Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds, Nearfield Habitat
Proceedings of the Wind Wildlife Research Meeting VIII Schwartz, S. April 2011 Conference Paper Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Proceedings of the Wind Wildlife Research Meeting VII Schwartz, S. June 2009 Conference Paper Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Proceedings of the Wind Energy and Birds/Bats Workshop: Understanding and Resolving Bird and Bat Impacts Schwartz, S. May 2004 Conference Paper Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Proceedings of the Oregon Marine Renewable Energy Environmental Sciences Conference Boehlert, G., et al. April 2013 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF, Energy Removal, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles, Socio-economics
Proceedings of the Onshore Wildlife Interactions with Wind Developments: Research Meeting V Schwartz, S. March 2005 Conference Paper Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Proceedings of the NWCC Wildlife Workgroup Research Planning Meeting VI Schwartz, S. March 2007 Conference Paper Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Proceedings of the National Avian - Wind Power Planning Meeting IV RESOLVE May 2001 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds, Raptors
Proceedings of the National Avian - Wind Power Planning Meeting III LGL June 2000 Conference Paper Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Proceedings of the National Avian - Wind Power Planning Meeting II LGL January 1996 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Proceedings of the National Avian - Wind Power Planning Meeting LGL April 1995 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Proceedings of the Fourth International Partners in Flight Conference: Tundra to Tropics Rich, T., et al. October 2009 Conference Paper Wind Energy general N/A Birds
Proceedings AWEA / Audubon Workshop on Understanding and Resolving Bird and Bat Impacts American Wind Energy Association January 2006 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Problems and Benefits Associated with the Development of Offshore Wind-Farms OSPAR Commission January 2004 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device N/A
Predicting the Response of Bird Populations to Wind Energy-Related Deaths Morrison, M., et al. January 1998 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors, Seabirds, Waterfowl, Ecosystem
Potential Scour for Marine Current Turbines Based on Experience of Offshore Wind Turbine Chen, L., Lam, W., Shamsuddin, A. June 2013 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal, Static Device Nearfield Habitat
Potential Impacts of Wind Farm Energy Development on Upland Game Birds: Questions and Concerns Brennan, L., et al. October 2009 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Passerines
Potential Impacts from a Worst Case Discharge from an United States Offshore Wind Farm Gunter, T. January 2014 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals N/A
Potential Impact of the Massachusetts Maritime Academy Wind Turbine on Common and Roseate Terns Vlietstra, L. June 2007 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds
Potential Impact of the Massachusetts Maritime Academy Wind Turbine on Common (Sterna hirundo) and Roseate (S. dougallii) Terns Vlietstra, L. June 2007 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds
Potential Impact of Submarine Power Cables on Crab Harvest Bull, A., Nishimoto, M. February 2016 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF Benthic Invertebrates
Post-Construction Results from The North Hoyle Offshore Wind Farm May, J. September 2005 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Marine Mammals
Overview of the U.S. Department of Energy/National Renewable Energy Laboratory Avian Research Program Sinclair, K., Morrison, M. June 1997 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
On the Prediction of Pile Driving Induced Underwater Sound Pressure Levels Over Long Ranges Lippert, T., et al. July 2013 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Farfield Environment
Offshore Wind Turbines: An Overview of the Effects on the Marine Environment Riefolo, L., et al. July 2016 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Offshore Wind Farms and their Impact on Fish Abundance and Community Structure Stenberg, C., et al. September 2012 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Fish
Noise Mitigation Measures and Low-noise Foundation Concepts - State of the Art Verfuß, T. January 2012 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Noise Generation of Upwind Rotor Wind Turbine Generators Spencer, R. February 1981 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise N/A
New Hydro Sound Dampers to Reduce Piling Underwater Noise Elmer, K., Savery, J. November 2014 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
New Achievements in Underwater Noise Modelling for Offshore Pile Driving Trimoreau, B., et al. November 2014 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Multi-Platform Concepts for Combining Offshore Wind Energy and Fish Farming in Freezing Sea Areas: Case Study in the Gulf of Bothnia Mikkola, E., et al. June 2018 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Fish
Mooring System Considerations for Renewable Energy Standards Cribbs, A., et al. May 2017 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device N/A
Modelling Potential Changes in Marine Biogeochemistry due to Large-Scale Offshore Wind Farms van der Molen, J., Rees, J., Limpenny, S. April 2013 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Modelling impacts of offshore wind farms on trophic web: the Courseulles-sur-Mer case study Raoux, A., et al. April 2016 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Ecosystem
Model for Underwater Noise Radiated by Submerged Wind Turbine Towers Hay, T., et al. June 2013 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Mitigation of Underwater Piling Noise Using New Hydro Sound Dampers (HSD) Elmer, K., et al. September 2011 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Nearfield Habitat
Mitigation of Low-Frequency Underwater Anthropogenic Noise using Stationary Encapsulated Gas Bubbles Lee, K., Wochner, M., Wilson, P. November 2012 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Method for Predicting Impulsive Noise Generated by Wind Turbine Rotors Viterna, L. May 1982 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise N/A
Measured and Calculated Characteristics of Wind Turbine Noise Greene, G. February 1981 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise N/A
Massive Bat Migration Across the Alps: Implications for Wind Energy Development Bontadina, F., et al. October 2014 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Marine Wind Farms and Cetaceans Doleman, S., Simmonds, M., Keith, S. May 2003 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Localization of Southern Resident Killer Whales Using Two Star Arrays to Support Marine Renewable Energy Ren, H., et al. October 2012 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Life Cycle Assessment of a 150 MW Offshore Wind Turbine Farm at Nysted/Roedsand, Denmark Properzi, S., Herk-Hansen, H. July 2001 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Life Cycle Assessment
Land-Use Conflicts in the Sudetes, Poland Furmankiewicz, M., Potocki, J., Kazak, J. January 2019 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Socio-economics
Is bird conservation a barrier to wind energy? Aversa, I., Polizel, J., Montaño, M. May 2018 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Is a German Harbour Porpoise Much More Sensitive than a British One? Comparative Analyses of Mandatory Measures for the Protection of Harbour Porposes (Phocoena phocoena) During Offshore Wind Farm Ramming in Germany, Denmark and the UK Luedeke, J. December 2012 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Installing Offshore Wind Turbine Foundations Quieter: A Performance Overview of the First Full-Scale Demonstration of the AdBm Underwater Noise Abatement System Elzinga, J., et al. May 2019 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Impacts of Wind Farms on Birds in Evros and Rhodopi, Greece: Pleminary results Ruiz, G., Poirazidis, K., Schindler, S. January 2006 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Impacts of Energy Development on Prairie Grouse Ecology: A Research Synthesis Hagen, C. March 2010 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
Hydro Sound Measurements during the Installation of Large Diameter Offshore Piles using Combinations of Independent Noise Mitigation Systems Burns, B., et al. November 2014 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Hybrid Wave and Offshore Wind Farms: a Comparative Case Study of Co-located Layouts [Conference Paper] Astariz, S., et al. September 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
GE MOD-1 Noise Study Wells, R. May 1981 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise N/A
Fuzzy Clustering in Avian Infrared Imagery Application Mirzaei, G., et al. June 2014 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Field Testing of Multiple Sensors in an Underwater Environment Monitoring System Chan, H., et al. April 2014 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Feasibility and LCA for a Wave Dragon platform with wind turbines Soerensen, H.C., et al. June 2016 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Life Cycle Assessment
Evaluations of Wind Potential in Dobrogea Plateau Sabafu, A., Tudor, D. January 2013 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise Birds

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