Knowledge Base

The Knowledge Base provides access to information about the environmental effects of marine and wind energy, supporting OES-Environmental and WREN initiatives. Relevant documents and OES-Environmental metadata forms are compiled into a user-friendly table with advanced filtering. Filters may be selected on the right, or keywords entered in the Search Text box. Content may also be sorted alphabetically by clicking on column headers. More entries will load as you scroll down.


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Titlesort ascending Author* Date** Type of Content Technology Types Stressors Receptors
Ökobilanzierung von Schweizer Windenergie Eymann, L., et al. November 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Socio-economics, Climate Change, Life Cycle Assessment
WT-Bird: A Low Cost Solution for Detecting Bird Collisions Verhoef, J., et al. April 2004 Report Wind Energy general N/A Birds
Worldwide Synthesis and Analysis of Existing Information Regarding Environmental Effects of Alternative Energy Uses on the Outer Continental Shelf Michel, J., et al. July 2007 Report Marine Energy general, Ocean Current, OTEC, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles, Socio-economics
Windpower and reindeer Strand, O., et al. March 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Terrestrial Mammals
Windpower and Grey Seals: An Impact Assessment of Potential Effects by Sea-Based Windpower Plants on a Local Seal Population Sundberg, J., Söderman, M. December 1999 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Windfarms and Birds: Calculating a Theoretical Collision Risk Assuming No Avoiding Action Band, W. January 2000 Report Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Windfarms and Birds: An Analysis of the Effects of Windfarms on Birds, and Guidance on Environmental Assessment Criteria and Site Selection Issues Langston, R., Pullan, J. September 2003 Report Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Wind Turbines and Sensitive Bird Populations: A Spatial Planning Guide for On-Shore Wind Farm Developments in Cumbria Youngs, T., Shackleton, D. December 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Wind Turbines and Birds: A Guidance Document for Environmental Assessment Canadian Wildlife Service April 2007 Report Wind Energy general N/A Birds
Wind Turbines and Birds: A Background Review for Environmental Assessment Kingsley, A., Whittam, B. May 2005 Report Wind Energy general N/A Bats, Birds
Wind Turbines and Birds in Flanders (Belgium): Preliminary Summary of the Mortality Research Results Everaert, J., Kuijken, E. June 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Wind Turbines and Bats - A Pilot Study Ahlén, I. December 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds, Passerines
Wind Turbine Sound and Health Effects: An Expert Panel Review Colby, W., et al. December 2009 Report Wind Energy general Noise Socio-economics
Wind Turbine Interactions with Wildlife and their Habitats: A Summary of Research Results and Priority Questions American Wind Wildlife Institute January 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Wind Turbine Interactions with Birds, Bats, and their Habitats: A Summary of Research Results and Priority Questions National Wind Coordinating Collaborative March 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds, Nearfield Habitat
Wind Turbine Interactions with Birds and Bats: A Summary of Research Results and Remaining Questions National Wind Coordinating Committee November 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Wind Turbine Guidelines Advisory Committee Recommendations US Fish and Wildlife Service March 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds, Fish
Wind Turbine Effects on Avian Activity, Habitat Use, and Mortality in the Altamont Pass and Solano County Wind Resource Areas, 1989-1991 Orloff, S., Flannery, A. March 1992 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
Wind Turbine Bird Strike Prevention System Method and Apparatus Piesinger, G. June 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Wind Power Siting, Incentives, and Wildlife Guidelines in the United States Stemler, J. October 2007 Report Wind Energy general N/A N/A
Wind Power Siting Regulations and Wildlife Guidelines in the United States Stemler, J. April 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Wind Power in Wyoming: Doing it Smart from the Start Biodiversity Conservation Alliance November 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Wind Power and Birds at Smøla 2003-2006 Follestad, A., et al. June 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors
Wind in power: 2013 European statistics European Wind Energy Association February 2014 Report Wind Energy general N/A N/A
Wind in our Sails - The Coming of Europe's Offshore Wind Energy Industry European Wind Energy Association November 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Wind farms in Thrace: Updating the proposal for proper site selection WWF Greece September 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
Wind Farms and Birds: Interim Standards For Risk Assessment Brett Lane & Associates, ARIA Professional Services July 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Wind Farms and Birds: An Updated Analysis of the Effects of Wind Farms on Birds, and Best Practice Guidance on Integrated Planning and Impact Assessment Gove, B., et al. September 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind N/A Birds
Wind Farm Planning at the Gulf of Suez Clausen, N., et al. November 2004 Report Wind Energy general N/A Birds
Wind Farm Le Peuchapatte: Analysis of Bat Recordings and Evaluation of Mitigation Measures Brossard, C., et al. March 2018 Report Wind Energy general N/A Bats
Wind Energy’s Impacts on Birds in South Africa: A Preliminary Review of the Results of Operational Monitoring at the First Wind Farms of the Renewable Energy Independent Power Producer Procurement Programme in South Africa Ralston-Paton, S., et al. January 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Wind Energy Industry Eagle Detection and Deterrents: Research Gaps and Solutions Workshop Summary Report Sinclair, K., DeGeorge, E. April 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Wind energy developments and Natura 2000 European Union January 2011 Report Wind Energy general N/A Bats, Birds, Socio-economics, Climate Change
Wind Energy Development Specialist Report: Kiowa, Rita Blanca, Black Kettle and McClellan Creek National Grasslands Plan Revision Environmental Impact Statement Hall, D. May 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device N/A
Wind Energy and Bat Conservation - A Review by the Canadian Wind Energy Association Barnes, R., Hill, M., Peters, K. August 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Wind Energy and Air Emission Reduction Benefits: A Primer Jacobson, D., High, C. February 2008 Report Wind Energy general N/A Socio-economics, Climate Change
Wind & Wildlife Key Research Topics National Wind Coordinating Collaborative May 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Wildlife Monitoring Studies: SeaWest Windpower Project, Carbon County, Wyoming: 1995-1999 Johnson, G., et al. August 2000 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds, Raptors, Shorebirds
Wildlife Baseline Study for the Wild Horse Wind Project- Summary of Results from 2002-2003 Wildlife Surveys Erickson, W., et al. November 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A N/A
Wildlife Baseline Study for the Kittitas Valley Wind Project: Summary of Results from 2002 Wildlife Surveys Erickson, W., et al. January 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
Wildlife Baseline Studies for the Buffalo Ridge II Wind Resource Area Brookings and Deuel Counties, South Dakota Final Report March 2008 - November 2008 Derby, C., et al. December 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A N/A
Wildlife and Habitat Baseline Study for the Whiskey Ridge Wind Power Project, Kittitas County, Washington Western Ecosystems Technology Inc (WEST) May 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
Whooping Cranes and Wind Development - An Issue Paper US Fish and Wildlife Service April 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Shorebirds
White Pines Wind Project: Natural Heritage Assessment and Environmental Impact Study Stantec Consulting May 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
West Coast Environmental Protocols Framework: Baseline and Monitoring Studies Klure, J., et al. September 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Sea Turtles
Weighing Natural Variability and Anthropogenic Impacts: A Case Study of Demersal Fish and Epibenthic Communities in the Belgian Part of the North Sea De Backer, A., et al. January 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife Wind Power Guidelines Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife April 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds, Nearfield Habitat
Wake Effects on Middelgrund Windfarm Jørgensen, H., Frandsen, S., Vølund, P. July 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Nearfield Habitat
Vulnerability of Scottish Seabirds to Offshore Wind Turbines Furness, B., Wade, H. February 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Visual Representation of Wind Farms - Version 2.2 N/A February 2017 Report Wind Energy general N/A Socio-economics, Aesthetics
Visual and Radar Observations of Birds in Relation to Collision Risk at the Horns Rev Offshore Wind Farm Christensen, T., et al. January 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds
Virginia Offshore Wind Technology Advancement Project on the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf Offshore Virginia Environmental Assessment Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Office of Renewable Energy Programs December 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Verreauxs' Eagle and Wind Farms: Guidelines for Impact Assessment, Monitoring, and Mitigation BirdLife South Africa March 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
Vegetation Types and Valuable Habitats at the Islets Sandholmene in Rost Municipality, Nordland County - Impact Assessment in Relation to Planned Construction of Wind Power Station Bjerke, J. March 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Nearfield Habitat
Utgrunden Offshore Wind Farm Measurements of Underwater Noise Ingemansson Technology June 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Using GPS Transmitters to Explore Movement Ecology and to Assess Risk of the Wind Energy Industry for Swainson's Hawks Watson, K., et al. September 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
Using a Collision Risk Model to Assess Bird Collision Risks for Offshore Wind Farms Band, B. March 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds
User Guide for the MRSea Package: Marine Renewables Strategic Environmental Assessment Scott-Hayward, L., et al. October 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Marine Mammals
Use of High Resolution Sonar for Near-Turbine Fish Observations (DIDSON) - WeSea 2007-002 Couperus, B., et al. November 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Fish
Use of Aerial Surveys to Detect Bird Displacement by Offshore Windfarms Maclean, I., et al. October 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Upscaling positive effects of scour protection in offshore wind farms Coolen, J., et al. January 2019 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Upper Great Plains Wind Energy Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement: Volume 2 US Department of Energy, et al. April 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A N/A
Upper Great Plains Wind Energy Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement: Volume 1 US Department of Energy, et al. April 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A N/A
Updated Summary of Knowledge: Selected Areas of the Pacific Coast Kaplan, B., et al. July 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Ecosystem, Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles, Socio-economics
Underwater Radiated Noise Due to the Piling for the Q7 Offshore Wind Park de Jong, C., Ainslie, M. June 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Underwater Noise Measurements, Analysis, and Predictions Degn, U. March 2000 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Underwater Noise Emissions from Offshore Wind Turbines Betke, K., Schultz-von Glahn, M., Matuschek, R. January 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Underwater Acoustic Modeling Report - Virginia Offshore Wind Technology Advancement Project (VOWTAP) Tetra Tech December 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Understanding the Risk of European Protected Species (Bats) at Onshore Wind Turbine Sites to Inform Risk Management Mathews, F., et al. October 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Understanding the Potential for Marine Megafauna Entanglement Risk from Marine Renewable Energy Developments Benjamins, S., et al. January 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Understanding the Evidence: Wind Turbine Noise Council of Canadian Academies January 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise N/A
Ultrasound Emissions from Wind Turbines as a Potential Attractant to Bats: A Preliminary Investigation Szewczak, J., Arnett, E. May 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Ultrasonic Bat Deterrent Technology Kinzie, K. June 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
U.S. Offshore Wind Manufacturing and Supply Chain Development Navigant Consulting February 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
U.S. Job Creation in Offshore Wind: A Report for the Roadmap Project for Multi-State Cooperation on Offshore Wind BVG Associates October 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
U.S. Geological Survey—Energy and Wildlife Research Annual Report for 2016 Khalil, M. January 2016 Report Wind Energy general N/A Bats, Birds, Terrestrial Mammals
U.S. Geological Survey energy and wildlife research annual report for 2018 Khalil, M. October 2018 Report Wind Energy general N/A Bats, Birds, Fish, Terrestrial Mammals
U.S. Geological Survey - Energy and Wildlife Research Annual Report for 2017 Khalil, M. December 2017 Report Wind Energy general N/A Bats, Birds, Fish, Terrestrial Mammals
Turbine Search Methods and Carcass Removal Trials at the Braes of Doune Windfarm Duffy, K., Steward, M. April 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
TROPOS Project Final Report Brito, J. March 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Triton Knoll Environmental Impact Assessment Scoping Report Wilson, M., Ireland, P. July 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Trial High Definition Video Survey of Seabirds Mellor, M., et al. September 2007 Report Wind Energy general N/A Birds, Seabirds
Towards Standardised Seabirds at Sea Census Techniques in Connection with Environmental Impact Assessments for Offshore Wind Farms in the UK Camphuysen, K., et al. April 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds
Tiree Onshore Scenario Mapping Ironside Farrar March 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Threats From Industrial Wind Turbines to Ontario’s Wildlife and Biodiversity Stelling, K., Petrie, S. January 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A N/A
Thirty Years of North American Wind Energy Acceptance Research: What have we Learned? Rand, J., Hoen, B. June 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
Thermal Animal Detection System (TADS): Development of a Method for Estimating Collision Frequency of Migrating Birds at Offshore Wind Turbines Desholm, M. January 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Passerines, Seabirds, Waterfowl
The Turning Point for Atlantic Offshore Wind Energy: Time for Action to Create Jobs, Reduce Pollution, Protect Wildlife, and Secure America's Energy Future Bowes, C., Allegro, J. September 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
The Trend of Golden Eagle Territory Occupancy in the Vicinity of the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area: 2005 Survey Hunt, G., Hunt, T. June 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
The State of the Birds United States of America 2009 North American Bird Conservation Initiative January 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl
The Social Acceptance of Wind Energy: Where We Stand and the Path Ahead Ellis, G., Ferraro, G. January 2016 Report Wind Energy general N/A Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
The Shipping Industry and Marine Spatial Planning Patraiko, D., Holthus, P. November 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
The Rhode Island Ocean Special Area Management Plan 2008-2015: From Inception through Implementation Smythe, T., Andrescavage, N., Fox, C. January 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
The Relative Vulnerability of Migratory Bird Species to Offshore Wind Energy Projects on the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf: An Assessment Method and Database Willmott, J., Forcey, G., Kent, A. August 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
The Relation Between Birds and Wind Turbines and Other Aerial Obstacles - A Literature Survey Nygård, T., Bevanger, K., Reitan, O. November 2008 Report Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
The potential influence of Robin Rigg Wind Farm on the abundance of adult and juvenile Atlantic salmon Thorley, J. February 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Fish
The Potential Health Impact of Wind Turbines Chief Medical Officer of Heath of Ontario May 2010 Report Wind Energy general Noise Socio-economics
The Potential Effects of Electromagnetic Fields Generated by Cabling Between Offshore Wind Turbines upon Elasmobranch Fishes Gill, A., Taylor, H. September 2001 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF Fish
The Possible Effects of Wind Energy on Illinois Birds and Bats Illinois Department of Natural Resources June 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds, Raptors, Waterfowl
The Plan for Offshore Wind Energy in Scottish Territorial Waters Pre-Screening for Appropriate Assessment Halcrow Group June 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics

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