Knowledge Base

The Knowledge Base provides access to information about the environmental effects of marine and wind energy, supporting OES-Environmental and WREN initiatives. Relevant documents and OES-Environmental metadata forms are compiled into a user-friendly table with advanced filtering. Filters may be selected on the right, or keywords entered in the Search Text box. Content may also be sorted alphabetically by clicking on column headers. More entries will load as you scroll down.


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Title Author* Date** Type of Content Technology Typessort descending Stressors Receptors
EIA for Wind Farms in the United Kingdom and Germany Phylip-Jones, J., Fischer, T. May 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Application of the Analytic Hierarchy Process to a Sustainability Assessment of Coastal Beach Exploitation: A Case Study of the Wind Power Projects on the Coastal Beaches of Yancheng, China Tian, W., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Ecosystem, Socio-economics
Curtailing Wind Turbine Operations to Reduce Avian Mortality Singh, K., Baker, E., Lackner, M. June 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
Tradeoff Analysis of Energy Harvesting and Noise Emission for Distributed Wind Turbines Shaltout, M., et al. June 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general Noise N/A
Can Large Wind Farms Affect Local Meteorology? Baidya Roy, S., Pacala, S., Walko, R. October 2004 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Nearfield Habitat
What Flight Heights Tell Us About Foraging and Potential Conflicts with Wind Farms: A Case Study in Lesser Black-Backed Gulls (Larus fuscus) Corman, A., Garthe, S. October 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Bird Communities and Wind Farms: A Phylogenetic and Morphological Approach Herrera-Alsina, L., et al. September 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Birds
Low Frequency Noise and Infrasound from Wind Turbines O'Neal, R., Hellweg, R., Lampeter, R. March 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general Noise N/A
Ecological Impacts of Wind Farms on Birds: Questions, Hypotheses, and Research Needs Wang, S., Wang, S., Smith, P. April 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Birds
Consolidating the State of Knowledge: A Synoptical Review of Wind Energy's Wildlife Effects Schuster, E., Bulling, L., Köppel, J. August 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Bats, Birds, Marine Mammals
Improving Australia's Renewable Energy Project Policy and Planning: A Multiple Stakeholder Analysis Martin, N., Rice, J. September 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
A Unifying Framework for the Underlying Mechanisms of Avian Avoidance of Wind Turbines May, R. October 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general Static Device Birds
Wind Turbines and Bat Mortality: Interactions of Bat Echolocation Pulses with Moving Turbine Rotor Blades Long, C., et al. January 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Bats
Avian Collision Risk Models for Wind Energy Impact Assessments Masden, E., Cook, A. January 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Birds
From NIMBY to Acceptance: Toward a Novel Framework - VESPA - For Organizing and Interpreting Community Concerns Petrova, M. February 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Socio-economics, Aesthetics, Stakeholder Engagement
Another Blown in the Wind: Bats and the Licensing of Wind Farms in Brazil Valença, R., Bernard, E. October 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Assessment of the Environmental Impacts of a Wind Farm in Central Greece during its Life Cycle Abeliotis, K., Pactiti, D. January 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Socio-economics, Life Cycle Assessment
Auditory Recognition of Familiar and Unfamiliar Subjects with Wind Turbine Noise Maffei, L., et al. January 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise Socio-economics
Bat Deaths and Wind Turbines - A Review of Current Knowledge, and of the Information Available in the Database for Germany Durr, T., Bach, L. January 2004 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Bird Flight Characteristics Near Wind Turbines in Minnesota Osborn, R., et al. January 1998 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Passerines, Waterfowl
Bird Monitoring at Toronto's Exhibition Place Wind Turbine James, R., Coady, G. August 2004 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Bird Mortality at Rotor Swept Area Equivalents, Altamont Pass and Montezuma Hills, California Howell, J. January 1997 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Bird Movements and Collision Mortality at a Large Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine Byrne, S. January 1983 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Waterfowl
Blown in the Wind: Bats and Wind Farms in Brazil Bernard, E., et al. December 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Camera-Trapping as a Methodology to Assess the Persistence of Wildlife Carcasses Resulting from Collisions with Human-Made Structures Paula, J., et al. February 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device N/A
Co-Creation of Individual-Based Models by Practitioners and Modellers to Inform Environmental Decision-Making Wood, K., Stillman, R., Goss-Custard, J. August 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Socio-economics
Collision Mortality of Local and Migrant Birds at a Large-Scale Wind-Power Development on Buffalo Ridge, Minnesota Johnson, G., et al. August 2002 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
A Comment on "Bats Killed in Large Numbers at United States Wind Energy Facilities" Huso, M., Dalthorp, D. June 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
A Comparison of Perceptions towards Wind Power among Local and Foreign Residents of Jeju Island, South Korea Kojetin, D., Min, K. June 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Socio-economics
Decision Support Requirements for Wind Farm Placement Planning in Alberta Adagha, O., Carpendale, S., Levy, R. July 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A N/A
Do Habitat Characteristics Determine Mortality Risk for Bats at Wind Farms? Modelling Susceptible Species Activity Patterns and Anticipating Possible Mortality Events Ferreira, D., et al. July 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Effects of Wind Farm Construction and Operation on Mire and Wet Heath Vegetation in the Monte Maior SCI, North-West Spain Fagúndez, J. July 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A N/A
Effects of Wind Farms on Montagu's Harrier (Circus pygargus) in Southern Spain Hernández-Pliego, J., et al. November 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
Effects of Wind-Energy Facilities on Breeding Grassland Bird Distributions Shaffer, J., Buhl, D. February 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
The Energy Footprint: How Oil, Natural Gas, and Wind Energy Affect Land for Biodiversity and the Flow of Ecosystem Services Jones, N., Pejchar, L., Kiesecker, J. March 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A N/A
Environmental Characteristics of Desert Tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) Burrow Locations in an Altered Industrial Landscape Lovich, J., Daniels, R. January 2000 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A N/A
Estimates and Correlates of Bird and Bat Mortality at Small Wind Turbine Sites Minderman, J., et al. March 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Estimating Wind-Turbine Caused Bird and Bat Fatality when Zero Carcasses are Observed Huso, M., et al. July 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Evaluating the Regional Cumulative Impact of Wind Farms on Birds: How can Spatially Explicit Dynamic Modelling Improve Impact Assessments and Monitoring? Bastos, R., et al. May 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Passerines
Exploitation of Renewable Energy Sources and Sustainable Management of the Territory: Wind Farms in Regione Liguria Solari, P., Minervini, G. January 2004 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
First Report on Bat Mortalities on Wind Farms in Chile Escobar, L., et al. January 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Foraging Range and Habitat use by Cape Vulture Gyps coprotheres from the Msikaba Colony, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa Pfeiffer, M., Venter, J., Downs, C. May 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A N/A
Game Birds do not Surrogate for Raptors in Trials to Calibrate Observed Raptor Collision Fatalities Urquhart, B., Hulka, S., Duffy, K. June 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
A GIS-Based Multi-Criteria Evaluation for Wind Farm Site Selection: A Regional Scale Application in Greece Latinopoulos, D., Kechagia, K. June 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A N/A
Guidelines for Wind Power and Wildlife in Washington State, USA Ling, S., Linehan, A. January 2003 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Impact of Terrestrial Wind Farms on Diurnal Raptors: Developing a Spatial Vulnerability Index and Potential Vulnerability Maps Noguera, J., Pérez, I., Mínguez, E. June 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
Impacts of Wind Energy on Environment: A Review Wang, S., Wang, S. September 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
In Sowing the Wind, How Ireland could Reap the Whirlwind - A Case Against Irish Wind Development(s) Barrett, E. January 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Socio-economics
Insufficient Sampling to Identify Species Affected by Turbine Collisions Beston, J., Diffendorfer, J., Loss, S. April 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Landscapes for Energy and Wildlife: Conservation Prioritization for Golden Eagles across Large Spatial Scales Tack, J., Fedy, B. August 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
Monitoring the Potential Impact of A Wind Development Site on Bats in the Northeast Reynolds, D. January 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Peatland Vulnerability to Energy-Related Developments from Climate Change Policy in Ireland: The Case of Wind Farms Renou-Wilson, F., Farrell, C. May 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
The Potential for Electricity Generation from On-Shore Wind Energy Under the Constraints of Nature Conservation: A Case Study for Two Regions in Germany Krewitt, W., Nitsch, J. August 2003 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A N/A
Potential Wind Park Impacts on Whooper Swans in Winter: The Risk of Collision Larsen, J., Clausen, P. January 2002 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Waterfowl
Pre-Construction Bat Activity At Four Wind Energy Sites in Northeastern British Columbia Nagorsen, D., Robertson, I., Sarell, M. January 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
A Preliminary Evaluation on the Use of Dogs to Recover Bat Fatalities at Wind Energy Facilities Arnett, E. December 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
A Quantitative-Based Evaluation of the Environmental Impact and Sustainability of a Proposed Onshore Wind Farm in the United Kingdom Phillips, J. September 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A N/A
Raptor Displacement Due to the Construction of a Wind Farm: Preliminary Results After the First 2 Years Since the Construction Campedelli, T., et al. January 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A N/A
Reprioritizing Avian Conservation Efforts DeVault, T. April 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Research on Chinese Life Cycle-Based Wind Power Plant Environmental Influence Prevention Measures Wang, H., et al. August 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Socio-economics, Life Cycle Assessment
Research Program Concerning the Social and Environmental Aspects Related to the Windfarm Project of SEP Lubbers, F. January 1988 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Seasonally-Dynamic Presence-Only Species Distribution Models for a Cryptic Migratory Bat Impacted by Wind Energy Development Hayes, M., Cryan, P., Wunder, M. July 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Bats
Social Acceptance of On-Shore Wind Energy in Apulia Region (Southern Italy) Caporale, D., De Lucia, C. December 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
Sustainable Siting Process in Large Wind Farms Case Study in Crete Tsoutsos, T., et al. March 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Socio-economics
Turbines and Terrestrial Vertebrates: Variation in Tortoise Survivorship Between a Wind Energy Facility and an Adjacent Undisturbed Wildland Area in the Desert Southwest (USA) Agha, M., et al. August 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A N/A
Using Environmental Impact Assessment and Post-Construction Monitoring Data to Inform Wind Energy Developments Zwart, M., et al. February 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Ecosystem
Using Marine Surveillance Radar to Study Bird Movements and Impact Assessment Harmata, A., et al. April 1999 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Using Spatial Analyses of Bearded Vulture Movements in Southern Africa to Inform Wind Turbine Placement Reid, T., et al. August 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Raptors
Valuing the Local Impacts of a Large Scale Wind Power Establishment in Northern Sweden: Public and Private Preferences Toward Economic, Environmental and Sociocultural Values Ek, K., Matti, S. January 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Socio-economics
Wide Reach of Migratory Bird Treaty Act for Energy Projects Rosen, J. June 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A N/A
Wind Farm Construction Impacts Reindeer Migration and Movement Corridors Skarin, A., et al. October 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A N/A
Wind Turbines - Low Level Noise Sources Interfering with Restoration? Pedersen, E., Waye, K. January 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A N/A
Responses of Male Greater Prairie-Chickens to Wind Energy Development Winder, V., et al. May 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Migration of Franklin's Gull (Leucophaeus pipixcan) and its Variable Annual Risk from Wind Power Facilities Across the Tehuantepec Isthmus Villegas-Patraca, R., Herrera-Alsina, L. May 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Negative Impact of Wind Energy Development on a Breeding Shorebird Assessed with a BACI Study Design Sansom, A., Pearce-Higgins, J., Douglas, D. July 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Shorebirds
Multiple Mortality Events in Bats: A Global Review O'Shea, T., et al. July 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Wintering Sandhill Crane Exposure to Wind Energy Development in the Central and Southern Great Plains, USA Pearse, A., Brandt, D., Krapu, G. April 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Impact of Wind-Energy Generation on Climate: A Rising Spectre Abbasi, S., Abbasi, T., Abbasi, T. June 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Socio-economics, Climate Change
Ground-Level Climate at a Peatland Wind Farm in Scotland is Affected by Wind Turbine Operation Armstrong, A., et al. April 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Socio-economics, Climate Change
Wind energy: Trends and enabling technologies Kumar, Y., et al. January 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A N/A
Mitigating Wind Energy Impacts on Wildlife: Approaches for Multiple Taxa Arnett, E., May, R. April 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Spatial Association as an Indicator of the Potential for Future Interactions Between Wind Energy Developments and Golden Eagles Aquila chrysaetos in Scotland Fielding, A., Whitfield, D., McLeod, D. August 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
Two White-Tailed Sea Eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla) Collide with Wind Generators in Northern Germany Krone, O., Scharnweber, C. March 2003 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
Risk management model of birds and a wind farm Shimada, Y., Matsuda, H. November 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Input-Output Life Cycle Environmental Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Utility Scale Wind Energy in the United States Kumar, I., Tyner, W., Sinha, K. February 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Socio-economics, Climate Change, Life Cycle Assessment
Golden Eagle Fatalities and the Continental-Scale Consequences of Local Wind-Energy Generation Katzner, T., et al. April 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Greater Sage-Grouse Habitat Selection, Survival, and Wind Energy Infrastructure LeBeau, C., et al. April 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
Examining the Social Acceptance of Wind Energy: Practical Guidelines for Onshore Wind Project Development in France Enevoldsen, P., Sovacool, B. January 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Socio-economics
Mammalian Mesocarnivore Visitation at Tortoise Burrows in a Wind Farm Agha, M., et al. August 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise Sea Turtles, Terrestrial Mammals
First records of dead bats (Chiroptera) from wind farms in Croatia Zagmajster, M., Jancar, T., Mlakar, J. July 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Managing coexistence for bats and wind turbines Alvarez-Castaneda, T., Lidicker, W. September 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Enhancing Carcass Removal Trials at Three Wind Energy Facilities in Portugal Bernardino, J., et al. December 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
The precautionary principle and wind-farm planning: data scarcity does not imply absence of effects Carrete, M., et al. August 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds, Raptors
Differences in bat activity in relation to bat detector height: implications for bat surveys at proposed windfarm sites Collins, J., Jones, G. December 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Assessing local population vulnerability with branching process models: an application to wind energy development Erickson, R., et al. December 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Post construction monitoring of wind farms: First records of direct impact on bats in Italy Ferri, V., et al. January 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Bats in a Mediterranean Mountainous Landscape: Does Wind Farm Repowering Induce Changes at Assemblage and Species Level? Ferri, V., Battisti, C., Soccini, C. June 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Environmental Assessment Studies on wind turbines and bat populations - a step towards best practice guidelines N/A January 2005 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Wind Energy Development: Methods to Assess Bird and Bat Fatality Rates Post-Construction Huso, M., et al. April 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Seasonal Bat Activity in Relation to Distance to Hedgerows in an Agricultural Landscape in Central Europe and Implications for Wind Energy Development Kelm, D., et al. April 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats

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