Knowledge Base

The Knowledge Base provides access to information about the environmental effects of marine and wind energy, supporting OES-Environmental and WREN initiatives. Relevant documents and OES-Environmental metadata forms are compiled into a user-friendly table with advanced filtering. Filters may be selected on the right, or keywords entered in the Search Text box. Content may also be sorted alphabetically by clicking on column headers. More entries will load as you scroll down.


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Title Author* Date** Type of Content Technology Types Stressorssort descending Receptors
Carcass Age and Searcher Identity Affect Morphological Assessment of Sex of Bats Nelson, D., et al. November 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Reconciling endangered species conservation with wind farm development: Cinereous vultures (Aegypius monachus) in south-eastern Europe Vasilakis, D., et al. April 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Impacts of Wind Farms on Birds in Evros and Rhodopi, Greece: Pleminary results Ruiz, G., Poirazidis, K., Schindler, S. January 2006 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Avian Monitoring and Mortality Report at the National Wind Technology Center: January 2010 - February 2011 Tetra Tech Inc. January 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
A study of White-tailed Eagle Haliaeetus albicilla movements and mortality at a wind farm in Norway Nygård, T., et al. January 2010 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Assess risk of individual turbines to Golden Eagles Miller, T. March 2019 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Wind turbines in high quality habitat cause disproportionate increases in collision mortality of the white-tailed eagle Heuck, C., et al. August 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Texturizing Wind Turbine Towers to Reduce Bat Mortality Bennett, V., Hale, A. July 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Environmental and Ecological Impacts of Wind Energy on Humans: Public Health Issues Walker, R., Swift, A. May 2015 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, EMF, Lighting, Noise N/A
An Analysis about Wind Farm Construction Based on the Perspective of the Development of Ecological Environment Bai, Z. September 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, EMF, Noise, Static Device N/A
Modelling the Effects of Wind Farming on the Local Weather Using Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model Jawaheer, B., et al. January 2019 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Energy Removal Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Red Aviation Lights on Wind Turbines do not Increase Bat-Turbine Collisions Hale, A., Bennett, V. August 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Lighting Bats
Comparison of Avian Responses to UV-Light-Reflective Paint on Wind Turbines Young, D., et al. January 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Lighting Birds, Raptors
Acoustic Monitoring Techniques for Avian Detection and Classification Mirzaei, G., et al. November 2012 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Noise Birds
The Effects of Wind Turbines on Antipredator Behavior in California Ground Squirrels (Spermophilus beecheyi) Rabin, L., Coss, R., Owings, D. August 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Noise Birds, Raptors, Ecosystem, Terrestrial Mammals
Environmental Aspects of Large-Scale Wind-Power Systems in the UK Robson, A. December 1983 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Noise Birds, Socio-economics, Aesthetics, Stakeholder Engagement
Preliminary Field Test Results of an Acoustic Deterrent with the Potential to Reduce Bat Mortality from Wind Turbines Szewczak, J., Arnett, E. August 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Noise Bats
Wind Energy: A Reference Handbook Newton, D. November 2014 Book Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Noise, Static Device Socio-economics
Wind Power and Planning: The Environmental Impact of Windfarms in the UK Coles, R., Taylor, J. July 1993 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Noise, Static Device Birds, Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Adverse Impacts of Wind Power Generation on Collision Behaviour of Birds and Anti-Predator Behaviour of Squirrels Kikuchi, R. March 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Noise, Static Device Birds, Raptors, Nearfield Habitat, Terrestrial Mammals
Strategic Health Impact Assessment on Wind Energy Development in Oregon Joshi, S., et al. March 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Noise, Static Device Socio-economics
Wind Turbine Interactions with Birds and Bats: A Summary of Research Results and Remaining Questions National Wind Coordinating Committee November 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Flight Height Distribution and Collision Risk of the Marbled Murrelet Brachyramphus Marmoratus: Methodology and Preliminary Results Stumpf, J., et al. January 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Seabirds
Planner's Dilemma - How to handle Birds and Bats in the Planning Process of Wind Farms Reichenbach, M. February 2013 Presentation Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Using Stakeholder Input to Develop a Comparative Risk Assessment for Wildlife from the Life Cycles of Six Electrical Generation Fuels Zillioux, E., et al. July 2011 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds, Socio-economics, Climate Change, Life Cycle Assessment, Stakeholder Engagement
Towers, Turbines, Power Lines, and Buildings-Steps Being Taken by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to Avoid or Minimize Take of Migratory Birds at these Structures Manville, A. October 2009 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Wind Power and the Local Environment - No Free Lunches Plowden, B. March 1992 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Report of the IWG on Wind Turbines and Bat Populations 2012 Rodrigues, L. May 2012 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Report of the IWG on Wind Turbines and Bat Populations 2013 Rodrigues, L. April 2013 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Status of Avian Research at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory Sinclair, K. June 2001 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
The Birds of Blyth Harbour Still, D., et al. June 1994 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Shorebirds
Proceedings of the National Avian - Wind Power Planning Meeting II LGL January 1996 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Factors Influencing Bat Activity and Mortality at a Wind Farm in the Mediterranean Region Amorim, F., Rebelo, H., Rodrigues, L. December 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Prairie Winds: Migrating Bats & Wind Energy in Canada Baerwald, E. September 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Patterns of activity and fatality of migratory bats at a wind energy facility in Alberta, Canada Baerwald, E., Barclay, R. July 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Origins and Migratory Patterns of Bats Killed by Wind Turbines in Southern Alberta: Evidence from Stable Isotopes Baerwald, E., Patterson, W., Barclay, R. September 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Modelling Human Impacts on the Tasmanian Wedge-Tailed Eagle (Aquila audax fleayi) Bekessy, S., et al. November 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors
Estimating Bird and Bat Fatality at Wind Farms: A Practical Overview of Estimators, their Assumptions and Limitations Bernardino, J., et al. February 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Bat Mortalities at a Wind Energy Facility in North Dakota Bicknell, L., Gilliam, E. November 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Optimizing Wind Power Generation while Minimizing Wildlife Impacts in an Urban Area Bohrer, G., et al. February 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
The prosecutor's vulture: inconsistent MBTA prosecution, its clash with wind farms, and how to fix it Brunner, S. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Noctule Bats and Wind Turbines Burrows, L. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Diurnal and nocturnal ranging behaviour by moorland-breeding Short-eared Owls Asio flammeus in Scotland Calladine, J., Morrison, N. October 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Mortality at wind-farms is positively related to large-scale distribution and aggregation in griffon vultures Carrete, M., et al. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors
Bats and Onshore Wind Farms: Site-by-Site Assessment and Post-Construction Monitoring Protocols Catherine, C., Spray, S. June 2009 Magazine Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Bat fatalities at two wind farms in Tasmania, Australia: bat characteristics, and spatial and temporal patterns Hull, C., Cawthen, L. November 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
A Quantitative Method to Analyze the Quality of EIA Information in Wind Energy Development and Avian/Bat Assessments Chang, T., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Wind Power Compensation is not for the Birds: An Opinion from an Environmental Economist Cole, S. February 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors
Assessing the Potential Impact of Wind Turbines on the Endangered Galapagos Petrel Pterodroma phaeopygia at San Cristóbal Island, Galapagos Cruz-Delgado, F., Wiedenfeld, D., Gonzalez, J. March 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Seabirds
Behavior of Bats at Wind Turbines Cryan, P., et al. October 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Reduced Breeding Success in White-Tailed Eagles at Smøla windfarm, Western Norway, is Caused by Mortality and Displacement Dahl, E., et al. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors
White-Tailed Eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla) at the Smøla Wind-Power Plant, Central Norway, Lack Behavioral Flight Responses to Wind Turbines Dahl, E., et al. March 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Griffon Vulture Mortality at Wind Farms in Southern Spain: Distribution of Fatalities and Active Mitigation Measures de Lucas, M., et al. March 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors
Using Wind Tunnels to Predict Bird Mortality in Wind Farms: The Case of Griffon Vultures de Lucas, M., Ferrer, M., Janss, G. November 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Measuring the Insecurity Index of species in networks of protected areas using species distribution modeling and fuzzy logic: The case of raptors in Andalusia Diaz-Gomez, D., et al. March 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Hidden Markov Models for Estimating Animal Mortality from Anthropogenic Hazards Etterson, M. December 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Wind Turbines and Migratory Birds: Avoiding a Collision Between the Energy Industry and the Migratory Bird Treaty Act Evans, R. January 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
What is the Impact of Wind Farms on Birds? A Case Study in Southern Spain Farfan, M., et al. December 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Passerines, Raptors
Habitat Use, Disturbance and Collision Risks for Bewick's Swans Cygnus columbianus bewickii Wintering Near a Wind Farm in the Netherlands Fijn, R., et al. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Waterfowl
Response of Raptors to a Windfarm Garvin, J., et al. December 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors
Bat Fatalities at Wind Farms in North-Eastern Greece Georgiakakis, P., et al. December 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Nest Survival of Red-Winged Blackbirds in Agricultural Areas Developed for Wind Energy Gillespie, M., Dinsmore, S. December 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Bat Mortality at a Wind-Energy Facility in Southeastern Wisconsin Grodsky, S., et al. September 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
A Vehicle-Mounted Radar for Dual-Purpose Monitoring of Birds Harmata, A., Leighty, G., O'Neil, E. September 2003 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Behavior of Red-Tailed Hawks in a Wind Turbine Development Hoover, S., Morrison, M. January 2005 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors
Have we all gone batty? The need for a better balance between the conservation of protected species and the development of clean renewable energy Householder, L. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Socio-economics, Climate Change
Bat Mortality and Activity at a Northern Iowa Wind Resource Area Jain, A., et al. January 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Bat Mortality at a Wind Power Facility in Central Canada Jameson, J., Willis, C. November 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Topography drives migratory flight altitude of golden eagles: implications for on-shore wind energy development Katzner, T., et al. July 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
A new method to determine bird and bat fatality at wind energy turbines from carcass searches Korner-Nievergelt, F., et al. December 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Fixing wind power's bat problem Kumagai, J. July 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Impact of wind turbines on birds: a case study from Gujarat, India Kumar, S., Ali, A., Arun, P. August 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Short-Term Impacts of Wind Energy Development on Greater Sage-Grouse Fitness LeBeau, C., et al. April 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Effect of wind energy development on breeding duck densities in the Prairie Pothole Region Loesch, C., et al. December 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Direct human-caused mortality of birds: improving quantification of magnitude and assessment of population impact Loss, S., Will, T., Marra, P. September 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Upland Raptors and the Assessment of Wind Farm Impacts Madders, M., Whitfield, D. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors
Visual Fields, Foraging and Collision Vulnerability in Gyps Vultures Martin, G., Portugal, S., Murn, C. July 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Potential impact of wind farms on territories of large eagles in southeastern Spain Martinez, J., et al. December 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors
A Preliminary Overview of Monitoring for Raptors in Croatia Mazal, V., Mikulic, K. December 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
An Overview of Monitoring for Raptors in Ireland Mee, A. December 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Putting Aeolus to work without the death toll: federal wind farm siting guidelines can mitigate avian and Chiropteran mortality Mensing, B. March 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds, Raptors
Assessing Risk to Birds from Industrial Wind Energy Development via Paired Resource Selection Models Miller, T., et al. January 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Birds, Wind and the Making of Wind Power Landscapes in Aude, Southern France Nadaï, A., Labussiere, O. March 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Influence of Wind Turbines on Presence of Willet, Marbled Godwit, Wilson's Phalarope and Black Tern on Wetlands in the Prairie Pothole Region of North Dakota and South Dakota Niemuth, N., et al. September 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Some Clouds Have a Silver Lining: Paradoxes of Anthropogenic Perturbations from Study Cases on Long-Lived Social Birds Oro, D., Jimenez, J., Curco, A. August 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Bald Eagle and Golden Eagle Mortalities at Wind Energy Facilities in the Contiguous United States Pagel, J., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Avian Collision Threat Assessment at 'Bhambarwadi Wind Farm Plateau' in Northern Western Ghats, India Pande, S., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Impacts of Wind Energy Developments on Wildlife: A Southern Hemisphere Perspective Parsons, S., Battley, P. February 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Greater impacts of wind farms on bird populations during construction than subsequent operation: results of a multi-site and multi-species analysis Pearce-Higgins, J., et al. March 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Regional-Scale Modelling of the Cumulative Impact of Wind Farms on Bats Roscioni, F., et al. July 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Wind Farms Threaten Southern Africa's Cliff-Nesting Vultures Rushworth, I., Kruger, S. May 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Mortality of Bats at Wind Turbines Links to Nocturnal Insect Migration? Rydell, J., et al. December 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Spatial Distribution of Wind Turbines is Crucial for the Survival of Red Kite Populations Schaub, M. October 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
A Description of the Biosis Model to Assess Risk of Bird Collisions with Wind Turbines Smales, I., et al. March 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Response to Huso and Erickson's Comments on Novel Scavenger Removal Trials Smallwood, K., et al. February 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Novel Scavenger Removal Trials Increase Wind Turbine - Caused Avian Fatality Estimates Smallwood, K., et al. July 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors
Map-Based Repowering and Reorganization of a Wind Resource Area to Minimize Burrowing Owl and Other Bird Fatalities Smallwood, K., Neher, L., Bell, D. October 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors
Burrowing Owl Mortality in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area Smallwood, K., et al. July 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Wind Power Company Compliance with Mitigation Plans in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area Smallwood, K. April 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
The avian and wildlife costs of fossil fuels and nuclear power Sovacool, B. December 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds

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