Knowledge Base

The Knowledge Base provides access to information about the environmental effects of marine and wind energy, supporting OES-Environmental and WREN initiatives. Relevant documents and OES-Environmental metadata forms are compiled into a user-friendly table with advanced filtering. Filters may be selected on the right, or keywords entered in the Search Text box. Content may also be sorted alphabetically by clicking on column headers. More entries will load as you scroll down.


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Title Author* Date** Type of Content Technology Typessort descending Stressors Receptors
Individual Consistency in the Foraging Behaviour of Northern Gannets: Implications for Interactions with Offshore Renewable Energy Developments Soanes, L., et al. March 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Birds, Seabirds
Poor Evidence-Base For Assessment Of Windfarm Impacts On Birds Steward, G., Pullin, A., Coles, C. February 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
Barriers to Movement: Impacts of Wind Farms on Migrating Birds Masden, E., et al. February 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Avoidance, Habitat Change Birds, Waterfowl
The Effects of a Wind Farm on Birds in a Migration Point: The Strait of Gibraltar de Lucas, M., Janss, G., Ferrer, M. February 2004 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Avoidance, Habitat Change Birds, Passerines
Assessing Impacts of Wind-Energy Development on Nocturnally Active Birds and Bats: A Guidance Document Kunz, T., et al. November 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Attraction, Collision, Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Negative Impact of Wind Energy Development on a Breeding Shorebird Assessed with a BACI Study Design Sansom, A., Pearce-Higgins, J., Douglas, D. July 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Habitat Change Birds, Shorebirds
Behavior and Turbine Avoidance Rates of Eagles at Two Wind Farms in Tasmania, Australia Hull, C., Muir, S. March 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Habitat Change Birds
Avoidance Behavior by Prairie Grouse: Implications for Development of Wind Energy Pruett, C., Patten, M., Wolfe, D. June 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Habitat Change Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
It's Not Easy Being Green: Wind Energy and a Declining Grassland Bird Pruett, C., Patten, M., Wolfe, D. March 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Habitat Change Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Nearfield Habitat
Adverse Impacts of Wind Power Generation on Collision Behaviour of Birds and Anti-Predator Behaviour of Squirrels Kikuchi, R. March 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Habitat Change, Noise Birds, Raptors, Nearfield Habitat, Terrestrial Mammals
Upland Raptors and the Assessment of Wind Farm Impacts Madders, M., Whitfield, D. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Raptors
Effects of Wind Turbines and Other Physical Elements on Field Utilization by Pink-Footed Geese (Anser brachyrhynchus): A Landscape Perspective Larsen, J., Madsen, J. December 2000 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Habitat Change Birds, Waterfowl
An Analysis of Displacement from Wind Turbines in a Wintering Grassland Bird Community Stevens, T., et al. June 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Displacement, Habitat Change Birds
Reduced Breeding Success in White-Tailed Eagles at Smøla windfarm, Western Norway, is Caused by Mortality and Displacement Dahl, E., et al. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Birds, Raptors
Columbian sharp‐tailed grouse nesting ecology: wind energy and habitat Proett, M., et al. May 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
Study of the Wildlife of Jhimpir Wind Corridor, District Thatta, Sindh and Development of Bird Monitoring Strategy in the Area Ghalib, S., et al. November 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds
Short-Term Impacts of Wind Energy Development on Greater Sage-Grouse Fitness LeBeau, C., et al. April 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds
Evaluating Greater Sage-Grouse Seasonal Space Use Relative to Leks: Implications for Surface Use Designations in Sagebrush Ecosystems Coates, P., et al. October 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds
Influence of Wind Turbines on Presence of Willet, Marbled Godwit, Wilson's Phalarope and Black Tern on Wetlands in the Prairie Pothole Region of North Dakota and South Dakota Niemuth, N., et al. September 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds
Assessing the Potential Impact of Wind Turbines on the Endangered Galapagos Petrel Pterodroma phaeopygia at San Cristóbal Island, Galapagos Cruz-Delgado, F., Wiedenfeld, D., Gonzalez, J. March 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Birds, Seabirds
Avian Collision Threat Assessment at 'Bhambarwadi Wind Farm Plateau' in Northern Western Ghats, India Pande, S., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Birds
Characterising the Impacts of Emerging Energy Development on Wildlife, with an Eye Towards Mitigation Northrup, J., Wittemyer, G. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Canadian Estimate of Bird Mortality Due to Collisions and Direct Habitat Loss Associated with Wind Turbine Developments Zimmerling, J., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds
Effect of wind energy development on breeding duck densities in the Prairie Pothole Region Loesch, C., et al. December 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Displacement, Habitat Change Birds, Waterfowl
A Preliminary Overview of Monitoring for Raptors in Sweden Hellstrom, P., Helander, B. December 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds, Raptors
Bird-Community Shifts in Relation to Wind Farms: A Case Study Comparing a Wind Farm, Croplands, and Secondary Forests in Southern Mexico Villegas-Patraca, R., et al. November 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds, Ecosystem Processes
Assessing Risk to Birds from Industrial Wind Energy Development via Paired Resource Selection Models Miller, T., et al. January 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Birds
Topography drives migratory flight altitude of golden eagles: implications for on-shore wind energy development Katzner, T., et al. July 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds
Nesting Success of Scissor-Tailed Flycatchers (Tyrannus forficatus) at a Wind Farm in Northern Texas Rubenstahl, T., Hale, A., Karsten, K. June 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds, Passerines
Changes in the Abundance and Distribution of Upland Breeding Birds at an Operational Wind Farm Douglas, D., Bellamy, P., Pearce-Higgins, J. February 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Displacement, Habitat Change Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Shorebirds
The Impacts of Roads and other Infrastructure on Mammal and Bird Populations: A Meta-Analysis Benitez-Lopez, A., Alkemade, R., Verweij, P. June 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds, Terrestrial Mammals
Assessing the Impacts of Wind Farms on Birds Drewitt, A., Langston, R. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Birds
Avian Sensitivity to Mortality: Prioritising Migratory Bird Species for Assessment at Proposed Wind Farms Desholm, M. June 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Birds and Offshore Wind Farms: A Hot Topic in Marine Ecology Exo, K., Hüppop, O., Garthe, S. April 2003 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Birds, Seabirds, Ecosystem Processes, Nearfield Habitat
Patterns of migrating soaring migrants indicate attraction to marine wind farms Skov, H., et al. December 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Attraction, Habitat Change Birds, Raptors
Seabirds and Offshore Wind Farms in European Waters: Avoidance and Attraction Dierschke, V., Furness, R., Garthe, S. October 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Habitat Change Birds, Seabirds
Soaring Migratory Birds Avoid Wind Farm in the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, Southern Mexico Villegas-Patraca, R., Cabrera-Cruz, S., Herrera-Alsina, L. March 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Habitat Change Birds
Avian Issues for Offshore Wind Development Allison, T., Jedrey, E., Perkins, S. June 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Birds, Waterfowl
Information Needs to Support Environmental Impact Assessments of the Effects of European Marine Offshore Wind Farms on Birds Fox, A., et al. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Seabirds, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Displacement of seabirds by an offshore wind farm in the North Sea Welcker, J., Nehls, G. July 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Displacement, Habitat Change Birds, Seabirds
Spatial Factors Affecting Statistical Power in Testing Marine Fauna Displacement Lapeña, B., et al. October 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Displacement, Habitat Change Birds
Birds and Wind Projects Across the Pond: A UK Perspective Rowena, H., Langston, W. March 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Effects of Wind Turbines on Flight Behaviour of Wintering Common Eiders: Implications for Habitat Use and Collision Risk Larsen, J., Guillemette, M. April 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Waterfowl
Understanding Bird Collisions With Man-made Objects: A Sensory Ecology Approach Martin, G. March 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Impact of Wind Turbines on Birds in Zeebrugge (Belgium): Significant Effect on Breeding Tern Colony Due to Collisions Everaert, J., Stienen, E. January 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Seabirds
Large Scale Risk-Assessment of Wind-Farms on Population Viability of a Globally Endangered Long-Lived Raptor Carrete, M., et al. December 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors
Regulating Avian Impacts Under the Migratory Bird Treaty Act and Other Laws: The Wind Industry Collides with One of its Own, the Environmental Protection Movement McKinsey, J. January 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds, Socio-economics
Wind Power Plants and the Conservation of Birds and Bats in Spain: A Geographical Assessment Telleria, J. June 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Bats, Birds, Raptors, Shorebirds
Predicting Spatial Patterns of Eagle Migration using a Mesoscale Atmospheric Model: A Case Study Associated with a Mountain-Ridge Wind Development Ainslie, B., et al. January 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
Demography of Female Greater Prairie-Chickens in Unfragmented Grasslands in Kansas Augustine, J., Sandercock, B. January 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
Estimating the Indirect Impact of Wind Farms on Breeding Bird Assemblages: A Case Study in the Central Apennines Battisti, C., et al. August 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
Modelling Human Impacts on the Tasmanian Wedge-Tailed Eagle (Aquila audax fleayi) Bekessy, S., et al. November 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors
Predicting and Mapping Potential Whooping Crane Stopover Habitat to Guide Site Selection for Wind Energy Projects Belaire, J., et al. December 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
Effect of Wind Turbine Proximity on Nesting Success in Shrub-nesting Birds Bennett, V., et al. October 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
Optimizing Wind Power Generation while Minimizing Wildlife Impacts in an Urban Area Bohrer, G., et al. February 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Spatial Overlap of Wind Farms on Peatland with Sensitive Areas for Birds Bright, J., et al. September 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
The prosecutor's vulture: inconsistent MBTA prosecution, its clash with wind farms, and how to fix it Brunner, S. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Mortality at wind-farms is positively related to large-scale distribution and aggregation in griffon vultures Carrete, M., et al. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors
Wind Farm Location and Environmental Impact Clarke, A. January 1989 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise, Static Device Birds
Common Raven Occurrence in Relation to Energy Transmission Line Corridors Transiting Human-Altered Sagebrush Steppe Coates, P., et al. December 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
Wind Power and Planning: The Environmental Impact of Windfarms in the UK Coles, R., Taylor, J. July 1993 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Noise, Static Device Birds, Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Measuring the Effectiveness of Conservation: A Novel Framework to Quantify the Benefits of Sage-Grouse Conservation Policy and Easements in Wyoming Copeland, H., et al. June 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Socio-economics
White-Tailed Eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla) at the Smøla Wind-Power Plant, Central Norway, Lack Behavioral Flight Responses to Wind Turbines Dahl, E., et al. March 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Griffon Vulture Mortality at Wind Farms in Southern Spain: Distribution of Fatalities and Active Mitigation Measures de Lucas, M., et al. March 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors
A Bird and Small Mammal BACI and IG Design Studies in a Wind Farm in Malpica (Spain) de Lucas, M., Janss, G., Ferrer, M. December 2005 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
Minimal Effects of Wind Turbines on the Distribution of Wintering Farmland Birds Devereux, C., Denny, M., Whittingham, M. October 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Passerines
Upland Land use Predicts Population Decline in a Globally Near-Threatened Wader Douglas, D., et al. February 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
What is the Impact of Wind Farms on Birds? A Case Study in Southern Spain Farfan, M., et al. December 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Passerines, Raptors
Wind and Wildlife in the Northern Great Plains: Identifying Low-Impact Areas for Wind Development Fargione, J., et al. July 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Bats, Birds
Habitat Use, Disturbance and Collision Risks for Bewick's Swans Cygnus columbianus bewickii Wintering Near a Wind Farm in the Netherlands Fijn, R., et al. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Waterfowl
Cantabrian Capercaillie signs disappeared after a wind farm construction Gonzalez, M., Ena, V. January 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
The Effects of a Large-Scale Wind Farm on Breeding Season Survival of Female Mallards and Blue-Winged Teal in the Prairie Pothole Region Gue, C., et al. August 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
A Vehicle-Mounted Radar for Dual-Purpose Monitoring of Birds Harmata, A., Leighty, G., O'Neil, E. September 2003 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Wind Turbines do Not Negatively Affect Nest Success in the Dickcissel (Spiza americana) Hatchett, W., et al. July 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
The Potential Distribution of the Red Kite in Germany Heuck, C., et al. May 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
Behavior of Red-Tailed Hawks in a Wind Turbine Development Hoover, S., Morrison, M. January 2005 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors
Evidence of Negative Effects of Anthropogenic Structures on Wildlife: A Review of Grouse Survival and Behaviour Hovick, T., et al. October 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
Avian Collision Mortality at 50- and 60- m Guyed Towers in Central California Kerlinger, P., et al. February 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Passerines
A new method to determine bird and bat fatality at wind energy turbines from carcass searches Korner-Nievergelt, F., et al. December 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
The return of the white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) to northern Germany: Modelling the past to predict the future Kruger, O., Grunkorn, T., Struwe-Juhl, B. March 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Raptors
Effects of Wind Turbines on Upland Nesting Birds in Conservation Reserve Program Grasslands Leddy, K., Higgins, K., Naugle, D. September 1999 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Passerines
Nocturnal Bird Migration Over an Appalachian Ridge at a Proposed Wind Power Project Mabee, T., et al. October 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
Golden Eagles in a Multiple Land-Use Environment: A Case Study in Conflict Management Madders, M., Walker, D. January 2002 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Raptors
Animal Behavioral Adaptation to Changing Landscapes: Spring-Staging Geese Habituate to Wind Farms Madsen, J., Boertmann, D. November 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Waterfowl
How do diurnal long-distance migrants select flight altitude in relation to wind? Mateos-Rodriguez, M., Liechti, F. March 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Shorebirds
Effects of Wind Energy Development on Nesting Ecology of Greater Prairie-Chickens in Fragmented Grasslands McNew, L., et al. March 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
Putting Aeolus to work without the death toll: federal wind farm siting guidelines can mitigate avian and Chiropteran mortality Mensing, B. March 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds, Raptors
Understanding Landscape Patterns of Temporal Variability in Avian Populations to Improve Environmental Impact Assessments Milne, R., Bennett, L. March 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
From Ground to Above Canopy - Bat Activity in Mature Forests is Driven by Vegetation Density and Height Muller, J., et al. October 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
Birds, Wind and the Making of Wind Power Landscapes in Aude, Southern France Nadaï, A., Labussiere, O. March 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Some Clouds Have a Silver Lining: Paradoxes of Anthropogenic Perturbations from Study Cases on Long-Lived Social Birds Oro, D., Jimenez, J., Curco, A. August 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Greater impacts of wind farms on bird populations during construction than subsequent operation: results of a multi-site and multi-species analysis Pearce-Higgins, J., et al. March 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
The Distribution of Breeding Birds around Upland Wind Farms Pearce-Higgins, J., et al. September 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Shorebirds
Modeling the Distribution of Migratory Bird Stopovers to Inform Landscape-Scale Siting of Wind Development Pocewicz, A., et al. October 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
Wind Farms Threaten Southern Africa's Cliff-Nesting Vultures Rushworth, I., Kruger, S. May 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Map-Based Repowering and Reorganization of a Wind Resource Area to Minimize Burrowing Owl and Other Bird Fatalities Smallwood, K., Neher, L., Bell, D. October 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors
Nesting Burrowing Owl Density and Abundance in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area, California Smallwood, K., et al. October 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
Burrowing Owl Mortality in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area Smallwood, K., et al. July 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Wind Power Company Compliance with Mitigation Plans in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area Smallwood, K. April 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Using probability of occurrence to assess potential interaction between wind farms and a residual population of golden eagle Aquila chrysaetos in NW Spain Tapia, L., Dominguez, J., Rodriguez, L. January 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Raptors

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