Knowledge Base

The Knowledge Base provides access to information about the environmental effects of marine and wind energy, supporting OES-Environmental and WREN initiatives. Relevant documents and OES-Environmental metadata forms are compiled into a user-friendly table with advanced filtering. Filters may be selected on the right, or keywords entered in the Search Text box. Content may also be sorted alphabetically by clicking on column headers. More entries will load as you scroll down.


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Title Author* Date**sort ascending Type of Content Technology Types Stressors Receptors
Geographic context affects the landscape change and fragmentation caused by wind energy facilities Diffendorfer, J., et al. July 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Ecosystem, Nearfield Habitat
Numerical simulation of spudcan-soil interaction using an improved smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method Wu, H., et al. July 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Nearfield Habitat
Environmental Sensitivity Modeling and Site Characterization Guttenplan, K., Koopman, M., Belin, D. May 2019 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Ecosystem, Nearfield Habitat
Characterizing the benthic community in Maryland’s offshore wind energy areas using a towed camera sled: Developing a method to reduce the effort of image analysis and community description Cruz-Marrero, W., et al. May 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
The Iowa Atmospheric Observatory: Revealing the Unique Boundary Layer Characteristics of a Wind Farm Takle, E., Rajewski, D., Purdy, S. March 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Energy Removal Nearfield Habitat
Population-Level Effects of Wind Farms on a Desert Lizard Keehn, J., Shoemaker, K., Feldman, C. January 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Nearfield Habitat
Upscaling positive effects of scour protection in offshore wind farms Coolen, J., et al. January 2019 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Linking ecosystem services with epibenthic biodiversity change following installation of offshore wind farms Causon, P., Gill, A. November 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
The consequences of seabird habitat loss from offshore wind turbines: a research plan for five selected species van Kooten, T., Soudijn, F., Leopold, M. September 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Seabirds, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Creation of microhabitats (tidepools) in ripraps with climax communities as a way to mitigate negative effects of artificial substrate on marine biodiversity Ostale-Valriberas, E., et al. September 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Disturbance affects biotic community composition at desert wind farms Keehne, J., Feldman, C. September 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Nearfield Habitat
Evaluating anthropogenic landscape alterations as wildlife hazards, with wind farms as an example Peter R. Law, Mark Fuller July 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Nearfield Habitat
Zooplankton Community Responses and the Relation to Environmental Factors from Established Offshore Wind Farms within the Rudong Coastal Area of China Wang, T., et al. July 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Nearfield Habitat
Wind turbines impact bat activity, leading to high losses of habitat use in a biodiversity hotspot Millon, L., et al. March 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Bats, Nearfield Habitat
An approach for evaluating changes in land-use from energy sprawl and other anthropogenic activities with implications for biotic resource management Wolaver, B., et al. March 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Nearfield Habitat
ICES WGMBRED Report 2018: Report of the Working Group on Marine Benthal and Renewable Energy Developments (WGMBRED) International Council for the Exploration of the Sea March 2018 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Changes in Fish Communities on a Small Spatial Scale, an Effect of Increased Habitat Complexity by an Offshore Wind Farm van Hal, R., Griffioen, A., van Keeken, O. May 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Interim Report of the Working Group on Marine Benthal and Renewable Energy Developments (WGMBRED) International Council for the Exploration of the Sea March 2017 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Sustainable Decommissioning of an Offshore Wind Farm Topham, E., McMillan, D. March 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
Northeast Ocean Plan Northeast Regional Planning Body October 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Unstructured Grid Modelling of Offshore Wind Farm Impacts on Seasonally Stratified Shelf Seas Cazenave, P., Torres, R., Allen, J. June 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Nearfield Habitat
The expected efficiency and coastal impact of a hybrid energy farm operating in the Portuguese nearshore Onea, F., Rusu, E. February 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Nearfield Habitat
Offshore Wind Park Monitoring Programmes, Lessons Learned and Recommendations for the Future Lindeboom, H., et al. September 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Nearfield Habitat
Foundation Damping and the Dynamics of Offshore Wind Turbine Monopiles Carswell, W., et al. August 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Nearfield Habitat
Effects of submarine power transmission cables on a glass sponge reef and associated megafaunal community Dunham, A., et al. June 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
The Influence of Large Offshore Wind Farms on the North Sea and Baltic Sea - A Comprehensive Literature Review Clark, S., Schroeder, F., Baschek, B. December 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Ecosystem, Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Experimental Analysis of the Wake of a Horizontal-Axis Wind-Turbine Model Lignarolo, L., et al. October 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Nearfield Habitat
Computationally Efficient Modelling of Dynamic Soil-Structure Interaction of Offshore Wind Turbines on Gravity Footings Damgaard, M., Andersen, L., Ibsen, L. August 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Nearfield Habitat
Recent Developments of Ocean Environmental Description with Focus on Uncertainties Bitner-Gregersen, E., et al. August 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Nearfield Habitat
Report on Environmental Impact Assessment and Mitigation Strategies TROPOS July 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal, Lighting, Static Device Ecosystem, Fish, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
A Comparison of Top-Down and Bottom-Up Approaches to Benthic Habitat Mapping to Inform Offshore Wind Energy Development LaFrance, M., et al. July 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Repeated Mapping of Reefs Constructed by Sabellaria spinulosa Leuckart 1849 at an Offshore Wind Farm Site Pearce, B., et al. July 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Similar Diversity-Disturbance Responses to Different Physical Impacts: Three Cases of Small-Scale Biodiversity Increase in the Belgian Part of the North Sea De Backer, A., et al. July 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Ecosystem, Nearfield Habitat
Physical and Numerical Large-Scale Wave Basin Modeling of Fluid-Structure Interaction and Wave Impact Phenomena Yim, S., et al. June 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Nearfield Habitat
Effects of Man-Made Structures on Sedimentary Oxygenation: Extent, Seasonality and Implications for Offshore Renewables Wilding, T. June 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Nearfield Habitat
Turbid Wakes Associated with Offshore Wind Turbines Observed with Landsat 8 Vanhellemont, Q., Ruddick, K. April 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Nearfield Habitat
Enrichment and Shifts in Macrobenthic Assemblages in an Offshore Wind Farm Area in the Belgian Part of the North Sea Coates, D., et al. April 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Ecosystem, Nearfield Habitat
Experimental Study on Influence of Pitch Motion on the Wake of a Floating Wind Turbine Model Rockel, S., et al. March 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Nearfield Habitat
Dogger Bank Creyke Beck Environmental Statement - Chapter 12: Marine and Intertidal Ecology Lewis, J. March 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Ecosystem, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Dogger Bank Creyke Beck Environmental Statement - Chapter 10: Marine Water and Sediment Quality Page, C. March 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Assessing the Impact of Windfarms in Subtidal, Exposed Marine Areas Dahlgren, T., et al. February 2014 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Seismic Response of Large-Scale Prestressed Concrete Bucket Foundation for Offshore Wind Turbines Zhang, P., Ding, H., Conghuan, L. January 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Nearfield Habitat
How Deep does an Anchor Penetrate the Seafloor? Maushake, C. November 2013 Workshop Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Nearfield Habitat
Standard Investigation of the Impacts of Offshore Wind Turbines on the Marine Environment (StUK4) Bundesamt fur Seeschifffahrt und Hydrographie (BSH) October 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Nearfield Habitat
Hornsea Offshore Wind Farm Project One: Reports - Habitat Regulations Assessment Report: Information to Support the Appropriate Assessment for Project One RPS Group July 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Nearfield Habitat
The Airspace is Habitat Diehl, R. July 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Nearfield Habitat
Potential Scour for Marine Current Turbines Based on Experience of Offshore Wind Turbine Chen, L., Lam, W., Shamsuddin, A. June 2013 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal, Static Device Nearfield Habitat
How the Belgian Wind Farm Business Made us Discover the Challenging Environment of Marine Sand Dunes Bolle, A., Mathys, M., Haerens, P. April 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Nearfield Habitat
Modelling Potential Changes in Marine Biogeochemistry due to Large-Scale Offshore Wind Farms van der Molen, J., Rees, J., Limpenny, S. April 2013 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Habitat Engineering by Decadal-Scale Bioturbation around Shipwrecks on the Great Barrier Reef Mid-Shelf Stieglitz, T. March 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Ecosystem, Nearfield Habitat
Aggregation at Windmill Artificial Reefs: CPUE of Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua) and Pouting (Trisopterus luscus) at Different Habitats in the Belgian Part of the North Sea Reubens, J., et al. March 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Electromagnetic Simulation of the Near-Field Distribution around a Wind Farm Ling, H., Yang, S. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF Nearfield Habitat
Proceedings of the Wind-Wildlife Research Meeting IX American Wind Wildlife Institute November 2012 Conference Paper Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds, Nearfield Habitat
Assessing the Environmental Impact of Underwater Noise During Offshore Windfarm Construction and Operation Nedwell, J., et al. November 2012 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
The Added Value of 'Small-Scale' Monitoring of the Soft-Sediment Endobenthos around Offshore Wind Farms in the Belgian Part of the North Sea Coates, D., Vanaverbeke, M., Magda, V. September 2012 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
The Development of Benthic Communities on Hard Substrates within OWEZ, the First Dutch Offshore Wind Farm Noordzee Wind September 2012 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
West Coast Environmental Protocols Framework: Baseline and Monitoring Studies Klure, J., et al. September 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Sea Turtles
MERiFIC 3.2.1: Documentary Summary of the Environmental Impact of Renewable Marine Energy Sotta, C. September 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Birds, Ecosystem, Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Hermosa West Wind Energy Project: Draft Environmental Impact Statement Western Area Power Administration September 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Short- and Long-Term Effects of an Offshore Wind Farm on Three Species of Sandeel and their Sand Habitat van Deurs, M., et al. July 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Study on the Marine Growth Effect on the Dynamic Response of Offshore Wind Turbines Shi, W., et al. July 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Synthesis of Wind Energy Development and Potential Impacts on Wildlife in the Pacific Northwest, Oregon and Washington Mockrin, M., Gravenmier, R. July 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Nearfield Habitat
Fish and Benthos at Alpha Ventus Reichert, K., et al. May 2012 Presentation Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Fish, Nearfield Habitat
On the Effect of Structure-Induced Resistance and Mixing on Inflows into the Baltic Sea: A Numerical Model Study Rennau, H., Schimmels, S., Burchard, H. February 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Nearfield Habitat
Upper Ocean Response to Large Wind Farm Effect in the Presence of Surface Gravity Waves Paskyabi, M., Fer, I. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal, Static Device Nearfield Habitat
Wind Energy Development and its Environmental Impact: A Review Leung, D., Yang, Y. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Effect of the Horns Rev 1 Offshore Wind Farm on Fish Communities: Follow-up Seven Years after Construction Stenberg, C., et al. December 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF, Noise, Static Device Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Pathways of Effects for Offshore Renewable Energy in Canada Isaacman, L., Daborn, G. December 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Lighting, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Sea Turtles, Socio-economics
Mitigation of Underwater Piling Noise Using New Hydro Sound Dampers (HSD) Elmer, K., et al. September 2011 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Nearfield Habitat
Final Environmental Assessment of Maine's Deepwater Offshore Floating Wind Turbine Testing and Demonstration Project US Department of Energy September 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Screening Analysis for the Environmental Risk Evaluation System - Environmental Effects of Offshore Wind Energy Copping, A., Hanna, L. September 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Sea Turtles
Field Scale Experiments to Assess the Effects of Offshore Wind Farms on Marine Organisms Gill, A., et al. July 2011 Presentation Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Nearfield Habitat
Inch Cape Offshore Wind Farm Environmental Statement Inch Cape Offshore June 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
Environmental Impact of Wind Energy Saidur, R., et al. June 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Bats, Birds, Nearfield Habitat
Human pressures on UK seabed habitats: a cumulative impact assessment Foden, J., Rogers, S., Jones, A. May 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Nearfield Habitat
Habitats Regulations Appraisal of Draft Plan for Offshore Wind Energy in Scottish Territorial Waters: Information for Appropriate Assessment APS Group Scotland March 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Nearfield Habitat
Habitats Regulations Appraisal of Draft Plan for Offshore Wind Energy in Scottish Territorial Waters: Pre-Screening Review of the Medium Term Options APS Group Scotland March 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
Porpoises North of Sprogø Before, During and After Construction of an Offshore Wind Farm Tougaard, J., Carstensen, J. February 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise, Static Device Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Examples of State and International Guidance for Duration and Intensity of Pre-Construction and Post-Construction Monitoring US Fish and Wildlife Service January 2011 Report Wind Energy general N/A Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Habitats Regulations Appraisal of Draft Plan for Offshore Wind Energy in Scottish Territorial Waters: Appropriate Assessment Information Review APS Group Scotland January 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
A Sustainability Index for Offshore Wind Farms and Open Water Aquaculture Benassai, G., et al. January 2011 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Fish, Nearfield Habitat
The Nature Of Scour Development And Scour Protection At Offshore Windfarm Foundations Whitehouse, R., et al. November 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Nearfield Habitat
Early Development of the Subtidal Marine Biofouling on a Concrete Offshore Windmill Foundation on the Thornton Bank (Southern North Sea): First Monitoring Results Kerckhof, F., et al. November 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Ecosystem, Nearfield Habitat
Simulating Environmental Changes Due to Marine Hydrokinetic Energy Installations James, S., et al. September 2010 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Greening Blue Energy: Identifying and Managing the Biodiversity Risks and Opportunities of Offshore Renewable Energy Wilhelmsson, D., et al. July 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Coastal And Offshore Wind Energy Generation: Is It Environmentally Benign? Wilson, J., et al. June 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general EMF, Noise, Static Device Bats, Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Environmental and Ecological Effects of Ocean Renewable Energy Development: A Current Synthesis Boehlert, G., Gill, A. June 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy general, OTEC, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Nearfield Habitat
Sørfjord Windpark, Tysfjord Municipality: Impact Assessment, Evaluation of Natural Environment Jacobsen, K., Arnesen, G., Johnsen, T. April 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
A Further Review of Sediment Monitoring Data Carroll, B., et al. March 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Nearfield Habitat
Predicting the trends of vertebrate species richness as a response to wind farms installation in mountain ecosystems of northwest Portugal Santos, M., et al. March 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Ecosystem, Nearfield Habitat
Wind Turbine Interactions with Birds, Bats, and their Habitats: A Summary of Research Results and Priority Questions National Wind Coordinating Collaborative March 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds, Nearfield Habitat
Expansion of Hitra Wind-Power Plant - Consequences Related to Wildlife Except Birds Veiberg, V., Pedersen, H. February 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Nearfield Habitat
The Effects of Landscape Modifications on the Long-Term Persistence of Animal Populations Nabe-Nielsen, J., et al. January 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Nearfield Habitat
Monitoring of Hydrodynamic and Morphological Changes at the C-Power and Belwind Offshore Windfarm Sites - A Synthesis Van den Eynde, D., et al. January 2010 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Nearfield Habitat
Dønnesfjord Windpark, Hasvik Municipality: Impact Assessment, Evaluation of Natural Environment Jacobsen, K., Borg, L., Johnsen, T. January 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment, Terrestrial Mammals
Lynn and Inner Dowsing Hydrographic Monitoring Survey Emu December 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Wind Energy Development, Prescribed Fire and Migratory Land Birds in the Southeastern United States: Breeding, Stopover, and Wintering Habitat Relationships Brennan, L., Ballard, B., Kuvlesky, W. October 2009 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Nearfield Habitat
Local Effects of Blue Mussels Around Turbine Foundations in an Ecosystem Model of Nysted Off-Shore Wind Farm, Denmark Maar, M., et al. August 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife Wind Power Guidelines Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife April 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds, Nearfield Habitat
Epibenthic Colonization of Concrete and Steel Pilings in a Cold-Temperate Embayment: A Weld Experiment Andersson, M., et al. March 2009 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat

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