Knowledge Base

The Knowledge Base provides access to information about the environmental effects of marine and wind energy, supporting OES-Environmental and WREN initiatives. Relevant documents and OES-Environmental metadata forms are compiled into a user-friendly table with advanced filtering. Filters may be selected on the right, or keywords entered in the Search Text box. Content may also be sorted alphabetically by clicking on column headers. More entries will load as you scroll down.


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Titlesort ascending Author* Date** Type of Content Technology Types Stressors Receptors
Worldwide Synthesis and Analysis of Existing Information Regarding Environmental Effects of Alternative Energy Uses on the Outer Continental Shelf Michel, J., et al. July 2007 Report Marine Energy general, Ocean Current, OTEC, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles, Socio-economics
Wind Turbine Guidelines Advisory Committee Recommendations US Fish and Wildlife Service March 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds, Fish
Wind and Wildlife: Siting Issues and Challenges Walker, R., Swift, A. May 2015 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind N/A Bats, Birds, Fish, Terrestrial Mammals
West Coast Environmental Protocols Framework: Baseline and Monitoring Studies Klure, J., et al. September 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Sea Turtles
Weighing Natural Variability and Anthropogenic Impacts: A Case Study of Demersal Fish and Epibenthic Communities in the Belgian Part of the North Sea De Backer, A., et al. January 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
Use of High Resolution Sonar for Near-Turbine Fish Observations (DIDSON) - WeSea 2007-002 Couperus, B., et al. November 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Fish
Use of Baited Remote Underwater Video (BRUV) and Motion Analysis for Studying the Impacts of Underwater Noise upon Free Ranging Fish and Implications for Marine Energy Management Roberts, L., Perez-Dominguez, R., Elliott, M. November 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Upscaling positive effects of scour protection in offshore wind farms Coolen, J., et al. January 2019 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Updated Summary of Knowledge: Selected Areas of the Pacific Coast Kaplan, B., et al. July 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Ecosystem, Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles, Socio-economics
U.S. Geological Survey energy and wildlife research annual report for 2018 Khalil, M. October 2018 Report Wind Energy general N/A Bats, Birds, Fish, Terrestrial Mammals
U.S. Geological Survey - Energy and Wildlife Research Annual Report for 2017 Khalil, M. December 2017 Report Wind Energy general N/A Bats, Birds, Fish, Terrestrial Mammals
Towards an Environmentally Sound Offshore Wind Energy Deployment Verfuß, U. January 2012 Workshop Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics
Threshold for Onset of Injury in Chinook Salmon from Exposure to Impulsive Pile Driving Sounds Halvorsen, M., et al. June 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
The proportion of flatfish recruitment in the North Sea potentially affected by offshore windfarms Barbut, L., et al. April 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Fish
The Potential of Offshore Wind Farms to Act as Marine Protected Areas Ashley, M., Mangi, S., Rodwell, L. March 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
The potential influence of Robin Rigg Wind Farm on the abundance of adult and juvenile Atlantic salmon Thorley, J. February 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Fish
The Potential for Cooperative Management of Elasmobranchs and Offshore Renewable Energy Development in UK Waters Gill, A., Kimber, J. October 2005 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Fish
The Potential Effects of Electromagnetic Fields Generated by Cabling Between Offshore Wind Turbines upon Elasmobranch Fishes Gill, A., Taylor, H. September 2001 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF Fish
The Potential Compatibility of Offshore Wind Power and Fisheries: An Example using Bluefin Tuna in the Adriatic Sea Fayram, A., Risi, A. May 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Fish, Socio-economics
The Local Fish Community, Indifferent to the Wind Farm? van Hal, R., Griffioen, B. October 2012 Presentation Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Fish
The Influence Of Offshore Windpower On Demersal Fish Wilhelmsson, D., Malm, T., Öhman, M. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Fish, Nearfield Habitat
The Influence of Fisheries Exclusion and Addition of Hard Substrata on Fish and Crustaceans Wilhelmsson, D., Langhamer, O. January 2014 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
The Impact of Offshore Wind Farms on the Marine Environment Steen, H., et al. January 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF, Noise, Static Device Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics
The Effects of Wind Power on Marine Life - A Synthesis Bergström, L., et al. October 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Fish, Marine Mammals
The effects of temporary exclusion of activity due to wind farm construction on a lobster (Homarus gammarus) fishery suggests a potential management approach Roach, M., et al. February 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Fish, Socio-economics
The Effects of Human-Generated Sound on Fish Popper, A., Hastings, M. January 2009 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
The Effects Of Anthropogenic Sources Of Sound On Fishes Popper, A., Hastings, M. January 2009 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
The Ecology of Benthopelagic Fishes at Offshore Wind Farms: A Synthesis of 4 Years of Research Reubens, J., Degraer, S., Vincx, M. January 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Ecosystem, Fish
The Ecology of Benthopelagic Fish at Offshore Wind Farms - Towards an Integrated Management Approach Reubens, J. August 2013 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Fish
The Development of Marine Based Wind Energy Generation and Inshore Fisheries in UK Waters: Are They Compatible? Rodmell, D., Johnson, M. January 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Fish, Socio-economics
Temporal Variation in Environmental Conditions and the Structure of Fish Assemblages around an Offshore Oil Platform in the North Sea Fujii, T. July 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Fish
Swimming Behavior of Roach (Rutilus rutilus) and Three-spined Stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) in Response to Wind Power Noise and Single-tone Frequencies Andersson, M., et al. December 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Summary of Environment Impact of Renewable Energy Resources Zhu, J., Cheung, K. December 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general N/A Birds, Fish
Strategy of Approach Demersal Fish Fauna Grift, R., Tien, N. May 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Fish
Strategic Review of Offshore Wind Farm Monitoring Data Associated with FEPA Licence Conditions: Fish Walker, R., et al. July 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Fish
Standard Investigation of the Impacts of Offshore Wind Turbines on the Marine Environment (StUK3) Bellebaum, J., et al. February 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Small Scale Distribution of Fish in Offshore Wind Farms Hansen, K., Stenberg, C., Møller, P. September 2012 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Fish
Shortlist Masterplan Wind - Effect of Piling Noise on Survival of Fish Larvae (pilot study) Bolle, L., et al. June 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Short-Term Ecological Effects of an Offshore Wind Farm in the Dutch Coastal Zone: A Compilation Lindeboom, H., et al. August 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Ecosystem, Fish, Marine Mammals
Short- and Long-Term Effects of an Offshore Wind Farm on Three Species of Sandeel and their Sand Habitat van Deurs, M., et al. July 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Screening Analysis for the Environmental Risk Evaluation System - Environmental Effects of Offshore Wind Energy Copping, A., Hanna, L. September 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Sea Turtles
Scoping advice on information required in environmental impact assessment reports in relation to assessing risk to freshwater and diadromous fish and associated fisheries Marine Scotland Science April 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Fish, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment, Fishing
Sandeels in the Wind Farm Area at Horns Reef Jensen, H., Kristensen, P., Hoffmann, E. August 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Robin Rigg Offshore Wind Farm Marine Environmental Monitoring Plan (MEMP): Ecological Analysis Data Wells, R., Shenton, S. November 2011 Presentation Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl, Fish, Marine Mammals
Risk Formulation For The Sonic Effects Of Offshore Wind Farms On Fish In The EU Region Kikuchi, R. February 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Review Report 2005: The Danish Offshore Wind Farm Demonstration Project: Horns Rev and Nysted Offshore Wind Farms Environmental Impact Assessment and Monitoring DONG Energy, Vattenfall November 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Review Report 2004: The Danish Offshore Wind Farm Demonstration Project: Horns Rev and Nysted Offshore Wind Farms Environmental Impact Assessment and Monitoring Boesen, C., Kjær, J. October 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
Review of the Reef Effects of Offshore Wind Farm Structures and their Potential for Enhancement and Mitigation UK Department for Business Enterprise and Regulatory Reform January 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Fish, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
Review of Migratory Routes and Behaviour of Atlantic Salmon, Sea Trout and European Eel in Scotland's Coastal Environment: Implications for the Development of Marine Renewables Malcolm, I., Godfrey, J., Youngson, A. January 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Fish
Review of Environmental Data Associated with Post-Consent Monitoring of Licence Conditions of Offshore Wind Farms Marine Management Organisation April 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Ecosystem, Fish, Marine Mammals
Review of Cabling Techniques and Environmental Effects Applicable to the Offshore Wind Farm Industry UK Department for Business Enterprise and Regulatory Reform January 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
Responses of Free-Living Coastal Pelagic Fish to Impulsive Sounds Hawkins, A., Roberts, L., Cheesman, S. May 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Residency, Site Fidelity and Habitat Use of Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua) at an Offshore Wind Farm Using Acoustic Telemetry Reubens, J., et al. September 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Fish
Residence Time and Behaviour of Sole and Cod in the Offshore Wind Farm Egmond aan Zee Winter, H., Aarts, G., van Keeken, O. September 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Fish
Report on Environmental Impact Assessment and Mitigation Strategies TROPOS July 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal, Lighting, Static Device Ecosystem, Fish, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Report of the Workshop on International Harmonisation of Approaches to Define Underwater Noise Exposure Criteria Lucke, K., et al. April 2014 Workshop Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles
Renewable Energy Respecting Nature: A Synthesis of Knowledge on Environmental Impacts of Renewable Energy Financed by the Research Council of Norway May, R., et al. October 2012 Report Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Fish, Socio-economics
Recovery of Barotrauma Injuries in Chinook Salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha from Exposure to Pile Driving Sound Casper, B., et al. June 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Proceedings of the Oregon Marine Renewable Energy Environmental Sciences Conference Boehlert, G., et al. April 2013 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF, Energy Removal, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles, Socio-economics
Prioritisation of monitoring and research for diadromous fish in the context of Marine/Offshore Renewables: A summary of stakeholder engagement meetings between Marine Scotland, wild fisheries interests and wind, wave and tidal developers Hunter, D., Malcolm, I., Armstrong, J. March 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Fish, Socio-economics, Fishing, Stakeholder Engagement
Prevention of the ecological effects of offshore windfarms in licensing and spatial planning - an overview Boon, A. July 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Power from the Brave New Ocean: Marine Renewable Energy and Ecological Risks Hammar, L. January 2014 Thesis Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Fish, Socio-economics
Potential Impacts to Predator-Prey Relationships as a Result of the Proposed Cape Wind Project in Nantucket Sound ESS Group September 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds, Ecosystem, Fish, Marine Mammals
Potential Effects of Offshore Wind Farm Noise on Fish Thomsen, F., et al. January 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Populationsdynamik von kommerziell genutzten Fischarten in (durch Offshore- Windkraftanlagen) veränderter Ökosystemstruktur Diembeck, D. January 2008 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Ecosystem, Fish
Pelagic effects of offshore wind farm foundations in the stratified North Sea Floeter, J., et al. August 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Farfield Environment, Fish
Pathways of Effects for Offshore Renewable Energy in Canada Isaacman, L., Daborn, G. December 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Lighting, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Sea Turtles, Socio-economics
Particle Motion Measured at an Operational Wind Turbine in Relation to Hearing Sensitivity in Fish Sigray, P., Andersson, M. July 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
OSPAR request to advise on the current state and knowledge of studies into the deployment and environmental impacts of wet renewable technologies and marine energy storage systems N/A April 2019 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal, Noise Birds, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics, Aesthetics
Options and Opportunities for Marine Fisheries Mitigation Associated with Windfarms Blyth-Skyrme, R. January 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Fish, Socio-economics
Onset of Barotrauma Injuries Related to Number of Pile Driving Strike Exposures in Hybrid Striped Bass Casper, B., et al. June 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Offshore Windmills and the Effects of Electromagnetic Fields on Fish Öhman, M., Sigray, P., Westerberg, H. December 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF Fish
Offshore Wind Farms: Their Impacts, and Potential Habitat Gains as Artificial Reefs, in Particular for Fish Wilson, J. September 2007 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Ecosystem, Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Offshore Wind Farms in the Belgian Part of the North Sea: State of the Art After Two Years of Environmental Monitoring Degraer, S., Brabant, R. January 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Ecosystem, Fish, Marine Mammals
Offshore Wind Farms in the Belgian Part of the North Sea: Heading for an Understanding of Environmental Impacts Degraer, S., Brabant, R., Rumes, B. January 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal, Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Farfield Environment, Fish, Socio-economics
Offshore Wind Farms in the Belgian Part of the North Sea: Early Environmental Impact Assessment and Spatio-Temporal Variability Degraer, S., Brabant, R., Rumes, B. January 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, Dynamic Device, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Offshore Wind Farms as Productive Sites or Ecological Traps for Gadoid Fishes? - Impact on Growth, Condition Index and Diet Composition Reubens, J., et al. September 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Fish
Offshore Wind Farms and their Impact on Fish Abundance and Community Structure Stenberg, C., et al. September 2012 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Fish
Offshore Wind Farms and the Environment: Danish Experiences from Horns Rev and Nysted Danish Energy Authority November 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics
Offshore Wind Farms - Ecological Effects of Noise and Habitat Alteration on Fish Andersson, M. January 2011 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise, Static Device Ecosystem, Fish
Offshore Wind Energy Research on Environmental Impacts Köller, J., Köppel, J., Peters, W. March 2006 Book Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Ecosystem, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics
Ocean Wind Power Ecological Baseline Studies Final Report - Volume 4: Fish and Fisheries Studies Geo-Marine July 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Fish
Ocean Wind Power Ecological Baseline Studies Final Report - Volume 1: Overview, Summary, and Application Geo-Marine July 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Bats, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles
Ocean Noise: Turn it down - A report on ocean noise pollution McKenna, C., International Fund for Animal Welfare June 2008 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish, Marine Mammals
NYSERDA Environmental Research Program Plan Research Area 4: Marine Wind and Wildlife New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) September 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles
Nature Conservation Guidance on Offshore Windfarm Development - A Guidance Note on the Implications of the EC Wild Birds and Habitats Directives for Developers Undertaking Offshore Windfarm Developments UK Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs March 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Mussel and Seaweed Cultivation in Offshore Wind Farms: An Opinion Survey Michler-Cieluch, T., Kodeih, S. January 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Fish, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
Multi-Platform Concepts for Combining Offshore Wind Energy and Fish Farming in Freezing Sea Areas: Case Study in the Gulf of Bothnia Mikkola, E., et al. June 2018 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Fish
Monitoring and Researching Ecological Effects of Dutch Offshore Wind Farms Boon, A., et al. May 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Bats, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics
Monitoring and Research Shortlist Offshore Wind - Knowledge advancements and follow up Boon, A. January 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Modelling of Noise Effects of Operational Offshore Wind Turbines Including Noise Transmission Through Various Foundation Types Marmo, B., et al. August 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish, Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Mobile Demersal Megafauna at Artificial Structures in the German Bight - Likely Effects of Offshore Wind Farm Development Krone, R., et al. July 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
Meta-Analysis of Finfish Abundance at Offshore Wind Farms Methratta, E., Dardick, W. March 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Fish
MERiFIC 3.2.1: Documentary Summary of the Environmental Impact of Renewable Marine Energy Sotta, C. September 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Birds, Ecosystem, Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Measurement of Underwater Noise During Piling at the Red Funnel Terminal, Southampton, and Observation of its Affect on Caged Fish Nedwell, J., et al. October 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Marine Renewable Energy and Scottish West Coast Fishers: Exploring Impacts, Opportunities and Potential Mitigation Alexander, K., Potts, T., Wilding, T. April 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Ecosystem, Fish, Socio-economics
Marine Noise Budgets in Practice Faulkner, R., Merchant, N., Martinez, R. May 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish, Marine Mammals
Mapping Fisheries for Marine Spatial Planning: Gear-Specific Vessel Monitoring System (VMS), Marine Conservation and Offshore Renewable Energy Campbell, M., et al. March 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Fish, Socio-economics, Legal and Policy, Marine Spatial Planning, Navigation
Long-Term Effects of an Offshore Wind Farm in the North Sea on Fish Communities Stenberg, C., et al. May 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Fish
Large-Scale Offshore Wind Power in the United States: Assessment of Opportunities and Barriers Musial, M., Ram, B. September 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics

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