Knowledge Base

The Knowledge Base provides access to information about the environmental effects of marine and wind energy, supporting OES-Environmental and WREN initiatives. Relevant documents and OES-Environmental metadata forms are compiled into a user-friendly table with advanced filtering. Filters may be selected on the right, or keywords entered in the Search Text box. Content may also be sorted alphabetically by clicking on column headers.


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Title Author*sort descending Date** Type of Content Technology Types Stressors Receptors
Collision and Displacement Vulnerability Among Marine Birds of the California Current System Associated with Offshore Wind Energy Infrastructure Adams, J., et al. October 2016 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds, Seabirds
Bats and Offshore Wind Turbines Studied in Southern Scandinavia Ahlén, I., et al. July 2007 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision Bats
Evaluating the Effectiveness of an Ultrasonic Acoustic Deterrent for Reducing Bat Fatalities at Wind Turbines Arnett, E., et al. June 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision Bats
Bird Collisions at Wind Turbines in a Mountainous Area Related to Bird Movement Intensities Measured by Radar Aschwanden, J., et al. April 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision Birds, Passerines
Bird Migration Intensity and Number of Collision Victims at the Wind Power Plant Le Peuchapatte (Switzerland) Aschwanden, J., Liechti, F. November 2016 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds
Assessing Environmental Impacts of Offshore Wind Farms: Lessons Learned and Recommendations for the Future Bailey, H., Brookes, K., Thompson, P. September 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Noise Birds, Ecosystem Processes, Marine Mammals
Best Management Practices for Bats in New Mexico Balistreri, M. January 2010 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Habitat Change Bats
A Study of the Risk of Collision with Power Lines by Waterbirds in Winter at Shotton Steel Works, North Wales Balmer, D., Henderson, I., Clark, N. April 1995 Report Wind Energy (General) Avoidance, Collision Birds, Waterfowl
Windfarms and Birds: Calculating a Theoretical Collision Risk Assuming No Avoiding Action Band, W. January 2000 Report Wind Energy (General) Avoidance, Collision, Habitat Change Birds
Developing Field and Analytical Methods to Assess Avian Collision Risk at Wind Farms Band, W., Madders, M., Whitfield, D. June 2007 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds
Impact of wind turbines on bat activity: an ommited long-distance concern Barre, K., et al. February 2017 Presentation Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision Bats
Estimating habitat loss due to wind turbine avoidance by bats: Implications for European siting guidance Barre, K., et al. August 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Bats
Texturizing Wind Turbine Towers to Reduce Bat Mortality Bennett, V., Hale, A. July 2018 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision Bats
Bat Mortalities at a Wind Energy Facility in North Dakota Bicknell, L., Gilliam, E. November 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision Bats
Bird Mortality in Two Dutch Wind Farms: Effects of Location, Spatial Design and Interactions with Powerlines Brenninkmeijer, A., Klop, E. February 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Birds
A synthesis of human-related avian mortality in Canada Calvert, A., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds
Evaluation of Wind‐Energy Survey Protocols for Migrating Eagle Detection Chabot, E., Slater, S. December 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision Birds, Raptors
The Effect of Avoidance Rates on Bird Mortality Predictions Made by Wind Turbine Collision Risk Models Chamberlain, D., et al. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds, Raptors, Seabirds, Waterfowl
A Review of Methods to Monitor Collisions or Micro-Avoidance of Birds with Offshore Wind Turbines - Part 1: Review Strategic Ornithological Support Services Project Collier, M., Dirksen, S., Krijgsveld, K. September 2011 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Collision Birds
A Review of Methods to Monitor Collisions or Micro-Avoidance of Birds with Offshore Wind Turbines - Part 2: Feasibility Study of Systems to Monitor Collisions Collier, M., Dirksen, S., Krijgsveld, K. February 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Collision Birds
A Review of Flight Heights and Avoidance Rates of Birds in Relation to Offshore Wind Farms Cook, A., et al. May 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Collision Birds
The Avoidance Rates of Collision Between Birds and Offshore Turbines Cook, A., et al. December 2014 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds, Seabirds
Does the Wind Power Industry Threaten Marbled Murrelets or Do Marbled Murrelets Threaten the Wind Power Industry? Cooper, J., Beauchesne, S. March 2004 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision Birds, Seabirds
The impact of wind energy facilities on grouse: a systematic review Coppes, J., et al. August 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
Environmental Risk Evaluation System - An Approach to Ranking Risk of Ocean Energy Development on Coastal and Estuarine Environments Copping, A., et al. January 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Changes in Flow, Chemicals, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Causes of Bat Fatalities at Wind Turbines: Hypotheses and Predictions Cryan, P., Barclay, R. December 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Attraction, Avoidance, Collision Bats
Behavior of Bats at Wind Turbines Cryan, P., et al. October 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Changes in Flow, Collision, Displacement Bats
Collision Fatality of Raptors in Wind Farms does not Depend on Raptor Abundance de Lucas, M., et al. October 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Avoidance, Collision Birds, Raptors
The Effects of a Wind Farm on Birds in a Migration Point: The Strait of Gibraltar de Lucas, M., Janss, G., Ferrer, M. February 2004 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Avoidance, Collision Birds
Preliminary Investigations of Bird-Turbine Collisions at Nysted Offshore Wind Farm and Final Quality Control of Thermal Animal Detection System (TADS) Desholm, M. January 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Collision Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Avian Collision Risk at an Offshore Wind Farm Desholm, M., Kahlert, J. June 2005 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Collision Birds, Waterfowl
Burbo Bank Extension Offshore Wind Farm Volume 2: ES Biological Environment DONG Energy March 2013 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Collision Effects of Wind-power Generators and Other Obstacles on Birds Drewitt, A., Langston, R. June 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds
Collision Risk and Micro-Avoidance Rates of Birds with Wind Turbines in Flanders Everaert, J. March 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision Birds
Weak Relationship Between Risk Assessment Studies and Recorded Mortality in Wind Farms Ferrer, M., et al. February 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds, Raptors
Bird Movements at Rotor Heights Measured Continuously with Vertical Radar at a Dutch Offshore Wind Farm Fijn, R., et al. July 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Collision Birds, Passerines, Seabirds
A Habitat-Based Wind-Wildlife Collision Model with Application to the Upper Great Plains Region Forcey, G. August 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision Bats, Birds
Information Needs to Support Environmental Impact Assessments of the Effects of European Marine Offshore Wind Farms on Birds Fox, A., et al. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Seabirds, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Vulnerability of Scottish Seabirds to Offshore Wind Turbines Furness, B., Wade, H. February 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Raptors, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Response of Raptors to a Windfarm Garvin, J., et al. December 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision Birds, Raptors
Acoustic mirrors as sensory traps for bats Greif, S., Zsebok, S. September 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Attraction, Avoidance, Collision Bats
Bird Mortality at a Wind-Energy Facility near a Wetland of International Importance Grodsky, S., Jennelle, C., Drake, D. November 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds
Breeding and Overland Flight of Red- Throated Divers (Gavia stellata) at Smøla, Norway, in relation to the Smøla wind farm Halley, D., Hopshaug, P. October 2007 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision Birds, Waterfowl
Collision Mortalities at Horseshoe Shoal of Bird Species of Special Concern Hatch, J., Brault, S. January 2007 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
Behavioral Responses of Bats to Operating Wind Turbines Horn, J., Arnett, E., Kunz, T. March 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Attraction, Avoidance, Collision Bats
Testing the Effectiveness of an Experimental Acoustic Bat Deterrent at the Maple Ridge Wind Farm Horn, J., et al. June 2008 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision Bats
Results and Analysis of Eagle Studies from the Bluff Point and Studland Bay Wind Farms 2002-2012 Hull, C., et al. January 2015 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision Birds, Raptors
Avian Collisions at Two Wind Farms in Tasmania, Australia: Taxonomic and Ecological Characteristics of Colliders Versus Non-Colliders Hull, C., et al. February 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision Birds
Collision, Displacement and Barrier Effect Concept Note Humphreys, E., Cook, S., Burton, N. January 2015 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Bird Migration Studies and Potential Collision Risk with Offshore Wind Turbines Hüppop, O., et al. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds, Passerines
Avian and Bat Protection Plan: Iberdrola Renewables Iberdrola Renewables October 2008 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Bats, Birds, Raptors
Pathways of Effects for Offshore Renewable Energy in Canada Isaacman, L., Daborn, G. December 2011 Report Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Changes in Flow, Chemicals, Collision, Displacement, EMF, Habitat Change, Lighting, Noise Birds, Fish, Invertebrates, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Physical Environment, Reptiles, Human Dimensions
Bat Mortality and Activity at a Northern Iowa Wind Resource Area Jain, A., et al. January 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision Bats
Combining radar and direct observation to estimate pelican collision risk at a proposed wind farm on the Cape west coast, South Africa Jenkins, A., et al. February 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds, Waterfowl
Avian, Bat and Habitat Cumulative Impacts Associated with Wind Energy Development in the Columbia Plateau Ecoregion Of Eastern Washington and Oregon Johnson, G., Erickson, W. May 2011 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Bats, Birds, Raptors
Bat Activity, Composition, and Collision Mortality At a Large Wind Plant in Minnesota Johnson, G., et al. December 2004 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision Bats
Bat Interactions With Wind Turbines at the Buffalo Ridge, Minnesota Wind Resource Area: An Assessment of Bat Activity, Species Composition, and Collision Mortality Johnson, G., et al. November 2003 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision Bats
Flight Paths of Migrating Golden Eagles and the Risk Associated with Wind Energy Development in the Rocky Mountains Johnson, N., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision Birds
Best Management Practices for siting, developing, operating, and monitoring renewable energy in the Intermountain West: A Conservationist's Guide Jones, A. March 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Bats, Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Raptors, Terrestrial Mammals
Collision and displacement vulnerability to offshore wind energy infrastructure among marine birds of the Pacific Outer Continental Shelf Kelsey, E., et al. September 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds
An Assessment of the Impacts of Green Mountain Power Corporation's Wind Power Facility on Breeding and Migrating Birds in Searsburg, Vermont: July 1996-July 1998 Kerlinger, P. March 2002 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Passerines, Raptors
Ponnequin Wind Energy Project: Reference Site Avian Study Kerlinger, P., Curry, R., Ryder, R. April 2000 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Passerines, Raptors
Developing Guidance on Ornithological Cumulative Impact Assessment for Offshore Wind Farm Developers King, S., et al. June 2009 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds
Avoidance Behaviour of Birds around Offshore Wind Farms: Overview of Knowledge Including Effects of Configuration Krijgsveld, K. July 2014 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds
Collision Risk of Birds with Modern Large Wind Turbines Krijgsveld, K., et al. October 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision Birds
Ecological Impacts of Wind Energy Development on Bats: Questions, Research Needs, and Hypotheses Kunz, T., et al. August 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Bats
Effects of Wind Turbines on Flight Behaviour of Wintering Common Eiders: Implications for Habitat Use and Collision Risk Larsen, J., Guillemette, M. April 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds, Seabirds
Environmental Effects of Small Wind Energy Conversion Systems (SWECS) Lawrence, K., Strojan, C. January 1980 Book Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision Birds
Assessing the Influence of Wind Turbines and Land-use on Mortality Risk of Avian Species on the Llano Estacado with Emphasis on Birds of Prey Linner, K. December 2014 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds
Direct Mortality of Birds from Anthropogenic Causes Loss, S., Will, T., Marra, P. December 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Birds
Developing a science-based approach to defining key species of birds and bats of concern for wind farm developments in Victoria Lumsden, L., Moloney, P., Smales, I. September 2019 Report Wind Energy (General) Avoidance, Collision Bats, Birds
Upland Raptors and the Assessment of Wind Farm Impacts Madders, M., Whitfield, D. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision Birds, Raptors
The Effect of Local Weather Conditions on Bird-Aircraft Collisions at British Airports Manktelow, S. April 2000 Conference Paper N/A Attraction, Avoidance, Collision Birds
Strategic Joint Industry Project No.1: Bird avoidance behavior and collision impact monitoring at Offshore Windfarms Marine Scotland, et al. December 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Collision Birds
Bird Collisions with Power Lines: Failing to See the Way Ahead? Martin, G., Shaw, J. November 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision Birds
Effects of wind farms and food scarcity on a large scavenging bird species following an epidemic of bovine spongiform encephalopathy Martinez-Abrain, A., et al. November 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds, Raptors, Ecosystem Processes
Developing an Avian Collision Risk Model to Incorporate Variability and Uncertainty Masden, E. September 2015 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Collision Birds
Avian Collision Risk Models for Wind Energy Impact Assessments Masden, E., Cook, A. January 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds
Assessing the Impact of Marine Wind Farms on Birds through Movement Modelling Masden, E., et al. May 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Collision Birds
Collision Risk in White-Tailed Eagles Modelling Kernel-Based Collision Risk Using Satellite Telemetry Data in Smøla Wind-Power Plant May, R., et al. May 2011 Report Wind Energy (General) Avoidance, Collision Birds, Raptors
Collision Risk in White-Tailed Eagles: Modelling Collision Risk Using Vantage Point Observations in Smøla Wind-Power Plant May, R., et al. December 2010 Report Wind Energy (General) Avoidance, Collision Birds, Raptors
Assessing Risk to Birds from Industrial Wind Energy Development via Paired Resource Selection Models Miller, T., et al. January 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Birds
Differential Mortality of Birds Killed at Wind Farms in Northern Portugal Morinha, F., et al. March 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds
Effects on Birds of an Offshore Wind Park at Horns Rev: Environmental Impact Assessment Noer, H., et al. January 2000 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Birds, Raptors, Seabirds, Waterfowl, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
A study of White-tailed Eagle Haliaeetus albicilla movements and mortality at a wind farm in Norway Nygård, T., et al. January 2010 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision Birds, Raptors
Avian and Bat Protection Plan for the Ocotillo Wind Energy Facility Ocotillo Express February 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Bats, Birds, Raptors
Impacts on Wildlife and Government Responsibilities for Regulating Development and Protecting Wildlife Office, United States Government Accountability September 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision Bats, Birds, Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Collision Course: The Hazards of Lighted Structures and Windows to Migrating Birds Ogden, L. September 1996 Report N/A Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Lighting Birds
Bats and Bat Habitats: Guidelines for Wind Power Projects Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources July 2011 Report Wind Energy (General) Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Bats
Bird and Bird Habitats: Guidelines for Wind Power Projects Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources December 2011 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Birds
Assessment of the Effects of Offshore Wind in Birds Percival, S. January 2001 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl
The energy landscape predicts flight height and wind turbine collision hazard in three species of large soaring raptor Peron, G., et al. December 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds, Raptors
Effectiveness of a mitigation measure for the lesser kestrel (Falco naumanni) in wind farms in Spain Pescador, M., Ramírez, J., Peris, S. February 2019 Journal Article Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds
Final Results of Bird Studies at the Offshore Wind Farms at Nysted and Horns Rev, Denmark Petersen, I., et al. January 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Birds, Seabirds
Research Priorities for Wind Energy and Migratory Wildlife Piorkowski, M., et al. April 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Bats, Birds
Radar Monitoring of Migrating Pink-Footed Geese: Behavioural Responses to Offshore Wind Farm Development Plonczkier, P., Simms, I. August 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Collision Birds
Cumulative Effects of Wind Farms in the Dutch North Sea on Bird Populations Poot, M., et al. June 2012 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds
Bird species of concern at wind farms in New Zealand Powlesland, R. September 2009 Book Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Birds
The Effects of Wind Turbines on Antipredator Behavior in California Ground Squirrels (Spermophilus beecheyi) Rabin, L., Coss, R., Owings, D. August 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Noise Birds, Raptors, Ecosystem Processes, Terrestrial Mammals
Bats Avoid Radar Installations: Could Electromagnetic Fields Deter Bats from Colliding with Wind Turbines? Racey, P., Nicholls, B. March 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Avoidance, Collision, EMF Bats

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