Knowledge Base

The Knowledge Base provides access to information about the environmental effects of marine and wind energy, supporting OES-Environmental and WREN initiatives. Relevant documents and OES-Environmental metadata forms are compiled into a user-friendly table with advanced filtering. Filters may be selected on the right, or keywords entered in the Search Text box. Content may also be sorted alphabetically by clicking on column headers. More entries will load as you scroll down.


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Title Author*sort descending Date** Type of Content Technology Types Stressors Receptors
Pacific Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment (PaCSEA): Aerial Seabird and Marine Mammal Surveys off Northern California, Oregon, and Washington, 2011-2012 Adams, J., et al. March 2014 Report N/A N/A Birds, Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Pinnipeds
Request for advice about the displacement of marine mammals around operational offshore windfarms Alcock, P. October 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Echolocation in Marine Mammals Au, W., Hastings, M. January 2008 Book Chapter N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Factors Influencing the Diving Behaviour of Fish Eating Killer Whales: Sex Differences and Diel and Interannual Variation in Diving Rates Baird, R., Hanson, M., Dill, L. April 2005 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Seismic Survey Mitigation Measures and Marine Mammal Observer Reports Barkaszi, M., et al. June 2012 Report N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Mitigating, Monitoring and Assessing the Effects of Anthropogenic Sound on Beaked Whales Barlow, J., Gisiner, R. January 2006 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
California Current Cetacean & Ecosystem Assessment Survey (CalCurCEAS): Final Report to Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Regarding Surveys of Windfloat and Wave Energy Areas Barlow, J., Henry, A., Ballance, L. April 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Ecosystem, Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Wild Whales Noise and Cetaceans BC Cetacean Sightings Network August 2013 Website N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Understanding the Potential for Marine Megafauna Entanglement Risk from Marine Renewable Energy Developments Benjamins, S., et al. January 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Minimizing wildlife impacts for offshore wind energy development: Winning tradeoffs for seabirds in space and cetaceans in time Best, B., Halpin, P. May 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Noise Birds, Seabirds, Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Habitat Preferences and Distribution of the Harbour Porpoise Phocoena phocoena West of Scotland Booth, C., et al. March 2013 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Behavioral Responses and Habituation of Pinnipeds and Small Cetaceans to Novel Objects and Simulated Fishing Gear With and Without a Pinger Bowles, A., Anderson, C. January 2012 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Pinnipeds
The Effects of Anthropogenic Sound on Marine Mammals Boyd, I., et al. June 2008 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Seal Scarers as a Tool to Deter Harbour Porpoises from Offshore Construction Sites Brandt, M., et al. February 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Effects of Offshore Pile Driving on Harbor Porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) Brandt, M., et al. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Broad-Scale Acoustic Monitoring for Cetaceans and Underwater Noise in Relation to Offshore Wind Farm Construction in Scotland Brookes, K., et al. June 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Is There a Conflict Between Cetacean Conservation and Marine Renewable-Energy Developments? Brown, V., Simmonds, M. December 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Gross and Histologic Evidence of Sharp and Blunt Trauma in North Atlantic Right Whales (Eubalaena glacialis) Killed by Vessels Campbell-Malone, R., et al. March 2008 Journal Article N/A Dynamic Device Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Socio-economics, Navigation
Impacts of Offshore Wind Farm Construction on Harbour Porpoises: Acoustic Monitoring of Echolocation Activity using Porpoise Detectors (T-PODs) Carstensen, J., Henriksen, O., Teilmann, J. January 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise, Static Device Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Lethal entanglement in baleen whales Cassoff, R., et al. October 2011 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Declining Survival Probability Threatens the North Atlantic Right Whale Caswell, H., Fujiwara, M., Brault, S. March 1999 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
A Characterization of Marine Mammals and Turtles in the Mid and North Atlantic Areas of the US Outer Continental Shelf Cetacean and Turtle Assessment Program June 1981 Report N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Reptiles
Click Communication in Harbour Porpoises Phocoena phocoena Clausen, K., et al. January 2010 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Humpback Whale Encounter with Offshore Wind Mooring Lines and Inter-Array Cables Copping, A., Grear, M. October 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Risk of whale encounters with offshore renewable energy mooring lines and electrical cables Copping, A., Grear, M., Sanders, G. April 2018 Presentation Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Assessing the exposure of animals to acoustic disturbance: Towards an understanding of the population consequences of disturbance Costa, D., et al. December 2016 Conference Paper N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Understanding the Impacts of Anthropogenic Sound on Beaked Whales Cox, T., et al. January 2006 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Gray Whales, Eschrichtius robustus, Avoid the Underwater Sounds of Killer Whales, Orcinus orca Cummings, W., Thompson, P. March 1971 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Likely Sensitivity of Bottlenose Dolphins to Pile-Driving Noise David, J. January 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Potential Impacts of Ocean Energy Development on Marine Mammals in Oregon Davis, A. December 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Design and Implementation of a Marine Animal Alert System to Support Marine Renewable Energy Deng, Z., et al. July 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
200 kHz Commercial Sonar Systems Generate Lower Frequency Side Lobes Audible to Some Marine Mammals Deng, Z., et al. April 2014 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Exposure to Seismic Survey Alters Blue Whale Acoustic Communication Di Iorio, L., Clark, C. February 2010 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Marine Wind Farms and Cetaceans Doleman, S., Simmonds, M., Keith, S. May 2003 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Towards Best Environmental Practice for Cetacean Conservation in Developing Scotland's Marine Renewable Energy Dolman, S., Simmonds, M. September 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
The Number and Distribution of Marine Mammals in the Fall of Warness, Orkney July 2005 - July 2006 Duck, C., et al. August 2006 Report N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Pinnipeds
Evidence of a Lombard Response in Migrating Humpback Whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) Dunlop, R., Cato, D., Noad, M. May 2014 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Methodology and Results of Calibration of Tonal Click Detectors for Small Odontocetes (C-PODs) Dähne, M., et al. September 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Using Habitat Models to Identify Suitable Sites for Marine Protected Areas for Harbour Porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) Embling, C., et al. February 2010 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Underwater Noise of Whale Watching Boats and Potential Effects on Killer Whales (Orcinus orca), Based on an Acoustic Impact Model Erbe, C. April 2002 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Long-Term Datasets on Marine Mammals: Learning from the Past to Manage the Future European Cetacean Society March 2011 Conference Paper N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Offshore Wind Farms and Marine Mammals: Impacts and Methodologies for Assessing Impacts Evans, P. February 2008 Workshop Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Noise, Static Device Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Pinnipeds
Abundance and Behaviour of Cetaceans and Basking Sharks in the Pentland Firth and Orkney Waters Evans, P., Baines, M., Coppock, J. January 2011 Report N/A N/A Fish, Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Low-frequency acoustic pressure, velocity, and intensity thresholds in a bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) and white whale (Delphinapterus leucas) Finneran, J., Carder, D., Ridgway, S. January 2002 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Temporary Shift in Masked Hearing Thresholds in Odontocetes After Exposure to Single Underwater Impulses from a Seismic Watergun Finneran, J., et al. March 2002 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Statistical Modeling of North Atlantic Right Whale Migration along the Mid-Atlantic Region of the Eastern Seaboard of the United States Firestone, J., et al. January 2008 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Whale-call response to masking boat noise Foote, A., Osborne, R., Hoelzel, R. April 2004 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Galloper Wind Farm Project: Environmental Statement - Chapter 14: Marine Mammals Galloper Wind Farm October 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Pinnipeds, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Ocean Wind Power Ecological Baseline Studies Final Report - Volume 3: Marine Mammal and Sea Turtle Studies Geo-Marine July 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Reptiles
Real-Time Monitoring for Beluga Whales (Delphinapterus leucas) in the Eagle River, Alaska using a PAMBuoy Detection System Gillespie, D., et al. May 2013 Report N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Combining Passive Acoustics and Imaging Sonar Techniques to Study Sperm Whales' Foraging Strategies Giorli, G. September 2017 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Responses of bottlenose dolphins and harbor porpoises to impact and vibration piling noise during harbor construction Graham, I., et al. May 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Humpback Whales and Floating Offshore Wind Farm Animation Grear, M., et al. November 2018 Video Offshore Wind Static Device Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Patterns of Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Humpback Whales at the Southern Limit of the Southeast Pacific Breeding Area Guidino, C., et al. November 2014 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Towards a Numerical Model to Simulate the Observed Displacement of Harbour Porpoises Phocoena phocoena Due to Pile Driving in Belgian Waters Haelters, J., et al. September 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
An Evaluation of the Relationship Between Small Cetacean Tag Design and Attachment Durations: A Bioengineering Approach Hanson, M. May 2001 Thesis N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Whales entangled in deep sea cables Heezen, B. January 1957 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
The Effect of Simulated Seal Scarer Sounds on Harbour Porpoises Hermannsen, L., Mikkelsen, L., Tougaard, J. January 2017 Report Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Pinnipeds
Report of the Working Group on Marine Mammal Ecology (WGMME) International Council for the Exploration of the Sea April 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Marine Renewable Energy: A Global Review of the Extent of Marine Renewable Energy Developments, the Developing Technologies and Possible Conservation Implications for Cetaceans James, V. November 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, EMF, Noise, Static Device Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
A Review of Killer Whale Interactions with Other Marine Mammals: Predation to Co-existence Jefferson, T., Stacey, P., Baird, R. December 1991 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Large Whale Ship Strike Database Jensen, A., Silber, G. January 2004 Report N/A Dynamic Device Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Vessel Noise Effects On Delphinid Communication Jensen, F., et al. January 2009 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Socio-economics, Navigation
Fishing Gear Involved in Entanglements of Right and Humpback Whales Johnson, A., et al. October 2005 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
A Digital Acoustic Recording Tag for Measuring the Response of Wild Marine Mammals to Sound Johnson, M., Tyack, P. January 2003 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Potential Benefits of Vessel Slowdowns on Endangered Southern Resident Killer Whales Joy, R., et al. June 2019 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Skin Density and Its Influence on Buoyancy in the Manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris), Harbor Porpoise (Phocoenca phocoena), and Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops trucnatus) Kipps, E., et al. July 2002 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Mortality and Serious Injury of Northern Right Whales (Eubalaena glacialis) in the Western North Atlantic Ocean Knowlton, A., Kraus, S. January 2001 Journal Article N/A Dynamic Device Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Behavioral responses of minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) to experimental fishing gear in a coastal environment Kot, B., et al. February 2012 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Feeding home ranges of pacific coast feeding group gray whales Lagerquist, B., et al. February 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Marine Megavertebrates of Cornwall and the Isles of Scilly: Relative Abundance and Distribution Leeney, R., et al. December 2012 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Pinnipeds
North Atlantic right whale Eubalaena glacialis occurrence in offshore wind energy areas near Massachusetts and Rhode Island, USA Leiter, S., et al. July 2017 Journal Article Offshore Wind Static Device Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Did the Pile Driving during the Construction of the Offshore Wind Farm Egmond aan Zee, the Netherlands, Impact Porpoises? Leopold, M., Camphuysen, K. February 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Underwater noise levels of pile-driving in a New Zealand harbour, and the potential impacts on endangered Hector's dolphins Leunissen, E., Dawson, S. October 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Impact of pile-driving on Hector's dolphin in Lyttelton Harbour, New Zealand Leunissen, E., Rayment, W., Dawson, S. May 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
MR6.1 Review of Methodology and Main Results of the JCP Analysis of Cetacean Densities in the Context of Marine Renewable Development Lonergan, M., Hammond, P. July 2015 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Locomotor design of dolphin vertebral columns: bending mechanics and morphology of Delphinus delphis Long, J., et al. January 1997 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Social structure and abundance of coastal bottlenose dolphins, Tursiops truncatus, in the Normano-Breton Gulf, English Channel Louis, M., et al. May 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Temporary Shift in Masked Hearing Thresholds in a Harbor Porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) after Exposure to Seismic Airgun Stimuli Lucke, K., et al. June 2009 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Assessment of Basic Audiometric Functions in Killer Whales (Orcinus orca) at Loro Parque, Tenerife, Spain Lucke, K., Finneran, J., Houser, D. March 2013 Report N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Passive Acoustic Methods for Fine-Scale Tracking of Harbour Porpoises in Tidal Rapids Macaulay, J., et al. February 2017 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Statistical Modelling of Seabird and Cetacean Data: Guidance Document Mackenzie, M., et al. October 2013 Report N/A N/A Birds, Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Dogger Bank Creyke Beck Environmental Statement - Chapter 14: Marine Mammals Mackey, B., Keenan, G. March 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Pinnipeds, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Marine Mammals and Noise: A Sound Approach to Research and Management Marine Mammal Commission March 2007 Report N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Habitat Preferences and Interannual Variability in Occurrence of the Harbour Porpoise Phocoena phocoena off Northwest Scotland Marubini, F., et al. April 2009 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Understanding the Effectiveness of Acoustic Deterrent Devices on Minke Whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), A Low Frequency Cetacean McGarry, T., et al. November 2017 Report N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
A framework to evaluate the environmental impact of OCEAN energy devices Mendoza, E., et al. June 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Ocean Current, OTEC, Tidal, Wave, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Ecosystem, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Pinnipeds, Nearfield Habitat, Environmental Impact Assessment
Criteria and Case Definitions for Serious Injury and Death of Pinnipeds and Cetaceans Caused by Anthropogenic Trauma Moore, M., et al. April 2013 Journal Article N/A Dynamic Device, Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Pinnipeds
Using Geographic Information Systems to Predict North Atlantic Right Whale (Eubalaena glacialis) Habitat Moses, E., Finn, J. December 1997 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Has Designating and Protecting Critical Habitat had an Impact on Endangered North Atlantic Right Whale Ship Strike Mortality? Mullen, K., Peterson, M., Todd, S. November 2013 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Assessment of the Marine Renewables Industry in Relation to Marine Mammals: Synthesis of Work Undertaken by the ICES Working Group on Marine Mammal Ecology (WGMME) Murphy, S., et al. January 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Effects of Wind Farms on Harbour Porpoise Behavior and Population Dynamics Nabe-Nielsen, J., et al. September 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Draft Recovery Plan for the North Pacific Right Whale (Eubalaena japonica) National Marine Fisheries Service January 2013 Report N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary: Marine Mammals List National Marine Sanctuaries July 2004 Website N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Pinnipeds
Modelling the Biological Significance of Behavioural Change in Coastal Bottlenose Dolphins in Response to Disturbance New, L., et al. April 2013 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Socio-economics, Navigation
Call and Component Evaluation for Improved Performance of Recognition of Killer Whale Individuals Nichols, N., et al. September 2010 Conference Paper N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
U.S. West Coast Large Whale Entanglement Information Sharing Workshop Report NOAA Fisheries March 2014 Report N/A Static Device Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Estimated Field Metabolic Rates and Prey Requirements of Resident Killer Whales Noren, D. January 2011 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
MR6.2 Definition of 'Range' in the Context of Marine Renewable Energy Development and Marine Mammal Conservation Northridge, S. July 2015 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Request for advice on the populations of cetaceans that might be involved in significant interactions with marine renewable energy developments in Scottish marine waters Northridge, S. August 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans

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