Knowledge Base

The Knowledge Base provides access to information about the environmental effects of marine and wind energy, supporting OES-Environmental and WREN initiatives. Relevant documents and OES-Environmental metadata forms are compiled into a user-friendly table with advanced filtering. Filters may be selected on the right, or keywords entered in the Search Text box. Content may also be sorted alphabetically by clicking on column headers.


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Title Author*sort descending Date** Type of Content Technology Types Stressors Receptors
Population dynamics in white-tailed eagle at an on-shore wind farm area in coastal Norway Dahl, E. January 2014 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
White-Tailed Eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla) at the Smøla Wind-Power Plant, Central Norway, Lack Behavioral Flight Responses to Wind Turbines Dahl, E., et al. March 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Reduced Breeding Success in White-Tailed Eagles at Smøla windfarm, Western Norway, is Caused by Mortality and Displacement Dahl, E., et al. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Birds, Raptors
Repowering Smøla Wind-Power Plant: An Assessment of Avian Conflicts Dahl, E., et al. June 2015 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Raptors
A framework for decision points to trigger adaptive management actions in long-term incidental take permits Dalthorp, D., Huso, M. December 2015 Report Wind Energy (General) N/A Bats, Birds, Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Danish Offshore Wind Key Environmental Issues - A Follow-up Danish Energy Agency, et al. February 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Offshore Wind Farms and the Environment: Danish Experiences from Horns Rev and Nysted Danish Energy Authority November 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Invertebrates, Marine Mammals, Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
Windfarm Impacts on Blanket Peat Habitats in Scotland Dargie, T. May 2004 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Turbine Height as a Management Tool for Collision Risk to Birds at Offshore Wind Farms Davies, I., Band, B. September 2012 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Bird and Bat Migration over Appalachian Ridges Progress Report, August 2006 Dawson, D., et al. August 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Collision Potential of Eiders and Other Birds Near a Proposed Windfarm at St. Lawrence Island, October-November 2002 Day, R., et al. March 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
Collision Fatality of Raptors in Wind Farms does not Depend on Raptor Abundance de Lucas, M., et al. October 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Avoidance, Collision Birds, Raptors
Griffon Vulture Mortality at Wind Farms in Southern Spain: Distribution of Fatalities and Active Mitigation Measures de Lucas, M., et al. March 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Raptors
Using Wind Tunnels to Predict Bird Mortality in Wind Farms: The Case of Griffon Vultures de Lucas, M., Ferrer, M., Janss, G. November 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds
Birds and Wind Farms: Risk Assessment and Mitigation de Lucas, M., Janss, G., Ferrer, M. June 2007 Book Wind Energy (General) N/A Bats, Birds
A Bird and Small Mammal BACI and IG Design Studies in a Wind Farm in Malpica (Spain) de Lucas, M., Janss, G., Ferrer, M. December 2005 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds, Terrestrial Mammals
The Effects of a Wind Farm on Birds in a Migration Point: The Strait of Gibraltar de Lucas, M., Janss, G., Ferrer, M. February 2004 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Avoidance, Collision Birds
Offshore Wind Farms in the Belgian Part of the North Sea: State of the Art After Two Years of Environmental Monitoring Degraer, S., Brabant, R. January 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Ecosystem, Fish, Invertebrates, Marine Mammals
Offshore Wind Farms in the Belgian Part of the North Sea: Early Environmental Impact Assessment and Spatio-Temporal Variability Degraer, S., Brabant, R., Rumes, B. January 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Invertebrates, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
ID Stat: Innovative Technology for Assessing Wildlife Collisions with Wind Turbines Delprat, B., Alcuri, G. July 2011 Report Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
2016-2017 Status Assessment and Update on the Wind Vision Roadmap DeMeo, E. November 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Raptors
Applying citizen-science data and mark–recapture models to estimate numbers of migrant Golden Eagles in an Important Bird Area in eastern North America Dennhardt, A., et al. November 2017 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds, Raptors
Modeling autumn migration of a rare soaring raptor identifies new movement corridors in central Appalachia Dennhardt, A., et al. May 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
Windy Business: Exploring a Local Wind Power Project in Germany Dennis, K. June 2017 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Avian Use Surveys for the Prevailing Winds Wind Project: Bon Homme and Charles Mix Counties, South Dakota. Year Two Final Report: March 3, 2016 - April 19, 2017 Derby, C., Agudelo, S., Thorn, T. February 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Post-construction monitoring report for avian and bat mortality at the NPPD Ainsworth Wind Farm Derby, C., et al. February 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Whooping Crane and Sandhill Crane Monitoring at Five Wind Energy Facilities Derby, C., Welsch, M., Thorn, T. January 2018 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds, Shorebirds
TADS Investigations of Avian Collision Risk at Nysted Offshore Wind Farm Desholm, M. January 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Passerines, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Thermal Animal Detection System (TADS): Development of a Method for Estimating Collision Frequency of Migrating Birds at Offshore Wind Turbines Desholm, M. January 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Passerines, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Wind Farm Related Mortality Among Avian Migrants - A Remote Sensing Study and Model Analysis Desholm, M. August 2006 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Preliminary Investigations of Bird-Turbine Collisions at Nysted Offshore Wind Farm and Final Quality Control of Thermal Animal Detection System (TADS) Desholm, M. January 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Collision Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Avian Sensitivity to Mortality: Prioritising Migratory Bird Species for Assessment at Proposed Wind Farms Desholm, M. June 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision Birds
Remote Techniques for Counting and Estimating the Number of Bird-Wind Turbine Collisions at Sea: A Review Desholm, M., et al. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Base-Line Investigations of Birds in Relation to an Offshore Wind Farm at Rødsand: Results and Conclusions, 2002 Desholm, M., et al. September 2003 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance Birds
Best Practice Guidance for the Use of Remote Techniques for Observing Bird Behaviour in Relation to Offshore Wind Farms Desholm, M., Fox, A., Beasley, P. January 2004 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance Birds, Seabirds, Shorebirds
Avian Collision Risk at an Offshore Wind Farm Desholm, M., Kahlert, J. June 2005 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Collision Birds, Waterfowl
Reprioritizing Avian Conservation Efforts DeVault, T. April 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Scavenger removal of bird carcasses at simulated wind turbines: Does carcass type matter? DeVault, T., et al. November 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
Minimal Effects of Wind Turbines on the Distribution of Wintering Farmland Birds Devereux, C., Denny, M., Whittingham, M. October 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Passerines
Minimal effects of wind turbines on the distribution of wintering farmland birds Devereux, C., Denny, M., Whittingham, M. October 2008 Journal Article Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Argyll Array Offshore Wind Farm: Habitat Regulations Assessment - Screening for Likely Significant Effects Dewar, R. May 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Measuring the Insecurity Index of species in networks of protected areas using species distribution modeling and fuzzy logic: The case of raptors in Andalusia Diaz-Gomez, D., et al. March 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Investigations of the Bird Collision Risk and the Responses of Harbour Porpoises in the Offshore Wind Farms Horns Rev, North Sea, and Nysted, Baltic Sea, in Denmark - Part II: Harbour porpoises Diederichs,A., Hennig, V., Nehls, G. January 2008 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Noise Birds, Marine Mammals
Possible Behavioural, Energetic and Demographic Effects of Displacement of Red-throated Divers Dierschke, V., et al. June 2017 Report N/A Displacement Birds, Waterfowl
Seabirds and Offshore Wind Farms in European Waters: Avoidance and Attraction Dierschke, V., Furness, R., Garthe, S. October 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Habitat Change Birds, Seabirds
Preliminary Methodology to Assess the National and Regional Impact of U.S. Wind Energy Development on Birds and Bats Diffendorfer, J., et al. May 2015 Report Wind Energy general N/A Bats, Birds
A Method to Assess the Population-Level Consequences of Wind Energy Facilities on Bird and Bat Species Diffendorfer, J., et al. February 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general N/A Bats, Birds
Estimating the Ability of Birds to Sustain Additional Human-Caused Mortalities Using a Simple Decision Rule and Allometric Relationships Dillingham, P., Fletcher, D. July 2008 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds
Draft Avian and Bat Post-Construction Monitoring Plan: Raleigh Wind Farm, Invenergy Canada Dillon Consulting April 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Lingan 4MW Wind Power Project: Registration and Environmental Assessment Dillon Consulting October 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Review of Methods and Techniques for Field Validation of Collision Rates and Avoidance Amongst Birds and Bats at Offshore Wind Turbines Dirksen, S. March 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Nocturnal Flight Patterns and Altitudes of Diving Ducks in the IJsselmeer Area Dirksen, S., et al. December 1997 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Waterfowl
Feasibility Study for Meta-Analysis of Red-Throated Diver Displacement Dirksen, S., et al. July 2017 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Displacement Birds, Waterfowl
A long‐term assessment of raptor displacement at a wind farm Dohm, R., et al. July 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Displacement Birds, Raptors
Bird Migration Flight Altitudes Studied by a Network of Operational Weather Radars Dokter, A., et al. June 2010 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds
Bird Radar Validation in the Field by Time-Referencing Line-Transect Surveys Dokter, A., et al. September 2013 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds
Landscape Factors Affecting Foraging Flight Altitudes of Great Blue Heron in Maine; Relevance to Wind Energy Development Dolinski, L. May 2019 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds, Shorebirds
Burbo Bank Extension Offshore Wind Farm Volume 2: ES Biological Environment DONG Energy March 2013 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Avian Hearing and the Avoidance of Wind Turbines Dooling, R. June 2002 Report Wind Energy (General) Avoidance, Noise Birds
Testing efficacy of bird deterrents at wind turbine facilities: a pilot study in Nova Scotia, Canada Dorey, K., Dicky, S., Walker, T. January 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds
Assessment of Avian Mortality from Collisions and Electrocutions Dorin, M., et al. June 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Assessment of bat and avian mortality at a pilot wind turbine at Coega, Port Elizabeth, Eastern Cape, South Africa Doty, A., Martin, A. December 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Changes in the Abundance and Distribution of Upland Breeding Birds at an Operational Wind Farm Douglas, D., Bellamy, P., Pearce-Higgins, J. February 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Displacement, Habitat Change Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Shorebirds
Upland Land use Predicts Population Decline in a Globally Near-Threatened Wader Douglas, D., et al. February 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
Modelled Sensitivity of Avian Collision Rate at Wind Turbines Varies with Number of Hours of Flight Activity Input Data Douglas, D., et al. October 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Impact assessment of wind farms on birds of prey in Thrace. Annual Report August 2009 - August 2010 Doutau, B., et al. March 2011 Report Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Birds
Environmental Impacts of Offshore Wind Power Production in the North Sea Draget, E. January 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Regional Analysis of Wind Turbine-caused Bat and Bird Fatality: Final Report Drake, D., Schumacher, S., Sponsler, M. December 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Collision Effects of Wind-power Generators and Other Obstacles on Birds Drewitt, A., Langston, R. June 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds
Assessing the Impacts of Wind Farms on Birds Drewitt, A., Langston, R. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Birds
Landscape-scale distribution and density of raptor populations wintering in anthropogenic-dominated desert landscapes Duerr, A., et al. September 2015 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds, Raptors
Turbine Search Methods and Carcass Removal Trials at the Braes of Doune Windfarm Duffy, K., Steward, M. April 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
Birds and Windfarms - Critical Analysis of 4 Reports on Bird Mortality at Windfarm Sites Durchamp, M. December 2003 Website Wind Energy general N/A Birds
Collision Victims and Lattice Towers - Frequency of Collision, Breeding Population and Breeding Success of Birds of Prey in Two Wind Farms in Brandenburg Durr, T., Rasran, L. April 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
The State of the UK's Birds 2011 Eaton M., et al. November 2011 Report N/A N/A Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Passerines, Seabirds, Shorebirds
Impacts of Wind Energy Development on Birds and Bats: Looking into the Problem Edkins, M. January 2008 Report Wind Energy general N/A Bats, Birds, Raptors, Seabirds
Model-Based Estimation of Collision Risks of Predatory Birds with Wind Turbines Eichhorn, M., et al. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Avian Interactions with Wind Power Structures Electric Power Research Institute March 2003 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General) N/A Birds
Burbo Bank Extension Offshore Wind Farm: Red-throated Diver Displacement Ellis, I., Ward, R. September 2013 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Displacement Birds, Waterfowl
Musselroe Wind Farm Project Summary Ellis, M. March 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Characteristics of Avian Mortality at a North Florida Television Tower: A 29-Year Study Engstrom, R., Crawford, R. January 2001 Journal Article N/A Static Device Birds, Passerines
East Anglia ONE Offshore Windfarm: Environmental Statement Environmental Resource Management November 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Assessing local population vulnerability with branching process models: an application to wind energy development Erickson, R., et al. December 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
A Comprehensive Analysis of Small-Passerine Fatalities from Collision with Turbines at Wind Energy Facilities Erickson, W., et al. September 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Assessing Impacts to Birds from the Buffalo Ridge, Minnesota Windplant Development Erickson, W., et al. June 1997 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Waterfowl
Avian and Bat Mortality Associated with the Vansycle Wind Project, Umatilla County, Oregon 1999 Study Year Erickson, W., et al. February 2000 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Passerines, Raptors
Ecological Baseline Study for the Zintel Canyon Wind Project Erickson, W., et al. June 2002 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds, Raptors
Stateline Wind Project Wildlife Monitoring Annual Report: Results for the Period July 2001 - December 2002 Erickson, W., et al. May 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Stateline Wind Project Wildlife Monitoring Final Report: July 2001 - December 2003 Erickson, W., et al. December 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds, Raptors
Wildlife Baseline Study for the Kittitas Valley Wind Project: Summary of Results from 2002 Wildlife Surveys Erickson, W., et al. January 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
Final Report: avian and bat mortality associated with the Vansycle wind project Erickson, W., et al. February 2000 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Protocol for Investigating Displacement Effects of Wind Facilities on Grassland Songbirds Erickson, W., et al. February 2007 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Displacement Bats, Birds, Passerines
Avian Collisions with Wind Turbines: A Summary of Existing Studies and Comparisons to Other Sources of Avian Collision Mortality in the United States of America Erickson, W., et al. August 2001 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Collision Birds, Passerines, Raptors
Synthesis and Comparison of Baseline Avian and Bat Use, Raptor Nesting and Mortality Information from Proposed and Existing Wind Developments Erickson, W., et al. December 2002 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Baseline Avian Use and Behavior at the CARES Wind Plant Site, Klickitat County, Washington: Final Report Erickson, W., et al. December 1999 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds
Puget Sound Energy Wild Horse Wind Facility Post-Construction Avian and Bat Monitoring, First Annual Report: January - December 2007 Erickson, W., Jeffrey, J., Poulton, V. January 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
A Summary and Comparison of Bird Mortality from Anthropogenic Causes with an Emphasis on Collisions Erickson, W., Johnson, G., Young, D. June 2005 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
Nine Canyon Wind Power Project Avian and Bat Monitoring Report: September 2002 - August 2003 Erickson, W., Kronner, K., Gritski, B. October 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Passerines, Raptors
Potential Impacts to Predator-Prey Relationships as a Result of the Proposed Cape Wind Project in Nantucket Sound ESS Group September 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds, Ecosystem, Fish, Marine Mammals
Tern Observations Near Monomoy Island ESS Group December 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds

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