Knowledge Base

The Knowledge Base provides access to information about the environmental effects of marine and wind energy, supporting OES-Environmental and WREN initiatives. Relevant documents and OES-Environmental metadata forms are compiled into a user-friendly table with advanced filtering. Filters may be selected on the right, or keywords entered in the Search Text box. Content may also be sorted alphabetically by clicking on column headers.


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Title Author*sort descending Date** Type of Content Technology Types Stressors Receptors
Wind Turbines and Bats - A Pilot Study Ahlén, I. December 2003 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Collision Bats, Birds, Passerines
Proposed Yarram Wind Farm Bird Utilisation Survey Al-Dabbagh, K., Lane, B. May 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Impacts to Wildlife of Wind Energy Siting and Operation in the United States Allison, T., et al. September 2019 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Collision, Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Bird Fatality Study at Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area: October 2005 to September 2007 Altamont Pass Avian Monitoring Team January 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Wind Turbine Interactions with Wildlife and their Habitats: A Summary of Research Results and Priority Questions American Wind Wildlife Institute January 2014 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Avian Monitoring and Risk Assessment at the San Gorgonio Wind Resource Area Anderson, R., et al. August 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Seabirds
Studying Wind Energy/Bird Interactions: A Guidance Document Anderson, R., et al. December 1999 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Avian Monitoring and Risk Assessment at the Tehachapi Pass Wind Resource Area: Period of Performance: October 2, 1996 - May 27, 1998 Anderson, R., et al. September 2004 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds
Guidelines for Reducing Impacts to Wildlife from Wind Energy Development in Arizona Arizona Game and Fish Department October 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats, Birds
Bird Migration Intensity and Number of Collision Victims at the Wind Power Plant Le Peuchapatte (Switzerland) Aschwanden, J., Liechti, F. November 2016 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds
Climate Change, Wind Energy, and Conservation: A Survey of Conflicting Issues Bauman, D. March 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Pre-Construction Breeding Bird Surveys Number Three Wind Energy Project Lewis County, New York Bay, K., et al. May 2017 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Sage-Grouse and Wind Energy: Biology, Habits, and Potential Effects from Development Becker, J., et al. July 2009 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
Pre- and Post-Construction Studies of Conflicts Between Birds and Wind Turbines in Coastal Norway: Status Report 1st January 2008 Bevanger, K., et al. January 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
Post-Construction Bird and Bat Mortality Study Cedar Ridge Wind Farm Fond Du Lac County, Wisconsin BHE Environmental, Inc. February 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Wind Power in Wyoming: Doing it Smart from the Start Biodiversity Conservation Alliance November 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
A Preliminary Assessment of Potential Avian Interactions at Four Proposed Wind Energy Facilities on Vandenberg Air Force Base, California: Period of Performance: November 2001 - May 2002 BioResource Consultants August 2004 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats, Birds
Verreauxs' Eagle and Wind Farms: Guidelines for Impact Assessment, Monitoring, and Mitigation BirdLife South Africa March 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
Draft Black Oak & Getty Wind Avian and Bat Protection Plan Black Oak Wind, Getty Wind Company February 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Wind Farms and Birds: Interim Standards For Risk Assessment Brett Lane & Associates, ARIA Professional Services July 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Bird Sensitivity Map to Provide Locational Guidance for Onshore Wind Farms in Scotland Bright, J., et al. June 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Bird and Bat Interactions With Wind Turbines Castle River Wind Farm, Alberta, 2001-2002 Brown, W., Hamilton, B. July 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Bird and Bat Monitoring at the McBride Lake Wind Farm, Alberta 2003-2004 Brown, W., Hamilton, B. September 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Monitoring of Bird and Bat Collisions with Wind Turbines at the Summerview Wind Power Project, Alberta 2005-2006 Brown, W., Hamilton, B. September 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Assessing the impact of nine established wind farms on birds of prey in Thrace, Greece Carcamo, B., et al. March 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
CEDREN Final Report Centre for Environmental Design of Renewable Energy September 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Fish
Repowering Smøla Wind-Power Plant: An Assessment of Avian Conflicts Dahl, E., et al. June 2015 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Raptors
Bird and Bat Migration over Appalachian Ridges Progress Report, August 2006 Dawson, D., et al. August 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Collision Potential of Eiders and Other Birds Near a Proposed Windfarm at St. Lawrence Island, October-November 2002 Day, R., et al. March 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
2016-2017 Status Assessment and Update on the Wind Vision Roadmap DeMeo, E. November 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Raptors
Avian Use Surveys for the Prevailing Winds Wind Project: Bon Homme and Charles Mix Counties, South Dakota. Year Two Final Report: March 3, 2016 - April 19, 2017 Derby, C., Agudelo, S., Thorn, T. February 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Post-construction monitoring report for avian and bat mortality at the NPPD Ainsworth Wind Farm Derby, C., et al. February 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Draft Avian and Bat Post-Construction Monitoring Plan: Raleigh Wind Farm, Invenergy Canada Dillon Consulting April 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Lingan 4MW Wind Power Project: Registration and Environmental Assessment Dillon Consulting October 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Assessment of Avian Mortality from Collisions and Electrocutions Dorin, M., et al. June 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Regional Analysis of Wind Turbine-caused Bat and Bird Fatality: Final Report Drake, D., Schumacher, S., Sponsler, M. December 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Turbine Search Methods and Carcass Removal Trials at the Braes of Doune Windfarm Duffy, K., Steward, M. April 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
Musselroe Wind Farm Project Summary Ellis, M. March 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Avian and Bat Mortality Associated with the Vansycle Wind Project, Umatilla County, Oregon 1999 Study Year Erickson, W., et al. February 2000 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Passerines, Raptors
Ecological Baseline Study for the Zintel Canyon Wind Project Erickson, W., et al. June 2002 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds, Raptors
Stateline Wind Project Wildlife Monitoring Annual Report: Results for the Period July 2001 - December 2002 Erickson, W., et al. May 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Stateline Wind Project Wildlife Monitoring Final Report: July 2001 - December 2003 Erickson, W., et al. December 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds, Raptors
Wildlife Baseline Study for the Kittitas Valley Wind Project: Summary of Results from 2002 Wildlife Surveys Erickson, W., et al. January 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
Final Report: avian and bat mortality associated with the Vansycle wind project Erickson, W., et al. February 2000 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Protocol for Investigating Displacement Effects of Wind Facilities on Grassland Songbirds Erickson, W., et al. February 2007 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Displacement Bats, Birds, Passerines
Avian Collisions with Wind Turbines: A Summary of Existing Studies and Comparisons to Other Sources of Avian Collision Mortality in the United States of America Erickson, W., et al. August 2001 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Collision Birds, Passerines, Raptors
Synthesis and Comparison of Baseline Avian and Bat Use, Raptor Nesting and Mortality Information from Proposed and Existing Wind Developments Erickson, W., et al. December 2002 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Baseline Avian Use and Behavior at the CARES Wind Plant Site, Klickitat County, Washington: Final Report Erickson, W., et al. December 1999 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds
Puget Sound Energy Wild Horse Wind Facility Post-Construction Avian and Bat Monitoring, First Annual Report: January - December 2007 Erickson, W., Jeffrey, J., Poulton, V. January 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Nine Canyon Wind Power Project Avian and Bat Monitoring Report: September 2002 - August 2003 Erickson, W., Kronner, K., Gritski, B. October 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Passerines, Raptors
Wind Turbines and Birds in Flanders (Belgium): Preliminary Summary of the Mortality Research Results Everaert, J., Kuijken, E. June 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Ökobilanzierung von Schweizer Windenergie Eymann, L., et al. November 2015 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Human Dimensions, Life Cycle Assessment
A Review of Goose Collisions at Operating Wind Farms and Estimation of the Goose Avoidance Rate Fernley, J., Lowther, S., Whitfield, P. June 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Waterfowl
Results of Bat and Bird Mortality Monitoring at the Expanded Buffalo Mountain Windfarm, 2005 Fiedler, J., et al. June 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds, Passerines
Wind Power and Birds at Smøla 2003-2006 Follestad, A., et al. June 2007 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
A Habitat-Based Wind-Wildlife Collision Model with Application to the Upper Great Plains Region Forcey, G. August 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision Bats, Birds
Bird and Bat Species and Risks to Diurnal Migrants on the Clipper Windpower Criterion Project, Backbone Mountain, Garrett County, Maryland Gates, J., et al. June 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
50 CFR Part 17: Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Status for Gunnison Sage-Grouse; Proposed Rule Gelat, P. January 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Clocaenog Forest Wind Farm Collision Risk Report Model George, A. August 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Biological Study Plan East Ridge Wind Energy Project Gerhardt, R., et al. September 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
Biological Study Report West Ridge Wind Energy Project Gerhardt, R., Gritski, R., Luginbuhl, J. November 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
A Review of the Impacts of Wind Farms and Other Aerial Structures Upon Birds Gill, J., Townsley, M., Mudge, G. January 1996 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Birds and Bats: Potential Impacts and Survey Techniques Global Energy Concepts October 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Wind Farms and Birds: An Updated Analysis of the Effects of Wind Farms on Birds, and Best Practice Guidance on Integrated Planning and Impact Assessment Gove, B., et al. September 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind N/A Birds
Assessing Bird and Bat Mortality at the Forward Energy Center Grodsky, S., Drake, D. August 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Prognosis and Assessment of Bird Collision Risks at Wind Turbines in Northern Germany PROGRESS Grunkorn, T., et al. July 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Post‐Construction Bat and Bird Fatality Study at the Blue Sky Green Field Wind Energy Center, Fond du Lac County, Wisconsin: July 21, 2008 – October 31, 2008 and March 15, 2009 – June 4, 2009 Gruver, J., et al. December 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Breeding and Overland Flight of Red- Throated Divers (Gavia stellata) at Smøla, Norway, in relation to the Smøla wind farm Halley, D., Hopshaug, P. October 2007 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision Birds, Waterfowl
Investigation of the Effectiveness of Bat and Bird Detection of the DTBat and DTBird Systems at Calandawind Turbine - Final Report Hanagasioglu, M., et al. May 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Avian Use of Norris Hill Wind Resource Area, Montana Harmata, A., Podruzny, K., Zelenak, J. July 1998 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds
The Impacts of Wind Power on Terrestrial Mammals - A Synthesis Helldin, J., et al. August 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds, Terrestrial Mammals
Scientific Review of California Guidelines for Reducing Impacts to Birds and Bats from Wind Energy Development Hicks, W., Newman, J. December 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Monitoring of Seasonal Bird Activity and Mortality on Unit 2 at the Buffalo Ridge Windplant, Minnesota Higgins, K., Dieter, C., Usgaard, R. January 1995 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Response of Red-Tailed Hawks and Golden Eagles to Topographical Features, Weather, and Abundance of a Dominant Prey Species at the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area, California: April 1999-December 2000 Hoover, S. June 2002 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
Effects of Wind Turbines on Birds and Bats in Northeastern Wisconsin Howe, R., Evans, W., Wolf, A. November 2002 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Seabirds, Shorebirds
Avian Mortality at Rotor Swept Area Equivalents, Altamont Pass and Montezuma Hills, California Howell, J. January 1997 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Assessment of Avian Use and Mortality Related to Wind Turbine Operations, Altamont Pass, Alameda and Contra Costa Counties, California, September 1988 through August 1989, Final Report Howell, J., Didonato, J. November 1991 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Golden Eagles in a Perilous Landscape: Predicting the Effects of Mitigation for Wind Turbine Blade Strike Mortality Hunt, G. July 2002 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
The Influence of High Ground Squirrel Densities on the Occurrence of Golden Eagles on Altamont Ownership Consortium Property Hunt, G., Culp, L. November 1997 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors, Terrestrial Mammals
The Trend of Golden Eagle Territory Occupancy in the Vicinity of the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area: 2005 Survey Hunt, G., Hunt, T. June 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
A Population Study of Golden Eagles in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area: Population Trend Analysis 1994-1997 Hunt, W., et al. June 1999 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
The impact of repowering of wind farms on birds and bats Hötker, H. October 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Avian and Bat Protection Plan: Iberdrola Renewables Iberdrola Renewables October 2008 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Bats, Birds, Raptors
Avian and Bat Risk Assessment for the Montezuma II Wind Project, Solano County, California ICF International November 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
The Possible Effects of Wind Energy on Illinois Birds and Bats Illinois Department of Natural Resources June 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds, Raptors, Waterfowl
Tafila Region Wind Power Projects: Cumulative Effects Assessment International Finance Corporation January 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Farfield Environment
Nygårdsfjellet Wind Park, Phase 2. Studies of Spring Migrating Birds Jacobsen, K. September 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Demonstration Windpower Project St. Lawrence Bird Surveys Jacques Whitford Environment May 2002 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
Annual Report for the Maple Ridge Wind Power Project Post-construction Bird and Bat Fatality Study - 2006 Jain, A., et al. June 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Annual Report for the Maple Ridge Wind Power Project Post-Construction Bird and Bat Fatality Study - 2008 Jain, A., et al. May 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Shorebirds
Exhibition Place Wind Turbine Report on Bird Monitoring in 2003 James, R., Coady, G. December 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Portland General Electric Biglow Canyon Wind Farm Phase I Post-Construction Avian and Bat Monitoring First Annual Report Sherman County, Oregon: January, 2008 - December, 2008 Jeffrey, J., et al. April 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Birds and Wind-Energy Best-Practice Guidelines: Best-Practice Guidelines for Assessing and Monitoring the Impact of Wind Energy Facilities on Birds in Southern Africa Jenkins, A., et al. January 2015 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Analysis of Potential Wildlife/Wind Plant Interactions Bighorn Site, Klickitat County, Washington Johnson, G., Erickson, W. August 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Avian, Bat and Habitat Cumulative Impacts Associated with Wind Energy Development in the Columbia Plateau Ecoregion Of Eastern Washington and Oregon Johnson, G., Erickson, W. May 2011 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Bats, Birds, Raptors
Greater Sage-Grouse Habitat Use and Population Demographics at the Simpson Ridge Wind Resource Area, Carbon County, Wyoming Johnson, G., et al. March 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
Avian and Bat Mortality During the First Year of Operation at the Klondike Phase I Wind Project, Sherman County, Oregon Johnson, G., et al. March 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Baseline Ecological Studies for the Klondike Wind Project, Sherman County, Oregon Johnson, G., et al. May 2002 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds, Raptors
Wildlife Monitoring Studies: SeaWest Windpower Project, Carbon County, Wyoming: 1995-1999 Johnson, G., et al. August 2000 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds, Raptors, Shorebirds
Final Report Bird and Bat Fatality Studies Fowler Ridge I Wind-Energy Facility Benton County, Indiana: April 6 - October 30, 2009 Johnson, G., et al. April 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds

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