Knowledge Base

The Knowledge Base provides access to information about the environmental effects of marine and wind energy, supporting OES-Environmental and WREN initiatives. Relevant documents and OES-Environmental metadata forms are compiled into a user-friendly table with advanced filtering. Filters may be selected on the right, or keywords entered in the Search Text box. Content may also be sorted alphabetically by clicking on column headers. More entries will load as you scroll down.


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Titlesort descending Author* Date** Type of Content Technology Types Stressors Receptors
Scaling of Wingbeat Frequency with Body Mass in Bats and Limits to Maximum Bat Size Norberg, U., Norberg, R November 2011 Journal Article N/A N/A Bats
Scavenger removal: Bird and bat carcass persistence in a tropical wind farm Villegas-Patraca, R., et al. August 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Scientific Review of California Guidelines for Reducing Impacts to Birds and Bats from Wind Energy Development Hicks, W., Newman, J. December 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Search Areas for Monitoring Bird and Bat Carcasses at Wind Farms using a Monte-Carlo Model Hull, C., Muir, S. June 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Searchlight Wind Energy Project Bird and Bat Conservation Strategy Tetra Tech November 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Searsburg Wind Tower Expansion Project Bat Habitat Assessment and Mapping Final Report Prepared Arrowwood Environmental May 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Seasonal and Geographic Trends in Acoustic Detection of Tree-Roosting Bats Johnson, J., et al. June 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Seasonal Bat Activity in Relation to Distance to Hedgerows in an Agricultural Landscape in Central Europe and Implications for Wind Energy Development Kelm, D., et al. April 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Seasonal survival probability suggest low migration mortality in migrating bats Giavi, S., et al. January 2014 Journal Article N/A N/A Bats
Seasonal Variation in Bat Activity in Relation to Detector Height: A Case Study Staton, T., Poulton, S. December 2012 Journal Article N/A N/A Bats
Seasonally-Dynamic Presence-Only Species Distribution Models for a Cryptic Migratory Bat Impacted by Wind Energy Development Hayes, M., Cryan, P., Wunder, M. July 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Bats
Second year post-construction monitoring of bats and birds at Wind Turbine Test Centre Østerild Therkildsen, O., Elmeros, M. June 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Semi-Automatic Long-Term Acoustic Surveying: A Case Study with Bats Andreassen, T., Surlykke, A., Hallam, J. May 2014 Journal Article N/A N/A Bats
South African Good Practice Guidelines for Operational Monitoring for Bats at Wind Energy Facilities Aronson, J., et al. July 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
South African Good Practice Guidelines for Surveying Bats at Wind Energy Facility Developments - Pre-construction Sowler, S., Stoffberg, S. January 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
South African Good Practice Guidelines for Surveying Bats in Wind Farm Developments Sowler, S., Stoffberg, S. January 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Spatial Pattern of Summer Bat Mortality from Collisions with Wind Turbines in Mixed-Grass Prairie Piorkowski, M., O'Connell, T. April 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Spatially-Explicit Bat Impact Screening Tool for Wind Turbine Siting Versar, Exponent October 2013 Report Wind Energy general N/A Bats
Species composition and mortality of bats at the Osorio Wind Farm, southern Brazil Barros, M., de Magalhaes, R., Rui, A. January 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Spring 2006 Bird and Bat Migration Surveys at the Proposed Deerfield Wind Project in Searsburg and Readsboro, Vermont Stantec Consulting December 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Spring 2007 Radar, Visual, and Acoustic Survey of Bird and Bat Migration at the Proposed Windpark in Coos County, New Hampshire by Granite Reliable Power, LLC Stantec Consulting October 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Stable Isotope Analyses of Bat Fur: Applications for Investigating North American Bat Migration Fraser, E. December 2011 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Bats
State of Washington Bat Conservation Plan Hayes, G., Wiles, G. June 2013 Report N/A N/A Bats
Stateline Wind Project Wildlife Monitoring Annual Report: Results for the Period July 2001 - December 2002 Erickson, W., et al. May 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Stateline Wind Project Wildlife Monitoring Final Report: July 2001 - December 2003 Erickson, W., et al. December 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds, Raptors
Status of Avian Research at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory Sinclair, K. June 2001 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Stereo-Optic High Definition Imaging: A New Technology to Understand Bird and Bat Avoidance of Wind Turbines Adams, E., et al. July 2017 Report Wind Energy general N/A Bats, Birds
Summary of Wind Turbine Impacts on Bats - Assessment of a Conflict Bach, L., Rahmel, U. January 2004 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Bats
Summer 2006 Indiana Bat Surveys at the Proposed Clayton Wind Project in Clayton, New York Stantec Consulting November 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Summer-Fall 2006 Bat Detector Survey and Two-year Summary at the Proposed Deerfield Wind Project in Searsburg and Readsboro, Vermont Stantec Consulting January 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Surface Texture Differentiation Using Synthetic Bat Echolocation Calls: Implications for Reducing Bat Fatalities at Wind Turbines Yuen, B. December 2015 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Bats
Surface Texture Discrimination by Bats: Implications for Reducing Bat Mortality at Wind Turbines Bienz, C. May 2016 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Bats
Survey of Bat Mortalities at a Wind-Energy Facility in North Dakota Bicknell, L., Gilliam, E. June 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Survey of Possible Operational Impacts on Bats by Wind Facilities in Southern Germany Brinkmann, R., Schauer-Weisshahn, H. January 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Sveti Nikola Wind Farm 2010 Bat Surveys Report RSK Environment July 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Sveti Nikola Wind Farm Bat Monitoring Report 2011 RSK Environment July 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Synopsis des internationalen Kenntnisstandes zum Einfluss der Windenergie auf Fledermäuse und Vögel und Spezifizierung für die Schweiz Muller, J., et al. November 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Synthesis and Comparison of Baseline Avian and Bat Use, Raptor Nesting and Mortality Information from Proposed and Existing Wind Developments Erickson, W., et al. December 2002 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds, Raptors, Waterfowl
Technical Manual for Evaluating Wildlife Impacts of Wind Turbines Requiring Coastal Permits NJ Department of Environmental Protection September 2010 Report Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles
Telemetry for migratory bats - a feasibility study Lagerveld, S., et al. February 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Bats
Temporal Patterns in Capture Rate and Sex Ratio of Forest Bats in Arkansas Perry, R., Carter, S., Thill, R. October 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Bats
Testing the Effectiveness of an Experimental Acoustic Bat Deterrent at the Maple Ridge Wind Farm Horn, J., et al. June 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Testing the Performances of Automated Identification of Bat Echolocation Calls: A Request for Prudence Rydell, J., et al. July 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Bats
Texturizing Wind Turbine Towers to Reduce Bat Mortality Bennett, V., Hale, A. July 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
The Aversive Effect of Electromagnetic Radiation on Foraging Bats - A Possible Means of Discouraging Bats from Approaching Wind Turbines Nicholls, B., Racey, P. July 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general EMF Bats
The avian and wildlife costs of fossil fuels and nuclear power Sovacool, B. December 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
The Bats and Wind Energy Cooperative: Synthesis of Activities (2004-2011), Key Findings and Next Steps Arnett, E., Hein, C., Patterson, R. October 2011 Report Wind Energy general N/A Bats
The BIO-acoustic feature extraction and classification of bat echolocation calls Mirzaei, G., et al. May 2012 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
The Catchment Area of Wind Farms for European Bats: A Plea for International Regulations Voigt, C., et al. September 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
The Effect of Wind Power on Birds and Bats - A Synthesis Rydell, J., et al. August 2012 Report Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
The Effects of Sex, Energy, and Environmental Conditions on the Movement Ecology of Migratory Bats Jonassan, K. March 2017 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
The Effects of Wind Power on Birds and Bats: An Updated Synthesis Report Rydell, J., et al. December 2017 Report Wind Energy general N/A Bats, Birds
The impact of repowering of wind farms on birds and bats Hötker, H. October 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
The Impacts of Small and Medium Wind Turbines on Bats Moyle, A. July 2016 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
The Impacts of Wind Farms on Animal Species Jana, S., Pogacnik, M. May 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Bats
The Impacts of Wind Power on Terrestrial Mammals - A Synthesis Helldin, J., et al. August 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds, Terrestrial Mammals
The insectivorous bat Pipistrellus nathusii uses a mixed-fuel strategy to power autumn migration Voigt, C., et al. September 2012 Journal Article N/A N/A Bats
The Possible Effects of Wind Energy on Illinois Birds and Bats Illinois Department of Natural Resources June 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds, Raptors, Waterfowl
The precautionary principle and wind-farm planning: data scarcity does not imply absence of effects Carrete, M., et al. August 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds, Raptors
The Role of Islands in the Migration of Bats Across Lake Erie and Lake Ontario: Lasiurus borealis, Lasiurus cinereus and Perimyotis subflavus Thorne, T. January 2015 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Thresholds for Bats Killed by Wind Turbines Arnett, E., Barclay, R., Hein, C. May 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Turbine Induced Bird and Bat Fatalities at Wind Projects: Statistical Methods for Mortality Estimation Using Road and Pad Carcass Surveys Maurer, J. August 2017 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Two-Dimensional Thermal Video Analysis of Offshore Bird and Bat Flight Matzner, S., Cullinan, V., Duberstein, C. November 2015 Journal Article N/A N/A Bats, Birds
U.S. Geological Survey - Energy and Wildlife Research Annual Report for 2017 Khalil, M. December 2017 Report Wind Energy general N/A Bats, Birds, Fish, Terrestrial Mammals
U.S. Geological Survey energy and wildlife research annual report for 2018 Khalil, M. October 2018 Report Wind Energy general N/A Bats, Birds, Fish, Terrestrial Mammals
U.S. Geological Survey—Energy and Wildlife Research Annual Report for 2016 Khalil, M. January 2016 Report Wind Energy general N/A Bats, Birds, Terrestrial Mammals
Ultrasonic Bat Deterrent Technology Kinzie, K. June 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Ultrasonic noise emissions from wind turbines: Potential effects on bat species Long, C., Lepper, P., Flint, J. July 2011 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise Bats
Ultrasound Emissions from Wind Turbines as a Potential Attractant to Bats: A Preliminary Investigation Szewczak, J., Arnett, E. May 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Understanding the Risk of European Protected Species (Bats) at Onshore Wind Turbine Sites to Inform Risk Management Mathews, F., et al. October 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Understanding Wind Energy Impacts to Bats and Testing Reduction Strategies in South Texas Weaver, S. August 2019 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Use of forest edges by bats in a managed pine forest landscape Morris, A., Miller, D., Kalcounis-Rueppell, M. January 2010 Journal Article N/A N/A Bats
Using Deuterium and GARP To Estimate Geographic Extents of Source Populations of Hoary (Lasiurus cinereus) and Eastern Red (Lasiurus borealis) Bats Killed at a Central Illinois Wind Facility Van Essen, R. April 2014 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Using echolocation monitoring to model bat occupancy and inform mitigations at wind energy facilities Weller, T., Baldwin, J. November 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Using network analysis to identify indicator species and reduce collision fatalities at wind farms Sebastian-Gonzalez, E., et al. August 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Using Species Distribution Modelling to Predict Bat Fatality Risk at Wind Farms Santos, H., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Bats
Using Stakeholder Input to Develop a Comparative Risk Assessment for Wildlife from the Life Cycles of Six Electrical Generation Fuels Zillioux, E., et al. July 2011 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds, Socio-economics, Climate Change, Life Cycle Assessment, Stakeholder Engagement
Variation in Bat and Bird Fatalities at Wind Energy Facilities: Assessing the Effects of Rotor Size and Tower Height Barclay, R., Baerwald, E., Gruver, J. March 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Variation in catchment areas of Indiana bat (Myotis sodalis) hibernacula inferred from stable hydrogen isotope analysis Britzke, E., et al. October 2012 Journal Article N/A N/A Bats
Warning Sounds and Color for Reducing Bird and Bat Mortality at Wind Turbines Khan, S. October 2014 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife Wind Power Guidelines Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife April 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds, Nearfield Habitat
What does bat activity inside the forest tell us about the activity above the canopy? A method for censuring bat activity at proposed wind farms in forests Bach, L., Bach, P., Tillmann, M. May 2011 Presentation N/A N/A Bats
When Blade Meets Bat Williams, W. February 2004 Magazine Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
When the Excrement Hits the Fan: Fecal Surveys Reveal Species-Specific Bat Activity at Wind Turbines Bennett, V., Hale, A., Williams, D. November 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Bats
Wildlife and Renewable Energy: German Politics Cross Migratory Bats Voigt, C., et al. April 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Wildlife and Wind Farms - Conflicts and Solutions, Volume 1 Onshore: Potential Effects Perrow, M. April 2017 Book Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds, Ecosystem, Terrestrial Mammals
Wildlife and Wind Farms - Conflicts and Solutions, Volume 2 Onshore: Monitoring and Mitigation Perrow, M. April 2017 Book Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Wildlife Impacts of and Public Attitudes Towards Small Wind Turbines Tatchley, C. March 2015 Thesis Wind Energy general N/A Bats, Birds, Socio-economics
Wildlife Monitoring Studies: SeaWest Windpower Project, Carbon County, Wyoming: 1995-1999 Johnson, G., et al. August 2000 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds, Raptors, Shorebirds
Wind & Wildlife Key Research Topics National Wind Coordinating Collaborative May 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Wind and Wildlife Fauna Collisions with Wind Turbines: Effects and Impacts, Individuals and Populations. What Are We Trying to Assess? Smales, I. October 2014 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Wind and Wildlife in the Northern Great Plains: Identifying Low-Impact Areas for Wind Development Fargione, J., et al. July 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Bats, Birds
Wind and Wildlife: Siting Issues and Challenges Walker, R., Swift, A. May 2015 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind N/A Bats, Birds, Fish, Terrestrial Mammals
Wind Energy & the Threat to Bats Tuttle, M. July 2004 Magazine Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Wind Energy and Bat Conservation - A Review by the Canadian Wind Energy Association Barnes, R., Hill, M., Peters, K. August 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Wind Energy and Wildlife: 20 Years of Translational Ecology in Action Allison, T., Arnold, A. August 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Bats
Wind Energy Development: Methods for Assessing Risks to Birds and Bats Pre-Construction Katzner, T., et al. April 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Wind Energy Development: Methods to Assess Bird and Bat Fatality Rates Post-Construction Huso, M., et al. April 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Wind energy developments and Natura 2000 European Union January 2011 Report Wind Energy general N/A Bats, Birds, Socio-economics, Climate Change
Wind Energy Systems: Environmental Aspects and Impacts Manwell, J., McGowan, J., Rogers, A. January 2009 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics

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