Knowledge Base

The Knowledge Base provides access to information about the environmental effects of marine and wind energy, supporting OES-Environmental and WREN initiatives. Relevant documents and OES-Environmental metadata forms are compiled into a user-friendly table with advanced filtering. Filters may be selected on the right, or keywords entered in the Search Text box. Content may also be sorted alphabetically by clicking on column headers. More entries will load as you scroll down.


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Title Author* Date** Type of Content Technology Typessort descending Stressors Receptors
Diet of the Endangered Indiana Bat (Myotis sodalis) on the Northern Edge of Its Range Kurta, A., Whitaker, J. Jr. January 1998 Journal Article N/A N/A Bats
Modified Cave Entrances: Thermal Effect on Body Mass and Resulting Decline of Endangered Indiana Bats (Myotis sodalis) Richter, A., et al. June 1993 Journal Article N/A N/A Bats
Scaling of Wingbeat Frequency with Body Mass in Bats and Limits to Maximum Bat Size Norberg, U., Norberg, R November 2011 Journal Article N/A N/A Bats
Variation in catchment areas of Indiana bat (Myotis sodalis) hibernacula inferred from stable hydrogen isotope analysis Britzke, E., et al. October 2012 Journal Article N/A N/A Bats
Improved Analysis of Long-Term Monitoring Data Demonstrates Marked Regional Declines of Bat Populations in the Eastern United States Ingersoll, T., Sewall, B., Amelon, S. June 2013 Journal Article N/A N/A Bats
Plasticity in echolocation calls of Myotis macrodactylus (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae): implications for acoustic identification Luo, J., et al. April 2012 Journal Article N/A N/A Bats
Altitudinal Migration in Bats: Evidence, Patterns, and Drivers McGuire, L., Boyle, W. March 2013 Journal Article N/A N/A Bats
Additional Winter Recoveries of Indiana Bats (Myotis sodalis) Banded During Summer in Michigan Rockey, C., Stumpf, J., Kurta, A. September 2013 Journal Article N/A N/A Bats
Artificial Wetlands and Surrounding Habitats Provide Important Foraging Habitat for Bats in Agricultural Landscapes in the Western Cape, South Africa Sirami, C., Jacobs, D., Cumming, G. September 2013 Journal Article N/A N/A Bats
Seasonal Variation in Bat Activity in Relation to Detector Height: A Case Study Staton, T., Poulton, S. December 2012 Journal Article N/A N/A Bats
Diversity of Bats in the Soutpansberg and Blouberg Mountains of Northern South Africa: Complementarity of Acoustic and Non-Acoustic Survey Methods Taylor, P., et al. April 2013 Journal Article N/A N/A Bats
The insectivorous bat Pipistrellus nathusii uses a mixed-fuel strategy to power autumn migration Voigt, C., et al. September 2012 Journal Article N/A N/A Bats
A Practical Sampling Design for Acoustic Surveys of Bats Rodhouse, T., Vierling, K., Irvine, K. July 2011 Journal Article N/A N/A Bats
Evaluation of Mobile Acoustic Techniques for Bat Population Monitoring Whitby, M., et al. June 2014 Journal Article N/A N/A Bats
Barriers and Benefits: Implications of Artificial Night-Lighting for the Distribution of Common Bats in Britain and Ireland Mathews, F., et al. May 2015 Journal Article N/A Lighting Bats
Offshore Observations of Eastern Red Bats (Lasiurus borealis) in the Mid-Atlantic United States Using Multiple Survey Methods Hatch, S., et al. December 2013 Journal Article N/A N/A Bats
Genetic Approaches to the Conservation of Migratory Bats: A Study of the Eastern Red Bat (Lasiurus borealis) Vonhof, M., Russell, A. May 2015 Journal Article N/A N/A Bats, Ecosystem
Behavior of Scandinavian Bats During Migration and Foraging at Sea Ahlén, I., Baagøe, H., Bach, L. December 2009 Journal Article N/A N/A Bats
Migratory behaviour of bats at south Swedish coasts Ahlén, I. March 1997 Journal Article N/A N/A Bats
Low-cost acoustic design of a bat test room Correia, R., et al. October 2014 Journal Article N/A Noise Bats
Seasonal survival probability suggest low migration mortality in migrating bats Giavi, S., et al. January 2014 Journal Article N/A N/A Bats
Migration Phenology and Behaviour of Bats at a Research Platform in the South-Eastern North Sea Hüppop, O., Hill, R. December 2016 Journal Article N/A N/A Bats
Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis: Molossidae Chiroptera) at high altitude: links to migratory insect populations McCracken, G., et al. June 2008 Journal Article N/A N/A Bats
Use of forest edges by bats in a managed pine forest landscape Morris, A., Miller, D., Kalcounis-Rueppell, M. January 2010 Journal Article N/A N/A Bats
Managing Coniferous Production Forests Towards Bat Conservation Pereira, M., et al. January 2016 Journal Article N/A N/A Bats
Two-Dimensional Thermal Video Analysis of Offshore Bird and Bat Flight Matzner, S., Cullinan, V., Duberstein, C. November 2015 Journal Article N/A N/A Bats, Birds
Winter Foraging Activity of Central European Vespertilionid Bats Zahn, A., Kriner, E. January 2016 Journal Article N/A N/A Bats
Genetic Mark-Recapture Improves Estimates of Maternity Colony Size for Indiana Bats Oyler-McCance, S., et al. June 2018 Journal Article N/A N/A Bats
Identifying Peaks in Bat Activity: A New Application of SaTScan Adams, A., Fenton, M. June 2017 Journal Article N/A N/A Bats
Do You Hear What I See? Vocalization Relative to Visual Detection Rates of Hawaiian Hoary Bats (Lasiurus cinereus semotus) Gorresen, P., et al. September 2017 Journal Article N/A N/A Bats
Semi-Automatic Long-Term Acoustic Surveying: A Case Study with Bats Andreassen, T., Surlykke, A., Hallam, J. May 2014 Journal Article N/A N/A Bats
Methodological challenges in monitoring bat population- and assemblage-level changes for anthropogenic impact assessment Meyer, C. May 2015 Journal Article N/A N/A Bats
Quantifying clutter: A comparison of four methods and their relationship to bat detection O’Keefe, J., et al. June 2014 Journal Article N/A N/A Bats
Photography as a Low-Impact Method to Survey Bats Rydell, J., Russo, D. May 2015 Journal Article N/A N/A Bats
An estimator of wildlife fatality from observed carcasses Huso, M. April 2011 Journal Article N/A N/A Bats, Birds, Terrestrial Mammals
A comparison of supervised learning techniques in the classification of bat echolocation calls Armitage, D., Ober, H. November 2010 Journal Article N/A N/A Bats
Impact of Wind Energy on Bats: A Summary of Our Current Knowledge Hein, C., Schirmacher, M. April 2016 Journal Article N/A Dynamic Device Bats
Assessing Impacts of Wind-Energy Development on Nocturnally Active Birds and Bats: A Guidance Document Kunz, T., et al. November 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Behavioral Responses of Bats to Operating Wind Turbines Horn, J., Arnett, E., Kunz, T. March 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Bats
Coastal And Offshore Wind Energy Generation: Is It Environmentally Benign? Wilson, J., et al. June 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general EMF, Noise, Static Device Bats, Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Bats Avoid Radar Installations: Could Electromagnetic Fields Deter Bats from Colliding with Wind Turbines? Racey, P., Nicholls, B. March 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, EMF Bats
Migration of Bats Past a Remote Island Offers Clues toward the Problem of Bat Fatalities at Wind Turbines Cryan, P., Brown, A. September 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Bats
Research Priorities for Wind Energy and Migratory Wildlife Piorkowski, M., et al. April 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Variation in Bat and Bird Fatalities at Wind Energy Facilities: Assessing the Effects of Rotor Size and Tower Height Barclay, R., Baerwald, E., Gruver, J. March 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Cautious but Committed: Moving Toward Adaptive Planning and Operation Strategies for Renewable Energy's Wildlife Implications Köppel, J., Dahmen, M., Helfrich, J. October 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Bats, Socio-economics
Environmental Impact of Wind Energy Saidur, R., et al. June 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Bats, Birds, Nearfield Habitat
Causes of Bat Fatalities at Wind Turbines: Hypotheses and Predictions Cryan, P., Barclay, R. December 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Bats
Monitoring Seasonal Bat Activity on a Coastal Barrier Island in Maryland, USA Johnson, J., Gates, J., Zegre, N. February 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general Static Device Bats
Regulating Avian Impacts Under the Migratory Bird Treaty Act and Other Laws: The Wind Industry Collides with One of its Own, the Environmental Protection Movement McKinsey, J. January 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds, Socio-economics
The Aversive Effect of Electromagnetic Radiation on Foraging Bats - A Possible Means of Discouraging Bats from Approaching Wind Turbines Nicholls, B., Racey, P. July 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general EMF Bats
Consolidating the State of Knowledge: A Synoptical Review of Wind Energy's Wildlife Effects Schuster, E., Bulling, L., Köppel, J. August 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Bats, Birds, Marine Mammals
Wind Turbines and Bat Mortality: Interactions of Bat Echolocation Pulses with Moving Turbine Rotor Blades Long, C., et al. January 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Bats
The Impacts of Wind Farms on Animal Species Jana, S., Pogacnik, M. May 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Bats
Altering Turbine Speed Reduces Bat Mortality at Wind-Energy Facilities Arnett, E., et al. November 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Bats
Summary of Wind Turbine Impacts on Bats - Assessment of a Conflict Bach, L., Rahmel, U. January 2004 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Bats
Wind Turbines and Bats - Guidelines for an Assessment Study and for Planning Aspects Rahmel, U., et al. January 2004 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Bats
Fatalities at Wind Turbines may Threaten Population Viability of a Migratory Bat Frick, W., et al. May 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Bats
Wind turbines and bat mortality: Doppler shift profiles and ultrasonic bat-like pulse reflection from moving turbine blades Long, C., Flint, J., Lepper, P. October 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Bats
Geographic Origins and Population Genetics of Bats Killed at Wind-Energy Facilities Pylant, C., et al. July 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Bats
Developing an automated risk management tool to minimize bird and bat mortality at wind facilities Willmott, J., Forcey, G., Hooton, L. October 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Bats, Birds
Habitat use of bats in relation to wind turbines revealed by GPS tracking Roeleke, M., et al. July 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Bats
Bats May Eat Diurnal Flies that Rest on Wind Turbines Rydell, J., et al. May 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Bats
A modelling framework to predict bat activity patterns on wind farms: An outline of possible applications on mountain ridges of North Portugal Silva, C., et al. March 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Bats
Comparing bird and bat fatality-rate estimates among North American wind-energy projects Smallwood, S. March 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Bats, Birds
Testing the Performances of Automated Identification of Bat Echolocation Calls: A Request for Prudence Rydell, J., et al. July 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Bats
Wind Turbine Sensor Array for Monitoring Avian and Bat Collisions Hu, C., Albertani, R., Suryan, R. April 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Dim ultraviolet light as a means of deterring activity by the Hawaiian hoary bat Lasiurus cinereus semotus Gorresen, P., et al. October 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Bats
Considerations for Upscaling Individual Effects of Wind Energy Development Towards Population-Level Impacts on Wildlife May, R., et al. January 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Bats, Birds, Marine Mammals
Bird and Bat Species' Global Vulnerability to Collision Mortality at Wind Farms Revealed Through a Trait-Based Assessment Thaxter, C., et al. September 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
ABC’s Bird-Smart Wind Energy Campaign: Protecting Birds from Poorly Sited Wind Energy Development Hutchins, M., Parr, M., Schroeder, D. April 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Bats, Birds
Impact of Wind Energy on Wildlife: Synthesis Leopold, B., Hutchins, M. April 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Bats, Birds
Acoustic mirrors as sensory traps for bats Greif, S., Zsebok, S. September 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general Static Device Bats
How anthropogenic noise affects foraging Luo, J., Siemers, B., Koselj, K. September 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general Noise Bats
Wind Energy and Wildlife: 20 Years of Translational Ecology in Action Allison, T., Arnold, A. August 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Bats
Migratory bats are attracted by red light but not by warm-white light: Implications for the protection of nocturnal migrants Voigt, C., et al. September 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Bats
Red bat fatality: Geographic extents through deuterium and niche models Murtaugh, R., et al. July 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Patterns of Bat Fatalities at Wind Energy Facilities in North America Arnett, E., et al. January 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Wind Power Plants and the Conservation of Birds and Bats in Spain: A Geographical Assessment Telleria, J. June 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Bats, Birds, Raptors, Shorebirds
Do you hear what I hear? Implications of detector selection for acoustic monitoring of bats Adams, A., et al. September 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise Bats
Factors Influencing Bat Activity and Mortality at a Wind Farm in the Mediterranean Region Amorim, F., Rebelo, H., Rodrigues, L. December 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Thresholds for Bats Killed by Wind Turbines Arnett, E., Barclay, R., Hein, C. May 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Bat Fatality at a Wind Energy Facility in the Western Cape, South Africa Aronson, J., Thomas, A., Jordaan, S. April 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Prairie Winds: Migrating Bats & Wind Energy in Canada Baerwald, E. September 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Geographic Variation in Activity and Fatality of Migratory Bats at Wind Energy Facilities Baerwald, E., Barclay, R. December 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Patterns of activity and fatality of migratory bats at a wind energy facility in Alberta, Canada Baerwald, E., Barclay, R. July 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
A Large-Scale Mitigation Experiment to Reduce Bat Fatalities at Wind Energy Facilities Baerwald, E., et al. September 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Origins and Migratory Patterns of Bats Killed by Wind Turbines in Southern Alberta: Evidence from Stable Isotopes Baerwald, E., Patterson, W., Barclay, R. September 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
A New Stochastic Dynamic Tool to Improve the Accuracy of Mortality Estimates for Bats Killed at Wind Farms Bastos, R., Santos, M., Cabral, J. November 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Estimating Bird and Bat Fatality at Wind Farms: A Practical Overview of Estimators, their Assumptions and Limitations Bernardino, J., et al. February 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Bat Mortalities at a Wind Energy Facility in North Dakota Bicknell, L., Gilliam, E. November 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Survey of Bat Mortalities at a Wind-Energy Facility in North Dakota Bicknell, L., Gilliam, E. June 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Noctule Bats and Wind Turbines Burrows, L. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Bat Fatalities at Wind Farms in Northern Spain - Lessons to be Learned Camina, A. June 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Bats
Bat fatalities at two wind farms in Tasmania, Australia: bat characteristics, and spatial and temporal patterns Hull, C., Cawthen, L. November 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
A Quantitative Method to Analyze the Quality of EIA Information in Wind Energy Development and Avian/Bat Assessments Chang, T., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Mating Behavior as a Possible Cause of Bat Fatalities at Wind Turbines Cryan, P. April 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Wind turbines as landscape impediments to the migratory connectivity of bats Cryan, P. May 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Bats
Behavior of Bats at Wind Turbines Cryan, P., et al. October 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Evidence of Late-Summer Mating Readiness and Early Sexual Maturation in Migratory Tree-Roosting Bats Found Dead at Wind Turbines Cryan, P., et al. October 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Assessment of bat and avian mortality at a pilot wind turbine at Coega, Port Elizabeth, Eastern Cape, South Africa Doty, A., Martin, A. December 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds

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