Knowledge Base

The Knowledge Base provides access to information about the environmental effects of marine and wind energy, supporting OES-Environmental and WREN initiatives. Relevant documents and OES-Environmental metadata forms are compiled into a user-friendly table with advanced filtering. Filters may be selected on the right, or keywords entered in the Search Text box. Content may also be sorted alphabetically by clicking on column headers. More entries will load as you scroll down.


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Title Author* Date** Type of Content Technology Types Stressorssort descending Receptors
Dodging the blades: new insights into three-dimensional space use of offshore wind farms by lesser black-backed gulls Larus fuscus Thaxter, C., et al. January 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds
The impact of a central Apennine wind-farm Forconi, P., Fusari, M., Appiotti, A. September 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Behaviour related flight speeds of Sandwich Terns and their implications for wind farm collision rate modelling and impact assessment Fijn, R., Gyimesi, A. July 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds
Evaluating Digital VHF Technology to Monitor Shorebird and Seabird Use of Offshore Wind Energy Areas in the Western North Atlantic Loring, P. September 2016 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds, Shorebirds
A Summary of Bat Fatality Data in a Nationwide Database Allison, T., Butryn, R. July 2018 Report Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Bats
Combining radar and direct observation to estimate pelican collision risk at a proposed wind farm on the Cape west coast, South Africa Jenkins, A., et al. February 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Waterfowl
Using network analysis to identify indicator species and reduce collision fatalities at wind farms Sebastian-Gonzalez, E., et al. August 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Collision and displacement vulnerability to offshore wind energy infrastructure among marine birds of the Pacific Outer Continental Shelf Kelsey, E., et al. September 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds
How many observation days are needed to reliably describe bird migration? Tanskanen, A., et al. June 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Birds
The wind energy (r)evolution: A short review of a long history Kaldellis, J., Zafirakis, D. July 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device N/A
Challenges and opportunities for animal conservation from renewable energy development Katzner, T., et al. August 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Ecosystem
Ecological Impact of Airborne Wind Energy Technology: Current State of Knowledge and Future Research Agenda Bruinzeel, L., et al. April 2018 Book Chapter Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Birds
Estimating habitat loss due to wind turbine avoidance by bats: Implications for European siting guidance Barre, K., et al. August 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
An Overview on Methods to Assess Bird and Bat Collision Risk in Wind Farms Rodrigues, S., Rosa, L., Mascarenhas, M. September 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
First in situ evidence of wakes in the far field behind offshore wind farms Platis, A., et al. February 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Farfield Environment
Proceedings of the Wind-Wildlife Research Meeting XI Schwartz, S. May 2017 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device N/A
Do Terrestrial Animals Avoid Areas Close to Turbines in Functioning Wind Farms in Agricultural Landscapes? Łopucki, R., Klich, D., Gielarek, S. June 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Terrestrial Mammals
How Ecofriendly are Wind Farms? Cohn, J. July 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds, Raptors
Post-Construction Bird and Bat Mortality Study Cedar Ridge Wind Farm Fond Du Lac County, Wisconsin BHE Environmental, Inc. February 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Regional Analysis of Wind Turbine-caused Bat and Bird Fatality: Final Report Drake, D., Schumacher, S., Sponsler, M. December 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Regional Analysis of Wind Turbine-Caused Bat Mortality Drake, D., et al. June 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Post‐Construction Bat and Bird Fatality Study at the Blue Sky Green Field Wind Energy Center, Fond du Lac County, Wisconsin: July 21, 2008 – October 31, 2008 and March 15, 2009 – June 4, 2009 Gruver, J., et al. December 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
A Theoretical Approach to Estimating Bird Risk of Collision with Wind Turbines Where Empirical Flight Activity Data Are Lacking Furness, R., et al. April 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Birds
Developing Field and Analytical Methods to Assess Avian Collision Risk at Wind Farms Band, W., Madders, M., Whitfield, D. June 2007 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Impacts to Birds and Bats Due to Collisions and Electrocutions from Some Tall Structures in the United States: Wires, Towers, Turbines, and Solar Arrays - State of the Art in Addressing the Problems Manville, A. January 2016 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Bird and Bat Species' Global Vulnerability to Collision Mortality at Wind Farms Revealed Through a Trait-Based Assessment Thaxter, C., et al. September 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Bat Mortality Due to Wind Turbines in Canada Zimmerling, J., Francis, C. November 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Impact of Wind Energy on Bats: A Summary of Our Current Knowledge Hein, C., Schirmacher, M. April 2016 Journal Article N/A Dynamic Device Bats
Avian Fatalities at Wind Energy Facilities in North America: A Comparison of Recent Approaches Johnson, D., et al. April 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Predicting Eagle Fatalities at Wind Facilities Bay, K., et al. August 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Effectiveness of a mitigation measure for the lesser kestrel (Falco naumanni) in wind farms in Spain Pescador, M., Ramírez, J., Peris, S. February 2019 Journal Article Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Experimental study of the impact of large-scale wind farms on land–atmosphere exchanges Zhang, W., Markfort, C., Porte-Agel, F. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Farfield Environment
Impact of wind facilities on bats in the Neotropics Rodríguez-Durán, A., Feliciano-Robles, W. December 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Bats in a tropical wind farm: species composition and importance of the spatial attributes of vegetation cover on bat fatalities Bolivar-Cime, B., et al. July 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Effects of Individuals Lost Due to Wind Turbines on the Time of Occupying a Territory, the Survival of Breeding Territories and the Breeding Success of White-Tailed Sea Eagles (Case Studies) Grunkorn, T., Nehls, G. April 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Collisions of Birds of Prey with Wind Turbines - Analysis of the Circumstances Rasran, L., Durr, T. April 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Collision Victims and Lattice Towers - Frequency of Collision, Breeding Population and Breeding Success of Birds of Prey in Two Wind Farms in Brandenburg Durr, T., Rasran, L. April 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Calculation of the Probability of a Collision of Territorial Birds of Prey with Wind Turbines Rasran, L., Grajetzky, B., Mammen, U. April 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Turbine Induced Bird and Bat Fatalities at Wind Projects: Statistical Methods for Mortality Estimation Using Road and Pad Carcass Surveys Maurer, J. August 2017 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Developing an efficient protocol for monitoring eagle fatalities at wind energy facilities Hallingstad, E., et al. December 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Inconspicuous echolocation in hoary bats (Lasiurus cinereus) Corcoran, A., Weller, T. May 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Bat flight height monitored from wind masts predicts mortality risk at wind farms Roemer, C., et al. November 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
AWWI Technical Report: Evaluating a Commercial-Ready Technology for Raptor Detection and Deterrence at a Wind Energy Facility in California Terrill, S., et al. September 2018 Report Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Assessing spring direct mortality to avifauna from wind energy facilities in the Dakotas Graff, B., et al. March 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Bat fatalities at wind farms in Taiwan Chou, C., et al. June 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Nocturnal migrants do not incur higher collision risk at wind turbines than diurnally active species Welcker, J., et al. April 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
The energy landscape predicts flight height and wind turbine collision hazard in three species of large soaring raptor Peron, G., et al. December 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
A balanced solution to the cumulative threat of industrialized wind farm development on cinereous vultures (Aegypius monachus) in south-eastern Europe Vasilakis, D., Whitfield, D., Kati, V. February 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Species composition and mortality of bats at the Osorio Wind Farm, southern Brazil Barros, M., de Magalhaes, R., Rui, A. January 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Predicting bird collisions with wind turbines: Comparison of the new empirical Flux Collision Model with the SOSS Band model Kleyheeg-Hartman, J., et al. November 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Assessment of Diurnal Wind Turbine Collision Risk for Grassland Birds on the Southern Great Plains Wulff, S., Butler, M., Ballard, W. June 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Estimation of bird fatalities caused by wind turbines in Turkey Arikan, K., Turan, S. January 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Assessing Bird and Bat Mortality at the Forward Energy Center Grodsky, S., Drake, D. August 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Empirical Evidence for Factors Affecting Searcher Efficiency and Scavenging Rates at a Coastal, Terrestrial Wind-Power Facility Peters, K., Mizrahi, D., Allen, M. December 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Evaluating a Novel Approach to Optimize Operational Minimization to Reduce Bat Fatalities at the Pinnacle Wind Farm, Mineral County, West Virginia, 2015 Schirmacher, M., et al. April 2018 Report Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Quantifying the Demographic Cost of Human-Related Mortality to a Raptor Population Hunt, W., et al. February 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Ultrasonic Bat Deterrent Technology Kinzie, K. June 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Bird Strikes and Electrocutions at Power Lines, Communication Towers, and Wind Turbines: State of the Art and State of the Science - Next Steps Toward Mitigation Manville, A. June 2005 Conference Paper Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Birds
ID Stat: Innovative Technology for Assessing Wildlife Collisions with Wind Turbines Delprat, B., Alcuri, G. July 2011 Report Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Carcass Age and Searcher Identity Affect Morphological Assessment of Sex of Bats Nelson, D., et al. November 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Networking Networks for Global Bat Conservation Kingston, T., et al. January 2016 Book Chapter Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Bats
First year post-construction monitoring of bats and birds at Wind Turbine Test Centre Østerild Therkildsen, O., Elmeros, M. January 2015 Report Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Reconciling endangered species conservation with wind farm development: Cinereous vultures (Aegypius monachus) in south-eastern Europe Vasilakis, D., et al. April 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
The Avoidance Rates of Collision Between Birds and Offshore Turbines Cook, A., et al. December 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds
Impact assessment of wind farms on birds of prey in Thrace. Annual Report August 2009 - August 2010 Doutau, B., et al. March 2011 Report Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Birds
Process-based vs. ad-hoc methods to estimate mortality using carcass surveys data: A review and a note about evidence complacency Peron, G. September 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device N/A
Impacts of Wind Farms on Birds in Evros and Rhodopi, Greece: Pleminary results Ruiz, G., Poirazidis, K., Schindler, S. January 2006 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Of birds, blades and barriers: Detecting and analysing mass migration events at alpha ventus Hill, R., et al. January 2014 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds
2nd Iteration: Effect of turbine capacity on collision numbers for three large gull species, based on revised density data, when assessing cumulative effects of offshore wind farms on birds in the southern North Sea van der Wal, J., et al. May 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds
Effects of offshore wind farms on birds: "Cuisinarts of the sky" or just tilting at windmills? Tingley, M. March 2003 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Passerines, Seabirds
Avian Monitoring and Mortality Report at the National Wind Technology Center: January 2010 - February 2011 Tetra Tech Inc. January 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Resource selection and wintering phenology of White-winged Scoters in southern New England: Implications for offshore wind energy development Meattey, D., et al. February 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds
A study of White-tailed Eagle Haliaeetus albicilla movements and mortality at a wind farm in Norway Nygård, T., et al. January 2010 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Assess risk of individual turbines to Golden Eagles Miller, T. March 2019 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Wind turbines in high quality habitat cause disproportionate increases in collision mortality of the white-tailed eagle Heuck, C., et al. August 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Texturizing Wind Turbine Towers to Reduce Bat Mortality Bennett, V., Hale, A. July 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Use of an optical rangefinder to assess the reliability of seabird flight heights from boat‐based surveyors: implications for collision risk at offshore wind farms Harwood, A., Perrow, M., Berridge, R. October 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds
Pilot field study: observations from a fixed platform on occurrence and behaviour of common guillemots and other seabirds in offshore wind farm Luchterduinen Leopold, M., Verdaat, H. September 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds
Interference of Flying Insects and Wind Parks Trieb, F. October 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device N/A
A Review of Methods to Monitor Collisions or Micro-Avoidance of Birds with Offshore Wind Turbines - Part 1: Review Strategic Ornithological Support Services Project Collier, M., Dirksen, S., Krijgsveld, K. September 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds
A Review of Methods to Monitor Collisions or Micro-Avoidance of Birds with Offshore Wind Turbines - Part 2: Feasibility Study of Systems to Monitor Collisions Collier, M., Dirksen, S., Krijgsveld, K. February 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds
A Test for Bias Attributable to Seabird Avoidance of Ships during Surveys Conducted in the Tropical Pacific Borberg, J., et al. January 2006 Journal Article N/A Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds
Absolute Probability Estimates of Lethal Vessel Strikes to North Atlantic Right Whales in Roseway Basin, Scotian Shelf van der Hoop, J., Vanderlaan, A., Taggart, C. April 2012 Journal Article N/A Dynamic Device Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Socio-economics, Navigation
Analysis of Environmental Characteristics and Operational Reports of Small and Medium Turbines Florescu, A., Bandoc, G., Degeratu, M. May 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Socio-economics
Avian Collision Risk at an Offshore Wind Farm Desholm, M., Kahlert, J. June 2005 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Waterfowl
Barotrauma is a Significant Cause of Bat Fatalities at Wind Turbines Baerwald, E., et al. August 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Bats and Offshore Wind Turbines Studied in Southern Scandinavia Ahlén, I., et al. July 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Behavioral Responses of Bats to Operating Wind Turbines Horn, J., Arnett, E., Kunz, T. March 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Bats
Behavioural and Environmental Correlates of Soaring-Bird Mortality at On-Shore Wind Turbines Barrios, L., Rodríguez, A. February 2004 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Bird Migration Studies and Potential Collision Risk with Offshore Wind Turbines Hüppop, O., et al. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Passerines
Predictable shorebird departure patterns from a staging site can inform collision risks and mitigation of wind energy developments Howell, J., et al. August 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Shorebirds
Red bat fatality: Geographic extents through deuterium and niche models Murtaugh, R., et al. July 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Collision Effects of Wind-power Generators and Other Obstacles on Birds Drewitt, A., Langston, R. June 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Birds
Collision Mortalities at Horseshoe Shoal of Bird Species of Special Concern Hatch, J., Brault, S. January 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
Cumulative Effects of Wind Farms in the Dutch North Sea on Bird Populations Poot, M., et al. June 2012 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Development of a Cost-Effective System to Monitor Wind Turbines for Bird and Bat Collisions. Phase 1: Sensor System Feasibility Study Pandey, A., Hermence, J., Harness, R. March 2007 Report Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Development of a Cost Minimizing Strategy to Mitigate Bird Mortalities in a Wind Farm Singh, K. May 2012 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Does the Wind Power Industry Threaten Marbled Murrelets or Do Marbled Murrelets Threaten the Wind Power Industry? Cooper, J., Beauchesne, S. March 2004 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds
Review of Raptor Sections of the Bluestone Wind Avian Risk Assessment Miller, T. March 2019 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Gross and Histologic Evidence of Sharp and Blunt Trauma in North Atlantic Right Whales (Eubalaena glacialis) Killed by Vessels Campbell-Malone, R., et al. March 2008 Journal Article N/A Dynamic Device Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Socio-economics, Navigation

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