Knowledge Base

The Knowledge Base provides access to information about the environmental effects of marine and wind energy, supporting OES-Environmental and WREN initiatives. Relevant documents and OES-Environmental metadata forms are compiled into a user-friendly table with advanced filtering. Filters may be selected on the right, or keywords entered in the Search Text box. Content may also be sorted alphabetically by clicking on column headers.


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Title Author* Date** Type of Content Technology Types Stressorssort descending Receptors
MUSSEL CULTIVATION AS A CO-USE IN OFFSHORE WIND FARMS: POTENTIAL AND ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY Buck, B., Ebeling, M., Michler-Cieluch, T. December 2010 Journal Article Offshore Wind Habitat Change Invertebrates, Human Dimensions, Fisheries
The Nature Of Scour Development And Scour Protection At Offshore Windfarm Foundations Whitehouse, R., et al. November 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Physical Environment
Early Development of the Subtidal Marine Biofouling on a Concrete Offshore Windmill Foundation on the Thornton Bank (Southern North Sea): First Monitoring Results Kerckhof, F., et al. November 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Invertebrates
Epibenthic Colonization of Concrete and Steel Pilings in a Cold-Temperate Embayment: A Weld Experiment Andersson, M., et al. March 2009 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Fish, Invertebrates
Development of Spatial Information Layers for Commercial Fishing and Shellfishing in UK Waters to Support Strategic Siting of Offshore Windfarms Dunstone, D. March 2009 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Human Dimensions, Fisheries, Marine Spatial Planning
The Habitat-Creation Potential of Offshore Wind Farms Elliott, M., Wilson, J. February 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change N/A
Aspects of Offshore Renewable Energy and the Alterations of Marine Habitats Wilhelmsson, D. January 2009 Thesis Marine Energy (General), Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Fish, Invertebrates
Fouling Assemblages on Offshore Wind Power Plants and Adjacent Substrata Wilhelmsson, D., Malm, T. September 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Ecosystem Processes, Fish, Invertebrates
Continuation Implementation Masterplan Wind at Sea Ministry of Economic Affairs (Rijksoverheid), Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment (Rijkwaterstaat) September 2015 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change, Noise N/A
Offshore Wind Farms - Ecological Effects of Noise and Habitat Alteration on Fish Andersson, M. January 2011 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change, Noise Fish, Invertebrates
Adapting Offshore Wind Power Foundations to Local Environment Hammar, L., Andersson, S., Rosenberg, R. May 2010 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change, Noise Invertebrates, Physical Environment
Offshore Obstruction Lighting - Issues and Mitigation Blew, J., Nehls, G., Prall, U. February 2013 Presentation Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Lighting Birds
Evaluation of Lighting Schemes for Offshore Wind Facilities and Impacts to Local Environments Orr, T., Herz, S., Oakley, D. August 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Lighting N/A
From strategic marine planning to project licences – Striking a balance between predictability and adaptability in the management of aquaculture and offshore wind farms Schütz, S., Slater, A. June 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Legal and Policy, Marine Spatial Planning
A Comparison of Offshore Wind Power Development in Europe and the US: Patterns and Drivers of Development Snyder, B., Kaiser, M. October 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Risk Evaluation for Federally Listed (Roseate Tern, Piping Plover) or Candidate (Red Knot) Bird Species in Offshore Waters: A First Step for Managing the Potential Impacts of Wind Facility Development on the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf Burger, J., et al. January 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Farfield Environment
Future Offshore: A Strategic Framework for the Offshore Wind Industry UK Department of Trade and Industry November 2002 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Aerial Survey of Seabirds: The Advent of Digital Methods Buckland, S., et al. August 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds
Aerial Surveys of Waterbirds in Strategic Wind Farm Areas Bloor, P., Wratten, A. May 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Passerines, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
Aggregation at Windmill Artificial Reefs: CPUE of Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua) and Pouting (Trisopterus luscus) at Different Habitats in the Belgian Part of the North Sea Reubens, J., et al. March 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Fish, Nearfield Habitat
An Integrated Risk Framework for Gigawatt-Scale Deployments of Renewable Energy: The U.S. Wind Energy Case Ram, B. October 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
An Overview Of Ocean Renewable Energy Technologies Bedard, R., et al. June 2010 Magazine Article Marine Energy general, OTEC, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Analysis of Marine Environmental Monitoring Plan Data from the Robin Rigg Offshore Wind Farm, Scotland (Operational Year 1) Walls, R., et al. January 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Approaches to Marine Mammal Monitoring at Marine Renewable Energy Developments Macleod, K., et al. August 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals
Assessing Integrated Risks Of Offshore Wind Projects: Moving Towards Gigawatt-scale Deployments Ram, B. June 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Assessment of the Environmental Impact of Offshore Wind-Farms OSPAR Commission January 2008 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Atlas of UK Marine Renewable Energy Resources ABP Marine Environmental Research May 2008 Website Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Bird Numbers and Distributions in the Horns Rev Offshore Wind Farm Area Petersen, I. January 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Blue Seas - Green Energy: A Sectoral Marine Plan for Offshore Wind Energy in Scottish Territorial Waters (The Plan) APS Group Scotland March 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Blue Seas - Green Energy: A Sectoral Marine Plan for Offshore Wind Energy in Scottish Territorial Waters (Post Adoption Statement) APS Group Scotland March 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
California Offshore Wind Energy Potential Dvorak, M., Archer, C., Jacobson, M. June 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Case Study: European Offshore Wind Farms - A Survey for the Analysis of the Experiences and Lessons Learnt by Developers of Offshore Wind Farms Gerdes, G., Tiedemann, A., Zeelenberg, S. January 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Challenges and Solutions of Remote Sensing at Offshore Wind Energy Developments Kelly, T., West, T., Davenport, J. November 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Concerted Action for Offshore Wind Energy Deployment (COD): Overview of Environmental Impacts of Offshore Wind Energy Roth, E., Verhoef, L., Dingenouts, M. September 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Consequences of a Cumulative Perspective on Marine Environmental Impacts: Offshore Wind Farming and Seabirds at North Sea Scale in Context of the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive Busch, M., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Farfield Environment
Preliminary Assessment of the Conservation Importance of Benthic Species and Habitats off the West Coast of Orkney and in the Pentland Firth in Relation to the Development of Renewable Energy Schemes Moore, C. January 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates
Cumulative Impact Assessments and Bird/Wind Farm Interactions: Developing a Conceptual Framework Masden, E., et al. January 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Farfield Environment
Danish Offshore Wind Key Environmental Issues - A Follow-up Danish Energy Agency, et al. February 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Decision Bias in Marine Spatial Planning of Offshore Wind Farms: Problems of Singular Versus Cumulative Assessments of Economic Impacts on Fisheries Berkenhagen, J., et al. May 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
Definition of a 5-MW Reference Wind Turbine for Offshore System Development Jonkman, J., et al. February 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Delivering Community Benefits from Wind Energy Development: A Toolkit Hassan, G., Capener, P. May 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Design and Implementation of a Marine Animal Alert System to Support Marine Renewable Energy Deng, Z., et al. July 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Tethys: Developing a Commons for Understanding Environmental Effects of Marine Renewable Energy Copping, A., et al. December 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Developing an Instrumentation Package for in-Water Testing of Marine Hydrokinetic Energy Devices Nelson, E. August 2010 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Doppler Lidar-Based Wind-Profile Measurement System for Offshore Wind Energy and Other Marine Boundary Layer Applications Pichugina, Y., et al. February 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Ecological Research on Offshore Wind Farms: International Exchange of Experiences - Part A Zucco, C., et al. January 2006 Workshop Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Ecological and Economic Cost-Benefit Analysis of Offshore Wind Energy Snyder, B., Kaiser, M. June 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Economic Assessment of Short Term Options for Offshore Wind Energy in Scottish Territorial Waters: Costs and Benefits to Other Marine Users and Interests APS Group Scotland March 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Effects from the Construction of Nysted Offshore Wind Farm on Seals in Rødsand Seal Sanctuary Based on Remote Video Monitoring Edrén, S., et al. June 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Effects of Wind Farms on Harbour Porpoise Behavior and Population Dynamics Nabe-Nielsen, J., et al. September 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Effects of the Nysted Offshore Wind Farm on Harbour Porpoises Tougaard, J., et al. July 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Energy Performances and Life Cycle Assessment of an Italian Wind Farm Ardente, F., et al. January 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Life Cycle Assessment
Environmental Impacts Due to Fixed and Floating Offshore Wind Turbines Brewer, M. September 2012 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Evaluating the Statistical Power of Detecting Changes in the Abundance of Seabirds at Sea Maclean, I., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds
Extensive Open Ocean Aquaculture Development Within Wind Farms in Germany: The Prospect of Offshore Co-Management and Legal Constraints Buck, B., Krause, G., Rosenthal, H. January 2004 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Fish, Socio-economics
Field Scale Experiments to Assess the Effects of Offshore Wind Farms on Marine Organisms Gill, A., et al. July 2011 Presentation Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Nearfield Habitat
Fish and Benthos at Alpha Ventus Reichert, K., et al. May 2012 Presentation Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Found in the Wind: The Value of Early Consultation and Collaboration with Other Ocean Users for Successful Offshore Wind Development Frulla, D., Hagerman, G., Hallowell, M. March 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Guidance Note for Environmental Impact Assessment in Respect of FEPA and CPA Requirements Centre for Environment Fisheries and Aquaculture Science (CEFAS) June 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Habitats Regulations Appraisal of Draft Plan for Offshore Wind Energy in Scottish Territorial Waters: Appropriate Assessment Information Review APS Group Scotland January 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
Habitats Regulations Appraisal of Draft Plan for Offshore Wind Energy in Scottish Territorial Waters: Information for Appropriate Assessment APS Group Scotland March 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Nearfield Habitat
Habitats Regulations Appraisal of Draft Plan for Offshore Wind Energy in Scottish Territorial Waters: Pre-Screening Review of the Medium Term Options APS Group Scotland March 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
Horns Rev 2 Offshore Wind Farm EIA Report: Benthic Communities Leonhard, S. July 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates
Information Synthesis on the Potential for Bat Interactions with Offshore Wind Facilities - Final Report Pelletier, S., et al. June 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Bats
Intersectoral Assessment of Impacts on Seabirds: Baseline Report for a Comprehensive Environmental Management Plan for the Norwegian Sea Christensen-Dalsgaard, S., et al. January 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds, Socio-economics
Life Cycle Assessment of a 150 MW Offshore Wind Turbine Farm at Nysted/Roedsand, Denmark Properzi, S., Herk-Hansen, H. July 2001 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Life Cycle Assessment
Life Cycle Assessment of the Offshore Wind Farm Alpha Ventus Wagner, H., et al. May 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Life Cycle Assessment
Localization of Southern Resident Killer Whales Using Two Star Arrays to Support Marine Renewable Energy Ren, H., et al. October 2012 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Managing Offshore Wind Developments in the United States: Legal, Environmental and Social Considerations using a Case Study in Nantucket Sound Santora, C., Hade, N., Odell, J. January 2004 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Marine Renewable Energies: Perspectives and Implications for Marine Ecosystems Azzellino, A., et al. June 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Ecosystem
Marine Renewable Energy Legislation for Nova Scotia Nova Scotia Department of Energy January 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Marine Wind Farms: Seabirds, White-Tailed Eagles, Eurasian Eagle-Owl and Waders - A Screening of Potential Conflict Areas Christensen-Dalsgaard, S., et al. January 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Raptors, Seabirds, Shorebirds
Mid-Atlantic Marine Wildlife Surveys, Modeling, and Data: Workshop to Establish Coordination & Communication Brown-Saracino, J., Smith, C., Gilman, P. July 2013 Workshop Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles
Modelling Harbour Porpoise Seasonal Density as a Function of the German Bight Environment: Implications for Management Gilles, A., et al. August 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals
Modelling Total Numbers and Distribution of Common Scoter Melanitta nigra at Horns Rev Petersen, I. November 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Waterfowl
Multipurpose Marine Cadastre National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Bureau of Ocean Energy Management January 2012 Website Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
National Register of Historic Places Database National Park Service January 2011 Website Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
New Insights and New Tools Regarding Risk to Roseate Terns, Piping Plovers, and Red Knots from Wind Facility Operations on the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf Gordon, C. October 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds, Shorebirds
North Sea Wind Farms NSW Lot 1 Benthic Fauna Jarvis, S., et al. February 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Ecosystem
OES GIS Map: Offshore Installations Worldwide Ocean Energy Systems (OES) January 2014 Website Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Ocean Management & Planning in the United States: From Competition to Cooperation Heimes, R. September 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Ocean Planning and the Gulf of Maine: Exploring Bi-National Policy Options Fanning, L., Heimes, R. May 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Ireland Offshore Renewable Energy Strategic Action Plan 2012 - 2020 UK Department of Enterprise, Trade and Investment March 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Offshore Renewables - Guidance on Assessing the Impact on Coastal Landscape and Seascape: Guidance for Scoping an Environmental Statement Scottish Natural Heritage March 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Offshore Wind Capital Cost Estimation in the U.S. Outer Continental Shelf - A Reference Class Approach Kaiser, M., Snyder, B. September 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Offshore Wind Farms and Birds: Round 3 Zones, Extensions to Round 1 & Round 2 Sites & Scottish Territorial Waters Langston, R. February 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds
Offshore Wind Farms and Commercial Fisheries in the UK: A Study in Stakeholder Consultation Gray, T., Haggett, C., Bell, D. January 2005 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Fishing, Stakeholder Engagement
Offshore Wind Farms and the Environment: Danish Experiences from Horns Rev and Nysted Danish Energy Authority November 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics
Offshore Wind Farms in the Western Great Lakes: An Interdisciplinary Analysis of their Potential Hingtgen, J. January 2003 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Offshore Wind Power Policy and Planning in Sweden Söderholm, P., Pettersson, M. February 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Permitting and Leasing for Marine Offshore Wind Energy Projects Thaler, J. January 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Population Sizes of Seabirds Breeding in Scottish SPAs Lewis, M., et al. July 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds
Potential Impacts of Ocean Energy Development on Marine Mammals in Oregon Davis, A. December 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Habitats Regulations Appraisal of Draft Plan for Offshore Wind Energy in Scottish Territorial Waters: Proposed Approach for the Screening and Assessment of the Short and Medium Term Options APS Group Scotland March 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Public Engagement with Large-Scale Renewable Energy Technologies: Breaking the Cycle of NIMBYism Devine-Wright, P. November 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Public Opinion about Large Offshore Wind Power: Underlying Factors Firestone, J., Kempton, W. March 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Reflections on Integrating Operations and Maintenance Activities of Offshore Wind Farms and Mariculture Michler-Cieluch, T., Krause, G., Buck, B. January 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Renewable Energy from the Ocean Pelc, R., Fujita, R. November 2002 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Renewable Energy in Scotland Alldritt, D., Hopwood, D. May 2010 Magazine Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Residence Time and Behaviour of Sole and Cod in the Offshore Wind Farm Egmond aan Zee Winter, H., Aarts, G., van Keeken, O. September 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Fish

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