Knowledge Base

The Knowledge Base provides access to information about the environmental effects of marine and wind energy, supporting OES-Environmental and WREN initiatives. Relevant documents and OES-Environmental metadata forms are compiled into a user-friendly table with advanced filtering. Filters may be selected on the right, or keywords entered in the Search Text box. Content may also be sorted alphabetically by clicking on column headers. More entries will load as you scroll down.


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Title Author*sort descending Date** Type of Content Technology Types Stressors Receptors
Pacific Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment (PaCSEA): Aerial Seabird and Marine Mammal Surveys off Northern California, Oregon, and Washington, 2011-2012 Adams, J., et al. March 2014 Report N/A N/A Birds, Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Pinnipeds
Distribution of Harbour Seals in the German Bight in Relation to Offshore Wind Power Plants Adelung, D., et al. January 2006 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Effects of Underwater Sounds on Escape Behavior of Steller Sea Lions Akamatsu, T., et al. January 1996 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Request for advice about the displacement of marine mammals around operational offshore windfarms Alcock, P. October 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Behavioural Responses of Harbour Seals to Human-Induced Disturbances Andersen, S., et al. January 2012 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
A Framework for Regulating Underwater Noise During Pile Driving Andersson, M., et al. August 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish, Marine Mammals
Impacts of Wind Energy Facilities on Wildlife and Wildlife Habitat Arnett, E., et al. September 2007 Report Wind Energy general Static Device Bats, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Use of Anthropogenic Sea Floor Structures by Australian Fur Seals: Potential Positive Ecological Impacts of Marine Industrial Development? Arnould, J., et al. July 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Echolocation in Marine Mammals Au, W., Hastings, M. January 2008 Book Chapter N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Assessing Environmental Impacts of Offshore Wind Farms: Lessons Learned and Recommendations for the Future Bailey, H., Brookes, K., Thompson, P. September 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Noise Birds, Ecosystem, Marine Mammals
Assessing Underwater Noise Levels during Pile-Driving at an Offshore Windfarm and its Potential Effects on Marine Mammals Bailey, H., et al. June 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Modelling Harbour Seal Habitat by Combining Data from Multiple Tracking Bailey, H., Hammond, P., Thompson, P. January 2014 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Long-range Effects of Airgun Noise on Marine Mammals: Responses as a Function of Received Sound Level and Distance Bain, D., Williams, R. May 2006 Report N/A Noise Marine Mammals
Factors Influencing the Diving Behaviour of Fish Eating Killer Whales: Sex Differences and Diel and Interannual Variation in Diving Rates Baird, R., Hanson, M., Dill, L. April 2005 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Seismic Survey Mitigation Measures and Marine Mammal Observer Reports Barkaszi, M., et al. June 2012 Report N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Mitigating, Monitoring and Assessing the Effects of Anthropogenic Sound on Beaked Whales Barlow, J., Gisiner, R. January 2006 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
California Current Cetacean & Ecosystem Assessment Survey (CalCurCEAS): Final Report to Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Regarding Surveys of Windfloat and Wave Energy Areas Barlow, J., Henry, A., Ballance, L. April 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Ecosystem, Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Environmental Noise and Decision Making Possible Implications of Increases in Anthropogenic Noise for Information Processing in Marine Mammals Bateson, M. January 2007 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals
Wild Whales Noise and Cetaceans BC Cetacean Sightings Network August 2013 Website N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Ecological Research at the Offshore Windfarm Alpha Ventus: Challenges, Results and Perspectives Beiersdorf, A., Radecke, A. January 2014 Book Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal, Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Standard Investigation of the Impacts of Offshore Wind Turbines on the Marine Environment (StUK3) Bellebaum, J., et al. February 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Understanding the Potential for Marine Megafauna Entanglement Risk from Marine Renewable Energy Developments Benjamins, S., et al. January 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Effects of Offshore Wind Farms on Marine Wildlife - A Generalized Impact Assessment Bergström, L., et al. March 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF, Noise, Static Device Ecosystem, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
The Effects of Wind Power on Marine Life - A Synthesis Bergström, L., et al. October 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Fish, Marine Mammals
Minimizing wildlife impacts for offshore wind energy development: Winning tradeoffs for seabirds in space and cetaceans in time Best, B., Halpin, P. May 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Noise Birds, Seabirds, Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Measurement of Wind Turbine Construction Noise at Horns Rev II Betke, K. December 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Underwater construction and operational noise at alpha ventus Betke, K. January 2014 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Underwater Auditory Localization by a Swimming Harbor Seal (Phoca vitulina) Bodson, A., et al. January 2006 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Proceedings of the Oregon Marine Renewable Energy Environmental Sciences Conference Boehlert, G., et al. April 2013 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF, Energy Removal, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles, Socio-economics
Review Report 2004: The Danish Offshore Wind Farm Demonstration Project: Horns Rev and Nysted Offshore Wind Farms Environmental Impact Assessment and Monitoring Boesen, C., Kjær, J. October 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
Monitoring and Research Shortlist Offshore Wind - Knowledge advancements and follow up Boon, A. January 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Prevention of the ecological effects of offshore windfarms in licensing and spatial planning - an overview Boon, A. July 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Monitoring and Researching Ecological Effects of Dutch Offshore Wind Farms Boon, A., et al. May 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Bats, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics
A methodological update of the Framework for the Appropriate Assessment of the ecological effects of Offshore Windfarms at the Dutch Continental Shelf Boon, A., et al. July 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise, Static Device Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals
A Protocol for Implementing the Interim Population Consequences of Disturbance (PCoD) approach: Quantifying and Assessing the Effects of UK Offshore Renewable Energy Developments on Marine Mammal Populations Booth, C., et al. November 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general N/A Marine Mammals
Habitat Preferences and Distribution of the Harbour Porpoise Phocoena phocoena West of Scotland Booth, C., et al. March 2013 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Argyll Array Windfarm Basking Shark Draft Chapter for Environmental Statement Booth, C., King, S., Lacey, C. January 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Marine Mammals
Escape Responses of Hauled out Ringed Seals (Phoca hispida) to Aircraft Disturbance Born, E., et al. February 1999 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Behavioral Responses and Habituation of Pinnipeds and Small Cetaceans to Novel Objects and Simulated Fishing Gear With and Without a Pinger Bowles, A., Anderson, C. January 2012 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Pinnipeds
The Effects of Anthropogenic Sound on Marine Mammals Boyd, I., et al. June 2008 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Responses of Harbour Porpoises to Pile Driving on a Temporal and Spatial Scale Braasch, A., Joost, M., Ketzer, C. February 2013 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Investigations into the effects of pile driving at the offshore wind farm Horns Rev II and the FINO III research platform Brandt, M., Diederichs, A., Nehls, G. July 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Responses of Harbour Porpoises to Pile Driving at the Horns Rev II Offshore Wind Farm in the Danish North Sea Brandt, M., et al. January 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Seal Scarers as a Tool to Deter Harbour Porpoises from Offshore Construction Sites Brandt, M., et al. February 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Effects of Offshore Pile Driving on Harbor Porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) Brandt, M., et al. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Far-Reaching Effects of a Seal Scarer on Harbour Porpoises, Phocoena phocoena Brandt, M., et al. April 2013 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Effects of Offshore Pile Driving on Harbour Porpoise Abundance in the German Bight: Assessment of Noise Effects Brandt, M., et al. June 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Disturbance of harbour porpoises during construction of the first seven offshore wind farms in Germany Brandt, M., et al. May 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Do man-made structures and water depth affect the diel rhythms in click recordings of harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena)? Brandt, M., et al. July 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Marine Mammals
Habitat Preferences of Harbour Seals in the Dutch Coastal Area: Analysis and Estimate of Effects of Offshore Wind Farms Brasseur, S., et al. January 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Predictions from Harbor Porpoise Habitat Association Models are Confirmed by Long-Term Passive Acoustic Monitoring Brookes, K., Bailey, H., Thompson, P. September 2013 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals
Broad-Scale Acoustic Monitoring for Cetaceans and Underwater Noise in Relation to Offshore Wind Farm Construction in Scotland Brookes, K., et al. June 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Is There a Conflict Between Cetacean Conservation and Marine Renewable-Energy Developments? Brown, V., Simmonds, M. December 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Ocean Science Magazine Brown, W., et al. September 2019 Magazine Article N/A Noise Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Mid-Atlantic Marine Wildlife Surveys, Modeling, and Data: Workshop to Establish Coordination & Communication Brown-Saracino, J., Smith, C., Gilman, P. July 2013 Workshop Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles
Status and Applications of Acoustic Mitigation and Monitoring Systems for Marine Mammals Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement November 2009 Workshop Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
An Analysis of the Potential Acoustic Effects of Cape Wind's Offshore Wind Farm on Marine Mammal Populations Burgman, J. April 2010 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
Marine Mammal Monitoring Plan: San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge East Span Seismic Safety Project Caltrans February 2004 Report N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Gross and Histologic Evidence of Sharp and Blunt Trauma in North Atlantic Right Whales (Eubalaena glacialis) Killed by Vessels Campbell-Malone, R., et al. March 2008 Journal Article N/A Dynamic Device Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Socio-economics, Navigation
Compliance Monitoring Of Underwater Blasting For Rock Removal At Warrior Point, Columbia River Channel Improvement Project Carlson, T., et al. May 2011 Report N/A Noise Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Impacts of Offshore Wind Farm Construction on Harbour Porpoises: Acoustic Monitoring of Echolocation Activity using Porpoise Detectors (T-PODs) Carstensen, J., Henriksen, O., Teilmann, J. January 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise, Static Device Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Lethal entanglement in baleen whales Cassoff, R., et al. October 2011 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Declining Survival Probability Threatens the North Atlantic Right Whale Caswell, H., Fujiwara, M., Brault, S. March 1999 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Gwynt y Môr Offshore Wind Farm Marine Ecology Technical Report Centre for Marine and Coastal Studies January 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF, Energy Removal, Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Ecosystem, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics, Climate Change, Environmental Impact Assessment
A Characterization of Marine Mammals and Turtles in the Mid and North Atlantic Areas of the US Outer Continental Shelf Cetacean and Turtle Assessment Program June 1981 Report N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Reptiles
Study and Application of Underwater Noise Impact in Coastal Region off Western Taiwan Cheng, Y., et al. March 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Acoustic Masking In Marine Ecosystems: Intuitions, Analysis, And Implication Clark, C., et al. December 2009 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals
Click Communication in Harbour Porpoises Phocoena phocoena Clausen, K., et al. January 2010 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Environmental Risk Evaluation System - An Approach to Ranking Risk of Ocean Energy Development on Coastal and Estuarine Environments Copping, A., et al. January 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, Dynamic Device, Energy Removal Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Humpback Whale Encounter with Offshore Wind Mooring Lines and Inter-Array Cables Copping, A., Grear, M. October 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Risk of whale encounters with offshore renewable energy mooring lines and electrical cables Copping, A., Grear, M., Sanders, G. April 2018 Presentation Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Screening Analysis for the Environmental Risk Evaluation System - Environmental Effects of Offshore Wind Energy Copping, A., Hanna, L. September 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Sea Turtles
Assessing the exposure of animals to acoustic disturbance: Towards an understanding of the population consequences of disturbance Costa, D., et al. December 2016 Conference Paper N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Acoustic characterization of sensors used for marine environmental monitoring Cotter, E., et al. July 2019 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals
Understanding the Impacts of Anthropogenic Sound on Beaked Whales Cox, T., et al. January 2006 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Gray Whales, Eschrichtius robustus, Avoid the Underwater Sounds of Killer Whales, Orcinus orca Cummings, W., Thompson, P. March 1971 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Danish Offshore Wind Key Environmental Issues - A Follow-up Danish Energy Agency, et al. February 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Offshore Wind Farms and the Environment: Danish Experiences from Horns Rev and Nysted Danish Energy Authority November 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics
Likely Sensitivity of Bottlenose Dolphins to Pile-Driving Noise David, J. January 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Potential Impacts of Ocean Energy Development on Marine Mammals in Oregon Davis, A. December 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Underwater Radiated Noise Due to the Piling for the Q7 Offshore Wind Park de Jong, C., Ainslie, M. June 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Use of Population Viability Analysis (PVA) to Assess the Potential for Long Term Impacts from Piling Noise on Marine Mammal Populations - A Case Study from the Scottish East Coast De Silva, R., et al. May 2014 Presentation Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Studying Marine Mammal Cognition in the Wild: A Review of Four Decades of Playback Experiments Deecke, V. January 2006 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals
Offshore Wind Farms in the Belgian Part of the North Sea: State of the Art After Two Years of Environmental Monitoring Degraer, S., Brabant, R. January 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Ecosystem, Fish, Invertebrates, Marine Mammals
Offshore Wind Farms in the Belgian Part of the North Sea: Early Environmental Impact Assessment and Spatio-Temporal Variability Degraer, S., Brabant, R., Rumes, B. January 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Invertebrates, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Hydrodynamic Trail-Following in Harbor Seals (Phoca vitulina) Dehnhardt, G., et al. July 2001 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Assessing the Cross Patform Performance of Marine Mammal Indicators Between Two Collocated Acoustic Recorders Denes, S., et al. May 2014 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals
Design and Implementation of a Marine Animal Alert System to Support Marine Renewable Energy Deng, Z., et al. July 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
200 kHz Commercial Sonar Systems Generate Lower Frequency Side Lobes Audible to Some Marine Mammals Deng, Z., et al. April 2014 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Exposure to Seismic Survey Alters Blue Whale Acoustic Communication Di Iorio, L., Clark, C. February 2010 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Methodologies for measuring and assessing potential changes in marine mammal behaviour, abundance or distribution arising from the construction, operation and decommissioning of offshore windfarms Diederichs, A., et al. June 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals
Investigations of the Bird Collision Risk and the Responses of Harbour Porpoises in the Offshore Wind Farms Horns Rev, North Sea, and Nysted, Baltic Sea, in Denmark - Part II: Harbour porpoises Diederichs,A., Hennig, V., Nehls, G. January 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise, Static Device Marine Mammals
Movements of Seals from Rødsand Seal Sanctuary Monitored by Satellite Telemetry Dietz, R., et al. January 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Marine Mammals - Investigations and preparation of environmental impact assessment for Kriegers Flak Offshore Wind Farm Dietz, R., et al. June 2015 Report Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Marine Wind Farms and Cetaceans Doleman, S., Simmonds, M., Keith, S. May 2003 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Towards Best Environmental Practice for Cetacean Conservation in Developing Scotland's Marine Renewable Energy Dolman, S., Simmonds, M. September 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Burbo Bank Extension Offshore Wind Farm Volume 2: ES Biological Environment DONG Energy March 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Danish Offshore Wind: Key Environmental Issues DONG Energy, et al. November 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
Review Report 2005: The Danish Offshore Wind Farm Demonstration Project: Horns Rev and Nysted Offshore Wind Farms Environmental Impact Assessment and Monitoring DONG Energy, Vattenfall November 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Environmental Impacts of Offshore Wind Power Production in the North Sea Draget, E. January 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals

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