Knowledge Base

The Knowledge Base provides access to information about the environmental effects of marine and wind energy, supporting OES-Environmental and WREN initiatives. Relevant documents and OES-Environmental metadata forms are compiled into a user-friendly table with advanced filtering. Filters may be selected on the right, or keywords entered in the Search Text box. Content may also be sorted alphabetically by clicking on column headers. More entries will load as you scroll down.


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Title Author* Date**sort descending Type of Content Technology Types Stressors Receptors
Raptor Baseline Studies in Energy Development Kennedy, P. June 1980 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
A Methodology for Assessment of Wind Turbine Noise Generation Kelley, N., Hemphill, R., McKenna, H. May 1982 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise N/A
Bird Movements and Collision Mortality at a Large Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine Byrne, S. January 1983 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Waterfowl
Environmental Aspects of Large-Scale Wind-Power Systems in the UK Robson, A. December 1983 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Noise Birds, Socio-economics, Aesthetics, Stakeholder Engagement
Wind Energy Development in California, USA Wilshire, H., Prose, D. January 1987 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A N/A
Vogels en windturbines (Birds and windturbines) Winkelman, J. January 1987 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Research Program Concerning the Social and Environmental Aspects Related to the Windfarm Project of SEP Lubbers, F. January 1988 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Wind Farm Location and Environmental Impact Clarke, A. January 1989 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise, Static Device Birds
An improved marine radar system for studies of bird migration Cooper, B., et al. January 1991 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds
Risks and Benefits of Wind Generated Electricity: Facts and Perceptions Bosley, P., Bosley, K. January 1992 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
The Effects of Aero-Generators on Moorland Bird Populations in the Orkney Islands, Scotland Meek, E., et al. January 1993 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds
Wind Power and Planning: The Environmental Impact of Windfarms in the UK Coles, R., Taylor, J. July 1993 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Noise, Static Device Birds, Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Nocturnal Bird Migration in the Negev (Israel) - a Tracking Radar Study Bruderer, B. June 1994 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Birds
Bat Collisions with Wind Turbines in Southwestern Minnesota Osborn, R., et al. January 1996 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Bird Casualties Caused by a Wind Energy Project in an Estuary Musters, C., Noordervliet, M., terKeurs, W. March 1996 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
Using a Collision Model to Design Safer Wind Turbine Rotors for Birds Tucker, V. November 1996 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
A Mathematical Model of Bird Collisions With Wind Turbine Rotors Tucker, V. November 1996 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Birds
Effects of Wind Turbines on Nesting Raptors at Buffalo Ridge in Southwestern Minnesota Usgaard, R., et al. January 1997 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors
Bird Mortality at Rotor Swept Area Equivalents, Altamont Pass and Montezuma Hills, California Howell, J. January 1997 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Nocturnal Flight Patterns and Altitudes of Diving Ducks in the IJsselmeer Area Dirksen, S., et al. December 1997 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Waterfowl
Bird Flight Characteristics Near Wind Turbines in Minnesota Osborn, R., et al. January 1998 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Passerines, Waterfowl
Using Marine Surveillance Radar to Study Bird Movements and Impact Assessment Harmata, A., et al. April 1999 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Behaviour of migrating birds exposed to X-band radar and a bright light beam Bruderer, B., Peter, D., Steuri, T. May 1999 Journal Article Wind Energy general EMF, Lighting Birds
Effects of Wind Turbines on Upland Nesting Birds in Conservation Reserve Program Grasslands Leddy, K., Higgins, K., Naugle, D. September 1999 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Passerines
Bird Mortality Associated with Wind Turbines at the Buffalo Ridge Wind Resource Area, Minnesota Osborn, R., et al. January 2000 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Environmental Characteristics of Desert Tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) Burrow Locations in an Altered Industrial Landscape Lovich, J., Daniels, R. January 2000 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A N/A
The Likely Adverse Environmental Impacts of Renewable Energy Sources Abbasi, S., Abbasi, N. April 2000 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A N/A
Life Cycle Assessment of a Wind Farm and Related Externalities Schleisner, L. July 2000 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Socio-economics, Life Cycle Assessment
Effects of Wind Turbines and Other Physical Elements on Field Utilization by Pink-Footed Geese (Anser brachyrhynchus): A Landscape Perspective Larsen, J., Madsen, J. December 2000 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Habitat Change Birds, Waterfowl
Golden Eagles in a Multiple Land-Use Environment: A Case Study in Conflict Management Madders, M., Walker, D. January 2002 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Raptors
Potential Wind Park Impacts on Whooper Swans in Winter: The Risk of Collision Larsen, J., Clausen, P. January 2002 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Waterfowl
Recommendations for project-related studies of possible impacts of marine wind farms during construction and operation on birds Hüppop, O., Exo, K., Garthe, S. January 2002 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds
Using conjoint analysis to quantify public preferences over the environmental impacts of wind farms. An example from Spain Alvarez-Farizo, B., Hanley, N. January 2002 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) N/A Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Postdevelopment Experiments to Detect Anthropogenic Disturbances: The Case of Sea Ducks and Wind Parks Guillemette, M., Larsen, J. June 2002 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Waterfowl
The Role of the DPSIR Approach and Conceptual Models in Marine Environmental Management: An Example for Offshore Wind Power Elliott, M. June 2002 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Technologies and their Influence on Future UK Marine Resource Development and Management Side, J., Jowitt, P. July 2002 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Energy and CO2 Life-Cycle Analyses of Wind Turbines - Review and Applications Lenzen, M., Munksgaard, J. July 2002 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) N/A Human Dimensions, Life Cycle Assessment
Collision Mortality of Local and Migrant Birds at a Large-Scale Wind-Power Development on Buffalo Ridge, Minnesota Johnson, G., et al. August 2002 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
Evaluation of Wind Turbine Noise DeGagne, D., Lewis, A., May, C. September 2002 Journal Article Wind Energy general Noise N/A
Life-Cycle Assessment of Electricity Generation Options: The Status of Research in the Year 2001 Gagnon, L., Bélanger, C., Uchiyama, Y. November 2002 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Socio-economics, Life Cycle Assessment
Renewable Energy from the Ocean Pelc, R., Fujita, R. November 2002 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Mortality of Bats at a Large-Scale Wind Power Development at Buffalo Ridge, Minnesota Johnson, G., et al. January 2003 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Guidelines for Wind Power and Wildlife in Washington State, USA Ling, S., Linehan, A. January 2003 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Wind Turbines and Birds in Flanders: Preliminary Study Results and Recommendations Everaert, J. January 2003 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Birds
Two White-Tailed Sea Eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla) Collide with Wind Generators in Northern Germany Krone, O., Scharnweber, C. March 2003 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
Birds and Offshore Wind Farms: A Hot Topic in Marine Ecology Exo, K., Hüppop, O., Garthe, S. April 2003 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Birds, Seabirds, Ecosystem Processes, Nearfield Habitat
Offshore Wind Turbine Wakes Measured by Sodar Barthelmie, J., et al. April 2003 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
The Potential for Electricity Generation from On-Shore Wind Energy Under the Constraints of Nature Conservation: A Case Study for Two Regions in Germany Krewitt, W., Nitsch, J. August 2003 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A N/A
A Vehicle-Mounted Radar for Dual-Purpose Monitoring of Birds Harmata, A., Leighty, G., O'Neil, E. September 2003 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Behavioural Reactions of Free-Ranging Porpoises and Seals to the Noise of a Simulated 2 MW Windpower Generator Koschinski, S., et al. December 2003 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Extensive Open Ocean Aquaculture Development Within Wind Farms in Germany: The Prospect of Offshore Co-Management and Legal Constraints Buck, B., Krause, G., Rosenthal, H. January 2004 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Fish, Socio-economics
Managing Offshore Wind Developments in the United States: Legal, Environmental and Social Considerations using a Case Study in Nantucket Sound Santora, C., Hade, N., Odell, J. January 2004 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Effects of Wind Turbines on Area Use and Behaviour of Semi-Domestic Reindeer in Enclosures Flydal, K., et al. January 2004 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device N/A
Bat Deaths and Wind Turbines - A Review of Current Knowledge, and of the Information Available in the Database for Germany Durr, T., Bach, L. January 2004 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Exploitation of Renewable Energy Sources and Sustainable Management of the Territory: Wind Farms in Regione Liguria Solari, P., Minervini, G. January 2004 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Summary of Wind Turbine Impacts on Bats - Assessment of a Conflict Bach, L., Rahmel, U. January 2004 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Bats
Wind Turbines and Bats - Guidelines for an Assessment Study and for Planning Aspects Rahmel, U., et al. January 2004 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Bats
The Effects of a Wind Farm on Birds in a Migration Point: The Strait of Gibraltar de Lucas, M., Janss, G., Ferrer, M. February 2004 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Avoidance, Habitat Change Birds, Passerines
Behavioural and Environmental Correlates of Soaring-Bird Mortality at On-Shore Wind Turbines Barrios, L., Rodríguez, A. February 2004 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Scaling Possible Adverse Effects of Marine Wind Farms on Seabirds: Developing and Applying a Vulnerability Index Garthe, S., Hüppop, O. July 2004 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds
Bird Monitoring at Toronto's Exhibition Place Wind Turbine James, R., Coady, G. August 2004 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Can Large Wind Farms Affect Local Meteorology? Baidya Roy, S., Pacala, S., Walko, R. October 2004 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Nearfield Habitat
Life Cycle Assessment for Emerging Technologies: Case Studies for Photovoltaic and Wind Power Jungbluth, N., et al. November 2004 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Socio-economics, Life Cycle Assessment
The Influence Of Large-Scale Wind Power On Global Climate Keith, D., et al. November 2004 Journal Article Wind Energy general Energy Removal Farfield Environment, Socio-economics, Climate Change
Bat Activity, Composition, and Collision Mortality At a Large Wind Plant in Minnesota Johnson, G., et al. December 2004 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Offshore Wind Farms and Commercial Fisheries in the UK: A Study in Stakeholder Consultation Gray, T., Haggett, C., Bell, D. January 2005 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Fishing, Stakeholder Engagement
Behavior of Red-Tailed Hawks in a Wind Turbine Development Hoover, S., Morrison, M. January 2005 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors
Resident Golden Eagle Ranging Behaviour Before and After Construction of a Windfarm in Argyll Walker, D., et al. January 2005 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Raptors
The Offshore Wind Power Debate: Views from Cape Cod Kempton, W., et al. January 2005 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Socio-economics
Environmental Assessment Studies on wind turbines and bat populations - a step towards best practice guidelines N/A January 2005 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Hearing in Fish and their Reactions to Sounds from Offshore Wind Farms Wahlberg, M., Westerberg, H. March 2005 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Inshore-Offshore Comparison of Parasite Infestation in Mytilus edulis: Implications for Open Ocean Aquaculture Buck, B., et al. April 2005 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Socio-economics
Avian Collision Risk at an Offshore Wind Farm Desholm, M., Kahlert, J. June 2005 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Waterfowl
The Potential for Cooperative Management of Elasmobranchs and Offshore Renewable Energy Development in UK Waters Gill, A., Kimber, J. October 2005 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Fish
Wake Effects of Large Offshore Wind Farms Identified from Satellite SAR Christiansen, M., Hasager, C. October 2005 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Farfield Environment
A Bird and Small Mammal BACI and IG Design Studies in a Wind Farm in Malpica (Spain) de Lucas, M., Janss, G., Ferrer, M. December 2005 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
Response of Offshore Cultivated Laminaria saccharina to Hydrodynamic Forcing in the North Sea Buck, B., Buchholz, C. December 2005 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Tilting at Offshore Windmills: Regulating Wind Farm Development Within the Renewable Energy Zone Scott, K. December 2005 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Impacts of Offshore Wind Farm Construction on Harbour Porpoises: Acoustic Monitoring of Echolocation Activity using Porpoise Detectors (T-PODs) Carstensen, J., Henriksen, O., Teilmann, J. January 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise, Static Device Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Monitoring the Potential Impact of A Wind Development Site on Bats in the Northeast Reynolds, D. January 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Wind Turbine Noise - An Overview Bastasch, T., et al. January 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general Noise N/A
Environmental Noise Assessment of Wind Farms Lightstone, A. January 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general Noise N/A
Recent Developments in Environmental Assessment Methods for Wind Turbine Noise Howe, B., McCabe, N. January 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general Noise N/A
Likely Sensitivity of Bottlenose Dolphins to Pile-Driving Noise David, J. January 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Offshore Windmill Farms: Threats to or Possibilities for the Marine Environment Petersen, J., Malm, T. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Nearfield Habitat
Distribution and Behaviour of Common Scoter Melanitta nigra Relative to Prey Resources and Environmental Parameters Kaiser, M., et al. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Waterfowl, Ecosystem
The Development and Use of Individuals-Based Models to Predict the Effects of Habitat Loss and Disturbance on Waders and Waterfowl West, A., Caldow, R. March 2006 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Shorebirds, Waterfowl, Nearfield Habitat
Conference plenary discussion, conclusions and recommendations Langston, R., Fox, A., Drewitt, A. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A N/A
Opening address to Wind, Fire and Water: Renewable Energy and Birds Morley, E. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A N/A
The Influence Of Offshore Windpower On Demersal Fish Wilhelmsson, D., Malm, T., Öhman, M. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Attraction, Habitat Change Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Wind Turbine Underwater Noise and Marine Mammals: Implications of Current Knowledge and Data Needs Madsen, P., et al. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
The British Ornithologists' Union Annual Spring Conference 2005 University of Leicester, 1-3 April 2005 Lanchbery, J., et al. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Birds
Bird Migration Studies and Potential Collision Risk with Offshore Wind Turbines Hüppop, O., et al. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Passerines
Radio Telemetry as a Tool for Impact Assessment of Wind Farms: The Case of Little Terns Sterna albifrons at Scroby Sands, Norfolk, UK Perrow, M., et al. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Seabirds
Remote Techniques for Counting and Estimating the Number of Bird-Wind Turbine Collisions at Sea: A Review Desholm, M., et al. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Assessing the Impacts of Wind Farms on Birds Drewitt, A., Langston, R. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Birds
Information Needs to Support Environmental Impact Assessments of the Effects of European Marine Offshore Wind Farms on Birds Fox, A., et al. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Seabirds, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Upland Raptors and the Assessment of Wind Farm Impacts Madders, M., Whitfield, D. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Raptors
The Effect of Avoidance Rates on Bird Mortality Predictions Made by Wind Turbine Collision Risk Models Chamberlain, D., et al. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Avoidance, Collision Birds, Raptors, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Acoustic and Geophysical Measurement of Infrasound from Wind Farm Turbines Hepburn, H. June 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general Noise N/A

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