Knowledge Base

The Knowledge Base provides access to information about the environmental effects of marine and wind energy, supporting OES-Environmental and WREN initiatives. Relevant documents and OES-Environmental metadata forms are compiled into a user-friendly table with advanced filtering. Filters may be selected on the right, or keywords entered in the Search Text box. Content may also be sorted alphabetically by clicking on column headers.


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Title Author*sort descending Date** Type of Content Technology Types Stressors Receptors
A New Stochastic Dynamic Tool to Improve the Accuracy of Mortality Estimates for Bats Killed at Wind Farms Bastos, R., Santos, M., Cabral, J. November 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
A comparative assessment of proposed offshore wind power demonstration projects in the United States Bates, A., Firestone, J. November 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Estimating the Indirect Impact of Wind Farms on Breeding Bird Assemblages: A Case Study in the Central Apennines Battisti, C., et al. August 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
Positive energies? An empirical study of community energy participation and attitudes to renewable energy Bauwens, T., Devine-Wright, P. July 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
Predicting Eagle Fatalities at Wind Facilities Bay, K., et al. August 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Modelling Human Impacts on the Tasmanian Wedge-Tailed Eagle (Aquila audax fleayi) Bekessy, S., et al. November 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds, Raptors
Predicting and Mapping Potential Whooping Crane Stopover Habitat to Guide Site Selection for Wind Energy Projects Belaire, J., et al. December 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
Wind Turbine Fatalities Approach a Level of Concern in a Raptor Population Bellebaum, J., et al. December 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
A Sustainability Index of Potential Co-Location of Offshore Wind Farms and Open Water Aquaculture Benassai, G., et al. July 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Ecosystem Processes, Human Dimensions
The Impacts of Roads and other Infrastructure on Mammal and Bird Populations: A Meta-Analysis Benitez-Lopez, A., Alkemade, R., Verweij, P. June 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds, Terrestrial Mammals
Effect of Wind Turbine Proximity on Nesting Success in Shrub-nesting Birds Bennett, V., et al. October 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
Resource Availability May Not Be a Useful Predictor of Migratory Bat Fatalities or Activity at Wind Turbines Bennett, V., Hale, A. June 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction Bats
When the Excrement Hits the Fan: Fecal Surveys Reveal Species-Specific Bat Activity at Wind Turbines Bennett, V., Hale, A., Williams, D. November 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Collision Bats
Effects of Offshore Wind Farms on Marine Wildlife - A Generalized Impact Assessment Bergström, L., et al. March 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
Effects of an Offshore Wind Farm on Temporal and Spatial Patterns in the Demersal Fish Community Bergström, L., Sundqvist, F., Bergström, U. June 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Fish
Decision Bias in Marine Spatial Planning of Offshore Wind Farms: Problems of Singular Versus Cumulative Assessments of Economic Impacts on Fisheries Berkenhagen, J., et al. May 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
Blown in the Wind: Bats and Wind Farms in Brazil Bernard, E., et al. December 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Guidelines for Consideration of Bats in Environmental Impact Assessment of Wind Farms in Brazil: A Collaborative Governance Experience from Rio Grande Do Sul State Bernard, E., et al. January 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Enhancing Carcass Removal Trials at Three Wind Energy Facilities in Portugal Bernardino, J., et al. December 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Estimating Bird and Bat Fatality at Wind Farms: A Practical Overview of Estimators, their Assumptions and Limitations Bernardino, J., et al. February 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Influence of Concrete Mix Design on CO2 Emissions for Large Wind Turbine Foundations Berndt, M. November 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Climate Change
Sediment Transport Patterns at Trafalgar Offshore Windfarm Besio, G., Losada, M. May 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment, Sediment Transport
Past, present and future environmental footprint of the Danish wind turbine fleet with LCA_WIND_DK, an online interactive platform Besseau, R., et al. July 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) N/A Human Dimensions, Life Cycle Assessment
Minimizing wildlife impacts for offshore wind energy development: Winning tradeoffs for seabirds in space and cetaceans in time Best, B., Halpin, P. May 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Noise Birds, Seabirds, Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Insufficient Sampling to Identify Species Affected by Turbine Collisions Beston, J., Diffendorfer, J., Loss, S. April 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Prioritizing Avian Species for Their Risk of Population Level Consequences from Wind Energy Development Beston, J., et al. March 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Camera technology for monitoring marine biodiversity and human impact Bicknell, A., et al. October 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Fish, Invertebrates, Human Dimensions
Survey of Bat Mortalities at a Wind-Energy Facility in North Dakota Bicknell, L., Gilliam, E. June 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Bat Mortalities at a Wind Energy Facility in North Dakota Bicknell, L., Gilliam, E. November 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision Bats
Ocean Beliefs and Support for an Offshore Wind Energy Project Bidwell, D. September 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Estimating the Political, Economic and Environmental Factors' Impact on the Installed Wind Capacity Development: A System GMM Approach Biresselioglu, M., et al. October 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Farfield Environment, Socio-economics
NEPA Review of Offshore Wind Farms: Ensuring Emission Reduction Benefits Outweigh Visual Impacts Bisbee, D. January 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Aesthetics
The implications for visual simulation and analysis of temporal variation in the visibility of wind turbines Bishop, I. April 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Socio-economics, Aesthetics
Visual assessment of off-shore wind turbines: The influence of distance, contrast, movement and social variables Bishop, I., Miller, D. April 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Modeling Carcass Removal Time for Avian Mortality Assessment in Wind Farms Using Survival Analysis Bispo, R., et al. March 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Recent Developments of Ocean Environmental Description with Focus on Uncertainties Bitner-Gregersen, E., et al. August 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Nearfield Habitat
Experimental Evidence for the Effects of Chronic Anthropogenic Noise on Abundance of Greater Sage-Grouse at Leks Blickley, J., Blackwood, D., Patricelli, G. May 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise Birds
Experimental Chronic Noise Is Related to Elevated Fecal Corticosteroid Metabolites in Lekking Male Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) Blickley, J., et al. November 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise Birds
Impacts of Anthropogenic Noise on Wildlife: Research Priorities for the Development of Standards and Mitigation Blickley, J., Patricelli, G. November 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general Noise N/A
Multi-use of the sea: A wide array of opportunities from site-specific cases across Europe Bocci, M., et al. April 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Environmental and Ecological Effects of Ocean Renewable Energy Development: A Current Synthesis Boehlert, G., Gill, A. June 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Welcoming the Wind? Determinants of Wind Power Development Among U.S. States Bohn, C., Lant, C. January 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Socio-economics, Aesthetics, Stakeholder Engagement
Optimizing Wind Power Generation while Minimizing Wildlife Impacts in an Urban Area Bohrer, G., et al. February 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Long Term Estimations of Low Frequency Noise Levels over Water from an Off-Shore Wind Farm Bolin, K., et al. January 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Bats in a tropical wind farm: species composition and importance of the spatial attributes of vegetation cover on bat fatalities Bolivar-Cime, B., et al. July 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Common Sole Larvae Survive High Levels of Pile-Driving Sound in Controlled Exposure Experiments Bolle, L., et al. March 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Assessing use-use interactions at sea: A theoretical framework for spatial decision support tools facilitating co-location in maritime spatial planning Bonnevie, I., Hansen, H., Schrøder, L. August 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
An Investigation of the Wind Induced Background Sound Levels in Rural Areas for Existing and Proposed Wind Farms Bonsma, I., Munro, M. September 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general Noise N/A
Bird collision with power lines: estimating carcass persistence and detection associated with ground search surveys Borner, L., et al. December 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
Marine Renewable Energy Seascape Borthwick, A. March 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Collision sensitive niche profile of the worst affected bird-groups at wind turbine structures in the Federal State of Brandenburg, Germany Bose, A., et al. February 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Risks and Benefits of Wind Generated Electricity: Facts and Perceptions Bosley, P., Bosley, K. January 1992 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Public perceptions of and responses to new energy technologies Boudet, H. May 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General) N/A Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Environmental Impacts of Balancing Offshore Wind Power with Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) Bouman, E., Øberg, M., Hertwich, E. January 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment, Life Cycle Assessment
Towards a Cumulative Collision Risk Assessment of Local and Migrating Birds in North Sea Offshore Wind Farms Brabant, R., et al. September 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Passerines, Seabirds
Mapping Seabird Sensitivity to Offshore Wind Farms Bradbury, G., et al. September 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision, Displacement Birds
Home in the heat: Dramatic seasonal variation in home range of desert golden eagles informs management for renewable energy development Braham, M., et al. June 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Raptors
Responses of Harbour Porpoises to Pile Driving at the Horns Rev II Offshore Wind Farm in the Danish North Sea Brandt, M., et al. January 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Seal Scarers as a Tool to Deter Harbour Porpoises from Offshore Construction Sites Brandt, M., et al. February 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Effects of Offshore Pile Driving on Harbor Porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) Brandt, M., et al. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Do man-made structures and water depth affect the diel rhythms in click recordings of harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena)? Brandt, M., et al. July 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Marine Mammals
Disturbance of harbour porpoises during construction of the first seven offshore wind farms in Germany Brandt, M., et al. May 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Noise Marine Mammals
Expected Effects of Offshore Wind Farms on Mediterranean Marine Life Bray, L., et al. March 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Ecosystem
Assessing larval connectivity for marine spatial planning in the Adriatic Bray, L., Kassis, D., Hall-Spencer, J. April 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Invertebrates, Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
Maritime Route Delineation using AIS Data from the Atlantic Coast of the US Breithaupt, S., et al. March 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Navigation
Wind farm externalities and public preferences for community consultation in Ireland: A discrete choice experiments approach Brennan, N., Van Rensburg, T. July 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
Map of Bird Sensitivities to Wind Farms in Scotland: A Tool to Aid Planning and Conservation Bright, J., et al. September 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Birds
Spatial Overlap of Wind Farms on Peatland with Sensitive Areas for Birds Bright, J., et al. September 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
Effects of a wind farm installation on the understory bat community of a highly biodiverse tropical region in Mexico Briones-Salas, M., Lavariega, M., Moreno, C. June 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Bats
Refusal of planning consent for the Docking Shoal offshore wind farm: Stakeholder perspectives and lessons learned Broadbent, I., Nixon, C. June 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment, Legal & Policy, Stakeholder Engagement
Broad-Scale Acoustic Monitoring for Cetaceans and Underwater Noise in Relation to Offshore Wind Farm Construction in Scotland Brookes, K., et al. June 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
On The Influence Of Large Wind Farms On The Upper Ocean Circulation Broström, G. November 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Is There a Conflict Between Cetacean Conservation and Marine Renewable-Energy Developments? Brown, V., Simmonds, M. December 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Place attachment and marine recreationists' attitudes toward offshore wind energy development Brownlee, M., et al. December 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Recreation
Nocturnal Bird Migration in the Negev (Israel) - a Tracking Radar Study Bruderer, B. June 1994 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Birds
Behaviour of migrating birds exposed to X-band radar and a bright light beam Bruderer, B., Peter, D., Steuri, T. May 1999 Journal Article Wind Energy general EMF, Lighting Birds
Not in my hiking trail? Acceptance of wind farms in the Austrian Alps Brudermann, T., Zaman, R., Posch, A. July 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Recreation & Tourism, Social & Economic Data
The prosecutor's vulture: inconsistent MBTA prosecution, its clash with wind farms, and how to fix it Brunner, S. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Response of Offshore Cultivated Laminaria saccharina to Hydrodynamic Forcing in the North Sea Buck, B., Buchholz, C. December 2005 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Inshore-Offshore Comparison of Parasite Infestation in Mytilus edulis: Implications for Open Ocean Aquaculture Buck, B., et al. April 2005 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Invertebrates, Human Dimensions, Fisheries
Meeting the Quest for Spatial Efficiency: Progress and Prospects of Extensive Aquaculture within Offshore Wind Farms Buck, B., et al. May 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Extensive Open Ocean Aquaculture Development Within Wind Farms in Germany: The Prospect of Offshore Co-Management and Legal Constraints Buck, B., Krause, G., Rosenthal, H. January 2004 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Aerial Survey of Seabirds: The Advent of Digital Methods Buckland, S., et al. August 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds
Post-Construction Avian Mortality Monitoring at Project West Wind Bull, L., Fuller, S., Sim, D. February 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Hidden outlaws in the forest? A legal and spatial analysis of onshore wind energy in Germany Bunzel, K., et al. September 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Socio-Economics, Legal and Policy
Oil and gas infrastructure decommissioning in marine protected areas: System complexity, analysis and challenges Burdon, D., et al. October 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Risk Evaluation for Federally Listed (Roseate Tern, Piping Plover) or Candidate (Red Knot) Bird Species in Offshore Waters: A First Step for Managing the Potential Impacts of Wind Facility Development on the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf Burger, J., et al. January 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Farfield Environment
Using a Shore Bird (Red Knot) Fitted with Geolocators to Evaluate a Conceptual Risk Model Focusing on Offshore Wind Burger, J., et al. July 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision Birds, Shorebirds
Ecosystem Based Modeling and Indication of Ecological Integrity in the German North Sea - Case Study Offshore Wind Parks Burkhard, B., et al. August 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Ecosystem
Establishing the Resilience of a Coastal-marine Social-ecological System to the Installation of Offshore Wind Farms Burkhard, B., Gee, K. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Noctule Bats and Wind Turbines Burrows, L. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats
Consequences of a Cumulative Perspective on Marine Environmental Impacts: Offshore Wind Farming and Seabirds at North Sea Scale in Context of the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive Busch, M., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Farfield Environment
Approaching Population Thresholds in Presence of Uncertainty: Assessing Displacement of Seabirds from Offshore Wind Farms Busch, M., Garthe, S. January 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Displacement Birds, Seabirds
Public Opinion and the Environmental, Economic and Aesthetic Impacts of Offshore Wind Bush, D., Hoagland, P. February 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Aesthetics, Stakeholder Engagement
Bird Movements and Collision Mortality at a Large Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine Byrne, S. January 1983 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Waterfowl
Valuation of Ecological and Amenity Impacts of an Offshore Windfarm as a Factor in Marine Planning Börger, T., Hooper, T., Austen, M. December 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Visual Impacts
Response of migrating raptors to an increasing number of wind farms Cabrera-Cruz, S., Villegas-Patraca, R. December 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Raptors
Fragmented authorities, institutional misalignments, and challenges to renewable energy transition: A case study of wind power curtailment in China Cai, Y., Aoyama, Y. July 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Socio-Economics, Legal and Policy
Diurnal and nocturnal ranging behaviour by moorland-breeding Short-eared Owls Asio flammeus in Scotland Calladine, J., Morrison, N. October 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
A synthesis of human-related avian mortality in Canada Calvert, A., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds

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