Knowledge Base

The Knowledge Base provides access to information about the environmental effects of marine and wind energy, supporting OES-Environmental and WREN initiatives. Relevant documents and OES-Environmental metadata forms are compiled into a user-friendly table with advanced filtering. Filters may be selected on the right, or keywords entered in the Search Text box. Content may also be sorted alphabetically by clicking on column headers. More entries will load as you scroll down.


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Title Author*sort descending Date** Type of Content Technology Types Stressors Receptors
Assessment and Costs of Potential Engineering Solutions for the Mitigation of the Impacts of Underwater Noise Arising from the Construction of Offshore Windfarms Nehls, G., et al. September 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Impulsive Sounds Change European Seabass Swimming Patterns: Influence of Pulse Repetition Interval Neo, Y., et al. August 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Underwater Noise Produced by the Piling Activities During the Construction of the Belwind Offshore Wind Farm (Bligh Bank, Belgian Marine Waters) Norro, A., et al. January 2010 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Differentiating Between Underwater Construction Noise of Monopile and Jacket Foundations for Offshore Windmills: A Case Study from the Belgian Part of the North Sea Norro, A., Rumes, B., Degraer, S. February 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Responsible Practices for Minimizing and Monitoring Environmental Impacts of Marine Seismic Surveys with an Emphasis on Marine Mammals Nowacek, D., et al. November 2013 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals
Responses of Cetaceans to Anthropogenic Noise Nowacek, D., et al. April 2007 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
North Atlantic Right Whales (Eubalaena glacialis) Ignore Ships but Respond to Alerting Stimuli Nowacek, D., Johnson, M., Tyack, P. February 2004 Journal Article N/A Attraction, Collision, Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Human Dimensions, Navigation
Harnessing the Wind: How to Advance Wind Power Offshore NRDC July 2019 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Noise N/A
Avoidance Responses of Loggerhead Turtles, Caretta caretta, to Low Frequency Sound O'Hara, J., Wilcox, J. June 1990 Journal Article N/A Noise Sea Turtles
Low Frequency Noise and Infrasound from Wind Turbines O'Neal, R., Hellweg, R., Lampeter, R. March 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general Noise N/A
Low-Frequency Sound and Marine Mammals: Current Knowledge and Research Needs Ocean Studies Board January 1994 Book Chapter N/A Noise Marine Mammals
Effect of the Sound Generated by an Acoustic Harassment Device on the Relative Abundance and Distribution of Harbor Porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) in Retreat Passage, British Columbia Olesiuk, P., et al. October 2002 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals
Modeling of Underwater Noise from Pile Driving using Coupled Finite Element and Parabolic Equation Model with Improved Parabolic Equation Starting Field Park, J., Seong, W., Lee, K. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Short- and long-term changes in right whale calling behavior: The potential effects of noise on acoustic communication Parks, S., Clark, C. December 2007 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Individual right whales call louder in increased environmental noise Parks, S., et al. April 2010 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
The Acoustics And Acoustic Behavior Of The California Spiny Lobster (Panulirus Interruptus) Patek, S., Shipp, L., Staaterman, E. January 2009 Journal Article N/A Noise Benthic Invertebrates
Wave Energy and Underwater Noise: Assessment and Monitoring Aspects Patricio, S., Soares, C. August 2010 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Noise N/A
Strategic Review of Offshore Wind Farm Monitoring Data Associated with FEPA Licence Conditions: Underwater Noise Pattenden, A., Thomsen, F., Walker, R. January 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Human Perception of Sound from Wind Turbines Pedersen, E., Forssén, J., Waye, K. June 2010 Report Wind Energy general Noise Socio-economics, Aesthetics
Noise in the Sea and Its Impacts on Marine Organisms Peng, C., Zhao, X., Liu, G. September 2015 Journal Article N/A Noise Fish, Marine Mammals
Effects of the Construction of Scroby Sands Offshore Wind Farm on the Prey Base of Little Tern Sternula albifons at its Most Important UK Colony Perrow, M., et al. August 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Birds, Seabirds, Ecosystem, Fish
Risks to Birds and Wildlife from Offshore Wind Farms: BOEMRE NC Task Force Peterson, C. May 2011 Presentation Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise, Static Device Bats, Birds, Passerines, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles
Turbine Sound May Influence the Metamorphosis Behaviour of Estuarine Crab Megalopae Pine, M., Jeffs, A., Radford, C. December 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Benthic Invertebrates
The Cumulative Effect on Sound Levels from Multiple Underwater Anthropogenic Sound Sources in Shallow Coastal Waters Pine, M., Jeffs, A., Radford, C. February 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Underwater Hearing Sensitivity of the Leatherback Sea Turtle (Dermochelys coriacea): Assessing the Potential Effect of Anthropogenic Noise Piniak, W., et al. September 2012 Report N/A Noise Sea Turtles
Anthropogenic Sound: Effects on the Behavior and Physiology of Fishes Popper, A., et al. December 2003 Journal Article N/A Noise Fish
The Effects Of Anthropogenic Sources Of Sound On Fishes Popper, A., Hastings, M. January 2009 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
The Effects of Human-Generated Sound on Fish Popper, A., Hastings, M. January 2009 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
The Effects of Noise on Aquatic Life Popper, A., Hawkins, A. January 2012 Book N/A Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Fish, Marine Mammals
The Effects of Noise on Aquatic Life II Popper, A., Hawkins, A. January 2016 Book N/A Noise N/A
Vessel noise cuts down communication space for vocalizing fish and marine mammals Putland, R., et al. November 2017 Journal Article N/A Noise Fish, Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Coherence Extrapolation for Underwater Ambient Noise Quijano, J., et al. May 2014 Journal Article N/A Noise N/A
The Effects of Wind Turbines on Antipredator Behavior in California Ground Squirrels (Spermophilus beecheyi) Rabin, L., Coss, R., Owings, D. August 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Noise Birds, Raptors, Ecosystem Processes, Terrestrial Mammals
Temporal Patterns In Ambient Noise Of Biological Origin From A Shallow Water Temperate Reef Radford, C., et al. May 2008 Journal Article N/A Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
Underwater Noise: Sources and Effects on Marine Life Rako-Gospić, N., Picciulin, M. January 2019 Book Chapter N/A Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Fish, Marine Mammals
Wind Turbine Noise and Meteorological Influences Ramakrishnan, R., Sylvestre-Williams, N. September 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy general Noise N/A
The Theory of Sound Rayleigh, J. April 1877 Book N/A Noise N/A
Grassland bird community and acoustic complexity appear unaffected by proximity to a wind energy facility in the Nebraska Sandhills Raynor, E., et al. August 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise Birds
Underwater Mach Wave Radiation from Impact Pile Driving: Theory and Observation Reinhall, P., Dahl, P. September 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Aquatic Acoustic Metrics Interface Utility for Underwater Sound Monitoring and Analysis Ren, H., et al. May 2012 Journal Article N/A Noise Fish, Marine Mammals
Massachusetts Study on Wind Turbine Acoustics Resource Systems Group February 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise N/A
Variation of ocean acoustic environments along the western North Atlantic coast: A case study in context of the right whale migration route Rice, A., et al. May 2014 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Influences of Man-Made Noise and Other Human Actions on Cetacean Behaviour Richardson, W., Würsig, B. January 1997 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Hearing in the Giant Sea Turtle, Chelonia mydas Ridgway, S., et al. August 1969 Journal Article N/A Noise Sea Turtles
Changes in Humpback Whale Song Occurrence in Response to an Acoustic Source 200 km Away Risch, D., et al. January 2012 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Exposure of benthic invertebrates to sediment vibration: From laboratory experiments to outdoor simulated pile-driving Roberts, L., et al. October 2016 Conference Paper N/A Noise Benthic Invertebrates
Sensitivity of the Mussel Mytilus edulis to Substrate-Borne Vibration in Relation to Anthropogenically Generated Noise Roberts, L., et al. October 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Benthic Invertebrates
Use of Baited Remote Underwater Video (BRUV) and Motion Analysis for Studying the Impacts of Underwater Noise upon Free Ranging Fish and Implications for Marine Energy Management Roberts, L., Perez-Dominguez, R., Elliott, M. November 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
The Measurement of the Underwater Radiated Noise from Marine Piling Including Characterisation of a "Soft Start" Period Robinson, S., Lepper, P., Ablitt, J. June 2007 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Underwater Noise Generated from Marine Piling Robinson, S., Theobald, P., Lepper, P. January 2013 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Environmental Aspects of Large-Scale Wind-Power Systems in the UK Robson, A. December 1983 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Noise Birds, Socio-economics, Aesthetics, Stakeholder Engagement
Source Levels of the Underwater Calls of a Male Leopard Seal Rogers, T. October 2014 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Effects of noise-mitigated offshore pile driving on harbour porpoise abundance in the German Bight 2014-2016 (Gescha 2) Rose, A., et al. June 2019 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Eco-Hydro-Acoustic Modeling and its Use as an EIA Tool Rossington, K., et al. October 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Assessing Auditory Evoked Potentials of Wild Harbor Porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) Ruser, A., et al. July 2016 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals
Avoidance of Wind Farms by Harbour Seals is Limited to Pile Driving Activities Russell, D., et al. May 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Evaluations of Wind Potential in Dobrogea Plateau Sabafu, A., Tudor, D. January 2013 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise Birds
How Does Wind Turbine Noise Affect People? Salt, A., Lichtenhan, J. January 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise N/A
Detection of Infrasound in Fish and Behavioral Responses to Intense Infrasound in Juvenile Salmonids and European Silver Eels: A Minireview Sand, O., et al. January 2001 Conference Paper N/A Noise Fish
Marine Protected Areas and Offshore Wind Farms Sanders, N., Haynes, T., Goriup, P. March 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Noise Marine Mammals
Effect of boat noise on the behaviour of bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus in the Mediterranean Sea Sarà, G., et al. February 2007 Journal Article N/A Noise Fish
Ormonde Offshore Wind Farm 2010 Construction Environmental Monitoring Report Saunders, S. January 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal, Noise Birds, Waterfowl, Marine Mammals
A Computational Method to Predict and Study Underwater Noise due to Pile Driving Schecklman, S., et al. July 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Health Effects Related to Wind Turbine Noise Exposure: A Systematic Review Schmidt, J., Klokker, M. December 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise Socio-economics
Effects of underwater noise on auditory sensitivity of a cyprinid fish Scholik, A., Yan, H. February 2001 Journal Article N/A Noise Fish
Where the Decibels Hit the Water: Perspectives on the Application of Science to Real-World Underwater Noise and Marine Protected Species Issues Scholik-Schlomer, A. June 2015 Journal Article N/A Noise N/A
Low-Frequency Amphibious Hearing in Pinnipeds: Methods, Measurements, Noise, and Ecology Schusterman, R., Kastak, D. January 1998 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Tradeoff Analysis of Energy Harvesting and Noise Emission for Distributed Wind Turbines Shaltout, M., et al. June 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general Noise N/A
Advanced flow and noise simulation method for wind farm assessment in complex terrain Shen, W., et al. December 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise N/A
Prediction of Far Field Noise from Wind Energy Farms Shepherd, K., Hubbard, H. April 1986 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise Farfield Environment
Wind Turbine Acoustic Standards Shepherd, K., Stephens, D., Grosveld, F. May 1981 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise N/A
World Seas: An Environmental Evaluation Volume III: Ecological Issues and Environmental Impacts Sheppard, C. January 2019 Book N/A Noise Birds, Ecosystem Processes, Marine Mammals, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment, Fisheries, Legal & Policy
Particle Motion Measured at an Operational Wind Turbine in Relation to Hearing Sensitivity in Fish Sigray, P., Andersson, M. July 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Anthropogenic noise increases fish mortality by predation Simpson, S., et al. February 2016 Journal Article N/A Noise Fish
A Noisy Spring: The Impact of Globally Rising Underwater Sound Levels on Fish Slabbekoorn, H., et al. July 2010 Journal Article N/A Noise Fish
Effects of Anthropogenic Noise on Animals Slabbekoorn, H., et al. August 2018 Book Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general Noise N/A
Behavioral Responses of Beaked Whales and Other Cetaceans to Controlled Exposures of Simulated Sonar and Other Sounds Southall, B., et al. October 2009 Presentation N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Marine Mammal Noise Exposure Criteria: Initial Scientific Recommendations Southall, B., et al. December 2007 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Pinnipeds
Masking in Three Pinnipeds: Underwater, Low-Frequency Critical Ratios Southall, B., Schusterman, R., Kastak, D. June 2000 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Marine Mammal Noise Exposure Criteria: Updated Scientific Recommendations for Residual Hearing Effects Southhall, B., et al. March 2019 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals
Noise Generation of Upwind Rotor Wind Turbine Generators Spencer, R. February 1981 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise N/A
Grey Seals use Anthropogenic Signals from Acoustic Tags to Locate Fish: Evidence from a Simulated Foraging Task Stansbury, A., et al. January 2015 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
The Impact of Offshore Wind Farms on the Marine Environment Steen, H., et al. January 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF, Noise, Static Device Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics
Effect of the Horns Rev 1 Offshore Wind Farm on Fish Communities: Follow-up Seven Years after Construction Stenberg, C., et al. December 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF, Noise, Static Device Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Sound Solutions: Construction of Offshore Wind Farms Without Underwater Noise Stichting de Noordzee January 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Best available science? Are NOAA Fisheries marine mammal noise exposure guidelines up to date? Stocker, M. May 2019 Conference Paper N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Pinnipeds
Mitigation of Underwater Pile Driving Noise During Offshore Construction: Final Report Stokes, A., et al. January 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Changes in Fish Catch Rates in the Presence of Air Gun Sounds in Prudhoe Bay, Alaska Streever, B., et al. December 2016 Journal Article N/A Noise Socio-economics, Fishing
A Brief Review of Anthropogenic Sound in the Oceans Studds, G., Wright, A. December 2007 Journal Article N/A Noise N/A
Preliminary Field Test Results of an Acoustic Deterrent with the Potential to Reduce Bat Mortality from Wind Turbines Szewczak, J., Arnett, E. August 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Noise Bats
The song of Skylarks Alauda arvensis indicates the deterioration of an acoustic environment resulting from wind farm start‐up Szymanski, P., et al. July 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
Managing Underwater Noise in European Waters - Implementing the Marine Strategy Framework Directive Tasker, M., et al. January 2012 Journal Article N/A Noise N/A
The politics of evidence: Conflicting social commitments and environmental priorities in the debate over wind energy and public health Taylor, J., Klenk, N. January 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Noise Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Hermosa West Wind Energy Project Draft EIS - Appendix F: Bat Acoustical Studies Taylor, K., Solick, D., Bay, K. September 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise Bats, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Summary on Seal Monitoring 1999-2005 around Nysted and Horns Rev Offshore Wind Farms Teilmann, J., et al. November 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise, Static Device Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Summary on Harbour Porpoise Monitoring 1999-2006 around Nysted and Horns Rev Offshore Wind Farms Teilmann, J., Tougaard, J., Carstensen, J. November 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise, Static Device Marine Mammals
Underwater Acoustic Modeling Report - Virginia Offshore Wind Technology Advancement Project (VOWTAP) Tetra Tech December 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Assessing the Responses of Coastal Cetaceans to the Construction of Offshore Wind Turbines Thompson, P., et al. August 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Short-Term Disturbance by a Commercial Two-Dimensional Seismic Survey does Not Lead to Long-Term Displacement of Harbour Porpoises Thompson, P., et al. November 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Displacement, Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Potential Effects of Offshore Wind Farm Noise on Fish Thomsen, F., et al. January 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish

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