Knowledge Base

The Knowledge Base provides access to information about the environmental effects of marine and wind energy, supporting OES-Environmental and WREN initiatives. Relevant documents and OES-Environmental metadata forms are compiled into a user-friendly table with advanced filtering. Filters may be selected on the right, or keywords entered in the Search Text box. Content may also be sorted alphabetically by clicking on column headers.


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Titlesort descending Author* Date** Type of Content Technology Types Stressors Receptors
Acoustic and Geophysical Measurement of Infrasound from Wind Farm Turbines Hepburn, H. June 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general Noise N/A
Acoustic characterization of sensors used for marine environmental monitoring Cotter, E., et al. July 2019 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals
Acoustic Indices for Biodiversity Assessments: Analyses of Bias Based on Simulated Bird Assemblages and Recommendations for Field Surveys Gasc, A., et al. November 2015 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds, Ecosystem
Acoustic Masking In Marine Ecosystems: Intuitions, Analysis, And Implication Clark, C., et al. December 2009 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals
Acoustic mirrors as sensory traps for bats Greif, S., Zsebok, S. September 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Attraction, Avoidance, Collision Bats
Acoustic monitoring reveals the times and tides of harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) distribution off central Oregon, U.S.A. Holdman, A., et al. January 2019 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals
Action on Multiple Fronts, Illegal Poisoning and Wind Farm Planning, is Required to Reverse the Decline of the Egyptian Vulture in Southern Spain Sanz-Aguilar, A., et al. July 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
Activity of Tree Bats at Anthropogenic Tall Structures: Implications for Mortality of Bats at Wind Turbines Jameson, J., Willis, C. November 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Collision Bats
Acuity of a Cryptochrome and Vision-Based Magnetoreception System in Birds Solov'yov, I., Mouritsen, H., Schulten, K. July 2010 Journal Article N/A EMF Birds
Adaptive marine spatial planning in the Netherlands sector of the North Sea de Vrees, L. February 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
Additional Winter Recoveries of Indiana Bats (Myotis sodalis) Banded During Summer in Michigan Rockey, C., Stumpf, J., Kurta, A. September 2013 Journal Article N/A N/A Bats
Addressing the factors that juxtapose raptors and wind turbines Hunt,G., Watson, J. March 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
Adjustments of Wingbeat Frequency and Air Speed to Air Density in Free-Flying Migratory Birds Schmaljohann, H., Liechti, F. August 2009 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds
Advanced flow and noise simulation method for wind farm assessment in complex terrain Shen, W., et al. December 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise N/A
Advances in Marine Spatial Planning: Zoning Earth's Last Frontier Johnson, C. January 2014 Journal Article N/A N/A Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
Advances in Sex Determination in Bats and its Utility in Wind-Wildlife Studies Korstian, J., et al. May 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Advancing the relationship between renewable energy and ecosystem services for landscape planning and design: A literature review Picchi, P., et al. January 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Adverse Impacts of Wind Power Generation on Collision Behaviour of Birds and Anti-Predator Behaviour of Squirrels Kikuchi, R. March 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Terrestrial Mammals
Aerial Survey of Seabirds: The Advent of Digital Methods Buckland, S., et al. August 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds
Agassiz’s desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) activity areas are little changed after wind turbine-induced fires in California Lovich, J., et al. November 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Reptiles
Aggregation and Feeding Behaviour of Pouting (Trisopterus luscus) at Wind Turbines in the Belgian Part of the North Sea Reubens, J., Degraer, S., Vincx, M. February 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Attraction, Habitat Change Fish
Aggregation at Windmill Artificial Reefs: CPUE of Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua) and Pouting (Trisopterus luscus) at Different Habitats in the Belgian Part of the North Sea Reubens, J., et al. March 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Airborne Sound Propagation Over Sea During Offshore Wind Farm Piling Van Renterghem, T., Botteldooren, D., Dekoninck, L. February 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Altering Turbine Speed Reduces Bat Mortality at Wind-Energy Facilities Arnett, E., et al. November 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Bats
Altitudinal Migration in Bats: Evidence, Patterns, and Drivers McGuire, L., Boyle, W. March 2013 Journal Article N/A N/A Bats
An Aero-acoustic Noise Distribution Prediction Methodology for Offshore Wind Farms Cao, J., et al. December 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general Noise N/A
An Analysis about Wind Farm Construction Based on the Perspective of the Development of Ecological Environment Bai, Z. September 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change N/A
An Analysis of Displacement from Wind Turbines in a Wintering Grassland Bird Community Stevens, T., et al. June 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Displacement, Habitat Change Birds
An analysis of the state of impact assessment research for low carbon power production: Building a better understanding of information and knowledge gaps Hanna, K., et al. April 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-Economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
An Analytical Model for the Underwater Sound Pressure Waveforms Radiated when an Offshore Pile is Driven Hall, M. August 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
An approach for evaluating changes in land-use from energy sprawl and other anthropogenic activities with implications for biotic resource management Wolaver, B., et al. March 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Reptiles
An Approach to the Intercalibration of Benthic Ecological Status Assessment in the North Atlantic Ecoregion, According to the European Water Framework Directive Borja, A., et al. January 2007 Journal Article N/A N/A Benthic Invertebrates
An assessment of non-volant terrestrial vertebrates response to wind farms - a study of small mammals Łopucki, R., Mróz, I. February 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Terrestrial Mammals
An ecosystem approach for studying the impact of offshore wind farms: a French case study Pezy, J., Raoux, A., Dauvin, J. September 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Ecosystem Processes, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
An estimator of wildlife fatality from observed carcasses Huso, M. April 2011 Journal Article N/A N/A Bats, Birds, Terrestrial Mammals
An evidence-based approach to specifying survey effort in ecological assessments of bat activity Richardson, S., et al. March 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
An improved marine radar system for studies of bird migration Cooper, B., et al. January 1991 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds
An Indicator to Objectively Quantify the Visual Impact of an Offshore Wind Farm Gonzalez-Rodriguez, A. April 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Aesthetics
An Inherited Magnetic Map Guides Ocean Navigation in Juvenile Pacific Salmon Putman, N., et al. February 2014 Journal Article N/A EMF Fish
An integrated risk-based assessment of the North Sea to guide ecosystem-based management Piet, G., et al. March 2019 Journal Article N/A N/A Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
An Integrated Visual Impact Assessment Model for Offshore Windfarm Development Depellegrin, D., Blažauskas, N., Egarter-Vigl, L. September 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Human Dimensions, Visual Impacts
An Interim Framework for Assessing the Population Consequences of Disturbance King, S., et al. October 2015 Journal Article N/A N/A Ecosystem
An Investigation into the Effects of Underwater Piling Noise on Salmonids Nedwell, J., et al. November 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
An Investigation of the Wind Induced Background Sound Levels in Rural Areas for Existing and Proposed Wind Farms Bonsma, I., Munro, M. September 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general Noise N/A
An Italian Proposal on the Monitoring of Underwater Noise: Relationship Between the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) and Marine Spatial Planning Directive (MSP) Maccarrone, V., et al. December 2015 Journal Article N/A Noise Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
An Overview of Monitoring for Raptors in Bulgaria Spasov, S., et al. December 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Displacement Birds
An Overview of Monitoring for Raptors in Ireland Mee, A. December 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
An Overview of Offshore Wind Energy Resources in Europe Under Present and Future Climate deCastro, M., et al. July 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Climate Change, Legal & Policy
An Update on the Status of Red Bats, Lasiurus blossevillii and Lasiurus borealis, in British Columbia Nagorsen, D., Paterson, B. November 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Analysis of Environmental Characteristics and Operational Reports of Small and Medium Turbines Florescu, A., Bandoc, G., Degeratu, M. May 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions
Analysis of the wind turbine noise emissions and impact on the environment Katinas, V., Marčiukaitis, M., Tamašauskienė, M. May 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise N/A
Analysis of Wind Farm Effects on the Surrounding Environment: Assessing Population Trends of Breeding Passerines Garcia, D., et al. February 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Animal Behavioral Adaptation to Changing Landscapes: Spring-Staging Geese Habituate to Wind Farms Madsen, J., Boertmann, D. November 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Waterfowl
Animal Reactions to Oncoming Vehicles: A Conceptual Review Lima, S., et al. January 2015 Journal Article N/A Dynamic Device Birds, Marine Mammals
Another Blown in the Wind: Bats and the Licensing of Wind Farms in Brazil Valença, R., Bernard, E. October 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Anthropogenic and natural sources of ambient noise in the ocean Hildebrand, J. December 2009 Journal Article N/A Noise N/A
Anthropogenic disturbance facilitates a non-native species on offshore oil platforms Viola, S., et al. July 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Attraction, Habitat Change Invertebrates
Anthropogenic noise causes body malformations and delays development in marine larvae de Soto, N., et al. October 2013 Journal Article N/A Noise N/A
Anthropogenic noise increases fish mortality by predation Simpson, S., et al. February 2016 Journal Article N/A Noise Fish
Anthropogenic noise playback impairs embryonic development and increases mortality in a marine invertebrate Nedelec, S., et al. July 2014 Journal Article N/A Noise Invertebrates
Anthropogenic Sound: Effects on the Behavior and Physiology of Fishes Popper, A., et al. December 2003 Journal Article N/A Noise Fish
Applicability of the "Frame of Reference" Approach for Environmental Monitoring of Offshore Renewable Energy Projects Garel, E., et al. August 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Application of Isoscapes to Determine Geographic Origin of Terrestrial Wildlife for Conservation and Management Vander Zanden, H., et al. December 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A N/A
Application of Reanalysis Data to Estimate Offshore Wind Potential in EEZ of India Based on Marine Ecosystem Considerations Nagababu, G., et al. January 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Ecosystem
Application of the Analytic Hierarchy Process to a Sustainability Assessment of Coastal Beach Exploitation: A Case Study of the Wind Power Projects on the Coastal Beaches of Yancheng, China Tian, W., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Habitat Change Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Applying bioacoustic methods for long-term monitoring of a nocturnal wetland bird Frommolt, K., Tauchert, K. May 2014 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds
Applying citizen-science data and mark–recapture models to estimate numbers of migrant Golden Eagles in an Important Bird Area in eastern North America Dennhardt, A., et al. November 2017 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds, Raptors
Approaching Population Thresholds in Presence of Uncertainty: Assessing Displacement of Seabirds from Offshore Wind Farms Busch, M., Garthe, S. January 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Displacement Birds, Seabirds
Aquatic Acoustic Metrics Interface Utility for Underwater Sound Monitoring and Analysis Ren, H., et al. May 2012 Journal Article N/A Noise Fish, Marine Mammals
Are High Densities of Fishes at Artificial Reefs the Result of Habitat Limitation or Behavioral Preference? Bohnsack, J. March 1989 Journal Article N/A Static Device Fish
Are magnetic and electromagnetic fields of anthropogenic origin potential threats to early life stages of fish? Fey, D., et al. April 2019 Journal Article N/A EMF Fish
Are We Missing the Boat? Current Uses of Long-Term Biological Monitoring Data in the Evaluation and Management of Marine Protected Areas Addison, P., Flander, L., Cook, C. February 2015 Journal Article N/A N/A Ecosystem Processes
Arguments for Using Population Models in Incidental Take Assessments for Endangered Species McGowan, C., Ryan, M. November 2010 Journal Article N/A N/A Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Artificial Reefs as a Tool to Aid Rehabilitation of Coastal Ecosystems: Investigating the Potential Pickering, H., Whitmarsh, D., Jensen, A. December 1999 Journal Article N/A Habitat Change Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Artificial reefs facilitate tropical fish at their range edge Paxton, A., et al. May 2019 Journal Article N/A Attraction, Habitat Change Fish
Artificial Wetlands and Surrounding Habitats Provide Important Foraging Habitat for Bats in Agricultural Landscapes in the Western Cape, South Africa Sirami, C., Jacobs, D., Cumming, G. September 2013 Journal Article N/A N/A Bats
Assessing Auditory Evoked Potentials of Wild Harbor Porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) Ruser, A., et al. July 2016 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals
Assessing Avian-Wind Turbine Collision Risk: An Approach Angle Dependent Model Holmstrom, L., et al. June 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Assessing bird avoidance of high-contrast lights using a choice test approach: implications for reducing human-induced avian mortality Goller, B., et al. September 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Attraction, Avoidance, Lighting Birds
Assessing cumulative socio-ecological impacts of offshore wind farm development in the Bay of Seine (English Channel) Raoux, A., et al. February 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Ecosystem Processes, Fish, Invertebrates, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Assessing Ecological Risks of Offshore Wind Power on Kattegat Cod Hammar, L., Wikström, A., Molander, S. June 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Fish
Assessing Environmental Impacts of Offshore Wind Farms: Lessons Learned and Recommendations for the Future Bailey, H., Brookes, K., Thompson, P. September 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Noise Birds, Ecosystem Processes, Marine Mammals
Assessing Impacts of Wind-Energy Development on Nocturnally Active Birds and Bats: A Guidance Document Kunz, T., et al. November 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Collision Bats, Birds
Assessing Integrated Risks Of Offshore Wind Projects: Moving Towards Gigawatt-scale Deployments Ram, B. June 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Assessing larval connectivity for marine spatial planning in the Adriatic Bray, L., Kassis, D., Hall-Spencer, J. April 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Invertebrates, Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
Assessing local population vulnerability with branching process models: an application to wind energy development Erickson, R., et al. December 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Assessing Marine Ecosystem Acoustic Diversity Across Ocean Basins Parks, S., Miksis-Olds, J., Denes, S. May 2014 Journal Article N/A N/A Ecosystem
Assessing potential impacts of energized submarine power cables on crab harvests Love, M., et al. December 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general EMF Benthic Invertebrates, Socio-economics, Fishing
Assessing Risk to Birds from Industrial Wind Energy Development via Paired Resource Selection Models Miller, T., et al. January 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Birds
Assessing Seabird Displacement at Offshore Wind Farms: Power Ranges of a Monitoring and Data Handling Protocol Vanermen, N., et al. September 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Displacement Birds, Seabirds
Assessing space use by pre-breeding white-tailed eagles in the context of wind-energy development in Finland Balotari-Chiebao, F., et al. September 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
Assessing spring direct mortality to avifauna from wind energy facilities in the Dakotas Graff, B., et al. March 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Assessing the Cross Patform Performance of Marine Mammal Indicators Between Two Collocated Acoustic Recorders Denes, S., et al. May 2014 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals
Assessing the Cumulative Adverse Effects of Offshore Wind Energy Development on Seabird Foraging Guilds Along the East Coast of the United States Goodale, M,, Milman, A., Griffin, C. May 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds
Assessing the cumulative exposure of wildlife to offshore wind energy development Wing Goodale, M., Milman, A. April 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Assessing the Cumulative Impacts of Wind Farms on Peatland Birds: A Case Study of Golden Plover Pluvialis apricaria in Scotland Pearce-Higgins, J., et al. May 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Shorebirds
Assessing the determinants of local acceptability of wind-farm investment: A choice experiment in the Greek Aegean Islands Dimitropoulos, A., Kontoleon, A. May 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) N/A Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Assessing the Impact of Marine Wind Farms on Birds through Movement Modelling Masden, E., et al. May 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Collision Birds
Assessing the Impact of Wind Farms on the Plant Diversity of Blanket Bogs in the Xistral Mountains (NW Spain) Fraga, M., et al. April 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Ecosystem
Assessing the Impacts of Wind Farms on Birds Drewitt, A., Langston, R. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Birds

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