Knowledge Base

The Knowledge Base provides access to information about the environmental effects of marine and wind energy, supporting OES-Environmental and WREN initiatives. Relevant documents and OES-Environmental metadata forms are compiled into a user-friendly table with advanced filtering. Filters may be selected on the right, or keywords entered in the Search Text box. Content may also be sorted alphabetically by clicking on column headers.


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Title Author* Date** Type of Content Technology Typessort descending Stressors Receptors
A Characterization of Marine Mammals and Turtles in the Mid and North Atlantic Areas of the US Outer Continental Shelf Cetacean and Turtle Assessment Program June 1981 Report N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Reptiles
A Framework for Net Environmental Benefit Analysis for Remediation or Restoration of Petroleum-Contaminated Sites Efroymson, R., Nicolette, J., Suter II, G. January 2003 Report N/A Chemicals Nearfield Habitat
Abundance and Behaviour of Cetaceans and Basking Sharks in the Pentland Firth and Orkney Waters Evans, P., Baines, M., Coppock, J. January 2011 Report N/A N/A Fish, Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
An Assessment of the Conservation Importance of Species and Habitats Identified During a Series of Recent Research Cruises around Scotland Moore, C., Roberts, J. January 2011 Report N/A N/A Nearfield Habitat
Assessment of Basic Audiometric Functions in Killer Whales (Orcinus orca) at Loro Parque, Tenerife, Spain Lucke, K., Finneran, J., Houser, D. March 2013 Report N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Charting Progress 2: An Assessment of the State of UK Seas UK Marine Monitoring Assessment Strategy Community July 2010 Report N/A N/A Socio-economics
Compliance Monitoring Of Underwater Blasting For Rock Removal At Warrior Point, Columbia River Channel Improvement Project Carlson, T., et al. May 2011 Report N/A Noise Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Developing New Ground Truthing Techniques for Seabed Mapping Foster-Smith, R., et al. February 2010 Report N/A N/A Nearfield Habitat
Effects of EMFs from Undersea Power Cables on Elasmobranchs and other Marine Species Normandeau Associates, et al. May 2011 Report N/A EMF Benthic Invertebrates, Fish, Marine Mammals
Effects of Seismic Shooting on Catch and Catch-Availability of Cod and Haddock Engas, A., et al. August 1993 Report N/A Noise Fish
High Definition Imagery for Surveying Seabirds and Marine Mammals: A Review of Recent Trials and Development of Protocols Thaxter, C., Burton, N. November 2009 Report N/A N/A Birds, Seabirds, Marine Mammals
Large Whale Ship Strike Database Jensen, A., Silber, G. January 2004 Report N/A Dynamic Device Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Magnetic Intensity Study: Long Island Replacement Cables Ocean Surveys November 2010 Report N/A EMF N/A
Marine Mammal Monitoring Plan: San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge East Span Seismic Safety Project Caltrans February 2004 Report N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Marine Mammals and Noise: A Sound Approach to Research and Management Marine Mammal Commission March 2007 Report N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Naval Base Kitsap at Bangor Trident Support Facilities Explosive Handling Wharf (EHW-2) Project: Acoustic Monitoring Report Navy Strategic Systems Programs May 2013 Report N/A Noise N/A
Real-Time Monitoring for Beluga Whales (Delphinapterus leucas) in the Eagle River, Alaska using a PAMBuoy Detection System Gillespie, D., et al. May 2013 Report N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Radar Monitoring of Bird and Bat Movement Patterns on Block Island and its Coastal Waters Mizrahi, D., et al. September 2010 Report N/A Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Draft Recovery Plan for the North Pacific Right Whale (Eubalaena japonica) National Marine Fisheries Service January 2013 Report N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Seismic Survey Mitigation Measures and Marine Mammal Observer Reports Barkaszi, M., et al. June 2012 Report N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Spatial Distribution, Abundance and Flight Ecology of Birds in Nearshore and Offshore Waters in Rhode Island Paton, P., et al. June 2010 Report N/A N/A Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Strategic Environmental Assessment Area 8 - Contamination of Water and Sediments Voisey, C., Tyrrell, D., Rowlatt, S March 2004 Report N/A Chemicals Nearfield Habitat
The State of the UK's Birds 2011 Eaton M., et al. November 2011 Report N/A N/A Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Passerines, Seabirds, Shorebirds
Using Ship Speed and Mass to Describe Potential Collision Severity with Whales: An Application of the Ship Traffic, Energy and Environment Model (STEEM) Wang, C., et al. January 2007 Report N/A Dynamic Device Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Utilisation of Space by Grey and Harbour Seals in the Pentland Firth and Orkney Waters SMRU January 2011 Report N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Washington's Coastal Zone Management Program Washington State Department of Ecology February 2001 Report N/A N/A Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Pacific Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment (PaCSEA): Aerial Seabird and Marine Mammal Surveys off Northern California, Oregon, and Washington, 2011-2012 Adams, J., et al. March 2014 Report N/A N/A Birds, Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Pinnipeds
Relating Pre-Construction Bat Activity and Post-Construction Bat Fatality to Predict Risk at Wind Energy Facilities: A Synthesis Hein, C., Gruver, J., Arnett, E. March 2013 Report N/A Dynamic Device Bats
Underwater Sound Levels Associated with Pile Driving at the Cape Disappointment Boat Launch Facility, Wave Barrier Project Laughlin, J. March 2006 Report N/A Noise N/A
Comparison of Design- and Model-Based Estimates of Seabird Abundance Derived from Visual, Digital Still Transects and Digital Video Aerial Surveys in Carmarthen Bay Burt, L., Rexstad, E., Buckland, S. June 2010 Report N/A N/A Birds, Seabirds
Draft Guidance for Assessing the Effects of Anthropogenic Sound on Marine Mammals: Acoustic Threshold Levels for Onset of Permanent and Temporary Threshold Shifts National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration December 2013 Report N/A Noise Marine Mammals
Characteristics of Marbled Murrelet (Brachyramphus marmoratus) Habitat in Northern California Golightly, R., Hamilton, C., Hebert, P. February 2009 Report N/A N/A Birds, Seabirds
Biology and Conservation of the Common Murre in California, Oregon, Washington, and British Columbia. Volume 1: Natural History and Population Trends Manuwal, D., et al. January 2002 Report N/A N/A Birds, Seabirds
Catalog of Oregon Seabird Colonies Biological Technical Publication Naughton, M., et al. January 2007 Report N/A N/A Birds, Seabirds
A Preliminary Review of the Impact of Placing Portions of an Extra-High Voltage Transmission Line Beneath the Chesapeake Bay & Other Waters Community & Environmental Defense Service February 2011 Report N/A EMF Benthic Invertebrates, Ecosystem, Fish, Nearfield Habitat
EcoSpatial Information Database: U.S. Atlantic Region Madsen, K., et al. May 2014 Report N/A N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Ecosystem, Fish
Reconnaissance Geology and Geologic Hazards of the Offshore Coos Bay Basin, Oregon Clarke, S., Field, M., Hirozawa, C. January 1985 Report N/A N/A Nearfield Habitat
Long-range Effects of Airgun Noise on Marine Mammals: Responses as a Function of Received Sound Level and Distance Bain, D., Williams, R. May 2006 Report N/A Noise Marine Mammals
Some Examples of Marine Mammal 'Discomfort Thresholds' in Relation to Man-Made Noise Verboom, W., Kastelein, R. January 2005 Report N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Fall of Warness Wildlife Observations Methodology European Marine Energy Centre February 2013 Report N/A N/A Birds, Marine Mammals
Argyll Bird Report Maguire, E. October 1999 Report N/A N/A Birds, Seabirds
State of Washington Bat Conservation Plan Hayes, G., Wiles, G. June 2013 Report N/A N/A Bats
Statistical Modelling of Seabird and Cetacean Data: Guidance Document Mackenzie, M., et al. October 2013 Report N/A N/A Birds, Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Statistical Modelling of Seabird and Cetacean Data: Literature Review Oedekoven, C., et al. May 2014 Report N/A N/A Birds, Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
MRSea Package (version 0.0.1): Statistical Modelling of Bird and Cetacean Distributions in Offshore Renewables Development Areas Scott-Hayward, L., et al. November 2013 Report N/A N/A Birds, Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Standard for Measurement and Monitoring of Underwater Noise, Part I: Physical Quantities and their Units Ainslie, M. September 2011 Report N/A Noise N/A
Manual for Aeroplane and Ship Surveys of Waterfowl and Seabirds Komdeur, J., Bertelsen, J., Cracknell, G. December 1992 Report N/A N/A Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Benthic Habitat Characterization Offshore the Pacific Northwest Volume 1: Evaluation of Continental Shelf Geology Goldfinger, C., et al. November 2014 Report N/A N/A Benthic Invertebrates
Benthic Habitat Characterization Offshore the Pacific Northwest Volume 2: Evaluation of Continental Shelf Benthic Communities Henkel, S., et al. November 2014 Report N/A N/A Benthic Invertebrates
Green Light to Birds: Investigation into the Effect of Bird-Friendly Lighting van de Laar, F. December 2007 Report N/A Lighting Birds, Passerines, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
Pelagic Seabirds off the East Coast of the United States 2008-2013 Veit, R., et al. January 2015 Report N/A N/A Birds
Pentland Firth and Orkney Waters Enabling Actions Report: Ornithological Cumulative Impact Assessment Framework MacArthur, D., et al. May 2013 Report N/A N/A Birds, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Wildlife Densities and Habitat Use Across Temporal and Spatial Scales on the Mid-Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf (2012-2014) Williams, K., et al. October 2015 Report N/A N/A Birds, Seabirds, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles
MR7.1.2 The Density and Behaviour of Marine Mammals in Tidal Rapids Macaulay, J., et al. July 2015 Report N/A N/A Marine Mammals
MR7.1.1 Quantifying Porpoise Depth Distributions and Underwater Behaviour in Tidal Rapids Areas Macaulay, J., et al. July 2015 Report N/A N/A Marine Mammals
MR8.1 Tests of Acoustic Signals for Aversive Sound Mitigation with Harbour Seals Gordon, J., et al. July 2015 Report N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Effects of Electromagnetic Fields on Behavior of Largemouth Bass and Pallid Sturgeon in an Experimental Pond Setting Bevelhimer, M., Cada, G., Scherelis, C. September 2015 Report N/A EMF Fish
Spatial Planning for the Gulf: An International Review of Marine Spatial Planning Initiatives and Application to the Hauraki Gulf Hauraki Gulf Forum January 2011 Report N/A N/A Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
Guidelines for the Assessment of Indirect and Cumulative Impacts as well as Impact Interactions Walker, L., Johnston, J. May 1999 Report N/A N/A Farfield Environment
Underwater Hearing Sensitivity of the Leatherback Sea Turtle (Dermochelys coriacea): Assessing the Potential Effect of Anthropogenic Noise Piniak, W., et al. September 2012 Report N/A Noise Sea Turtles
Enablers Task Force on Marine Spatial Planning: Report to the Inter-Departmental Marine Coordination Group Enablers Task Force July 2015 Report N/A N/A Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
2009 Spring, Summer, and Fall Avian and Bat Surveys Stantec Consulting December 2009 Report N/A N/A Bats, Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Passerines, Raptors
Bicknell's Thrush: An Endangered Migrant in a Recovering Landscape McIntyre, E., Riordan, J. January 2015 Report N/A N/A Birds
Eastern Pipistrelle (Perimyotis subflavus) Species Guidance Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources September 2013 Report N/A N/A Bats
Guidelines for Raptor Conservation during Urban and Rural Land Development in British Columbia B.C. Ministry of Forests February 2013 Report N/A N/A Birds
Interim Golden Eagle Technical Guidance: Inventory and Monitoring Protocols; and Other Recommendations in Support of Golden Eagle Management and Permit Issuance Pagel, J., Whittington, D., Allen, G. February 2010 Report N/A N/A Birds, Raptors
Little Brown Bat (Myotis lucifugus) Species Guidance Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources September 2013 Report N/A N/A Bats
Long-term Bat Monitoring on Islands, Offshore Structures, and Coastal Sites in the Gulf of Maine, mid-Atlantic, and Great Lakes Peterson, T. January 2016 Report N/A N/A Bats
The Number and Distribution of Marine Mammals in the Fall of Warness, Orkney July 2005 - July 2006 Duck, C., et al. August 2006 Report N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Pinnipeds
Technical Guidance for Assessing the Effects of Anthropogenic Sound on Marine Mammal Hearing: Underwater Acoustic Thresholds for Onset of Permanent and Temporary Threshold Shifts National Marine Fisheries Service July 2016 Report N/A Noise Marine Mammals
Effects of EMFs from Underwater Power Cables on Elasmobranchs and Other Marine Species Tricas, T., Gill, A. May 2011 Report N/A EMF Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles
Impacts of Submarine Cables on the Marine Environment - A Literature Review Meißner, K., et al. September 2006 Report N/A EMF N/A
Assessment of Lesser Prairie-Chicken Lek Density Relative to Landscape Characteristics in Texas Timmer, J. August 2012 Report N/A N/A Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
Environmental impact assessment: guide to procedures UK Communities and Local Government January 2000 Report N/A N/A Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Responses of the Big Brown Bat, Eptesicus fuscus, to an Acoustic Deterrent Device in a Lab Setting Spanjer, G. December 2006 Report N/A N/A Bats
Determining Fine-Scale Use and Movement Patterns of Diving Bird Species in Federal Waters of the Mid-Atlantic United States Using Satellite Telemetry Spiegel, C., et al. January 2017 Report N/A N/A Birds, Seabirds
The Impact of Ocean Noise Pollution on Fish and Invertebrates Weilgart, L. May 2018 Report N/A Noise Fish, Invertebrates
Understanding the Effectiveness of Acoustic Deterrent Devices on Minke Whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), A Low Frequency Cetacean McGarry, T., et al. November 2017 Report N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
A Multi-National Project Management Framework Audit of a European Union Marine Spatial Planning Project Sangiuliano, S. March 2018 Report N/A N/A Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
Winter Marine Bird Surveys Mills, G. March 2012 Report N/A N/A Birds
West Coast Marine Bird Surveys - Quantitative shipboard surveys of species distribution and abundance on the continental shelf during April 2008 and July-August 2008 Zamon, J. August 2008 Report N/A N/A Birds
Fish and Marine Mammal Audiograms: A summary of available information Nedwell, J., et al. September 2004 Report N/A Noise Fish, Marine Mammals
Possible Behavioural, Energetic and Demographic Effects of Displacement of Red-throated Divers Dierschke, V., et al. June 2017 Report N/A Displacement Birds, Waterfowl
Wales' Marine Evidence Report Welsh Government October 2015 Report N/A N/A Birds, Seabirds, Ecosystem Processes, Fish, Invertebrates, Marine Mammals, Legal & Policy, Social & Economic Data
Potential Impacts of the Monterey Accelerated Research System (MARS) cable on the seabed and benthic faunal assemblages Kuhnz, L., et al. December 2015 Report N/A Habitat Change Fish, Physical Environment
South Marine Plan Areas Options Report Marine Management Organisation February 2015 Report N/A N/A Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
2015 Massachusetts Ocean Management Plan: Volume 1 - Management and Administration Commonwealth of Massachusetts January 2015 Report N/A N/A Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
U.S. West Coast Large Whale Entanglement Information Sharing Workshop Report NOAA Fisheries March 2014 Report N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Short-term Movement, Home Range, and Behavior of Red Snapper around Petroleum Platforms in the Northern Gulf of Mexico, as Determined by High Resolution Acoustic Telemetry McDonough, M., Cowan, J. Jr. October 2013 Report N/A Habitat Change Fish
Legal Authorities Relating to the Implementation of Coastal and Marine Spatial Planning National Ocean Council January 2011 Report N/A N/A Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
2015 Massachusetts Ocean Management Plan: Volume 2 - Baseline Assessment and Science Framework Commonwealth of Massachusetts January 2015 Report N/A N/A Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
South Inshore and South Offshore Marine Plan Areas: South Plans Analytical Report Marine Management Organisation June 2014 Report N/A N/A Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
The Government of the Republic of South Africa National Environmental Management of the Ocean White Paper Department of Environmental Affairs May 2014 Report N/A N/A Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Collision Course: The Hazards of Lighted Structures and Windows to Migrating Birds Ogden, L. September 1996 Report N/A Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Lighting Birds
East Inshore and East Offshore Marine Plans Marine Management Organisation April 2014 Report N/A N/A Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
Offshore Renewable Energy Development Plan: A Framework for the Sustainable Development of Ireland's Offshore Renewable Energy Resource Department of Communications, Energy and Natural Resources February 2014 Report N/A N/A Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
The National Coastal Management Programme of South Africa Department of Environmental Affairs January 2014 Report N/A N/A Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Inventory and Analysis of Coastal and Submerged Archaeological Site Occurrence on the Pacific Outer Continental Shelf ICF International, Southeastern Archaeological Research, Davis Geoarchaeological Research November 2013 Report N/A N/A Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning, Social & Economic Data
Rhode Island Ocean Special Area Management Plan: Ocean SAMP - Volume 2 Rhode Island Coastal Resources Management Council April 2013 Report N/A N/A Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning, Social & Economic Data
Basic Plan on Ocean Policy Headquarters for Ocean Policy April 2013 Report N/A N/A Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy

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