Knowledge Base

The Knowledge Base provides access to information about the environmental effects of marine and wind energy, supporting OES-Environmental and WREN initiatives. Relevant documents and OES-Environmental metadata forms are compiled into a user-friendly table with advanced filtering. Filters may be selected on the right, or keywords entered in the Search Text box. Content may also be sorted alphabetically by clicking on column headers.


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Title Author* Date** Type of Contentsort descending Technology Types Stressors Receptors
Bird and Bat Conservation Strategy Deuel Harvest North Wind Farm Deuel County, South Dakota Simon, S., Welch-Acosta, B. March 2019 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance Bats, Birds
ORJIP Bird Collision and Avoidance Study Skov, H., et al. April 2018 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Collision Birds, Seabirds
Baseline Studies North Sea Wind Farms: Fluxes, Flight Paths and Altitudes of Flying Birds 2003-2004 Krijgsveld, K., et al. October 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance Birds
Best Practice Guidance for the Use of Remote Techniques for Observing Bird Behaviour in Relation to Offshore Wind Farms Desholm, M., Fox, A., Beasley, P. January 2004 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance Birds, Seabirds, Shorebirds
Avian Hearing and the Avoidance of Wind Turbines Dooling, R. June 2002 Report Wind Energy (General) Avoidance, Noise Birds
Assessment of the Effects of Offshore Wind in Birds Percival, S. January 2001 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Ponnequin Wind Energy Project: Reference Site Avian Study Kerlinger, P., Curry, R., Ryder, R. April 2000 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Passerines, Raptors
Windfarms and Birds: Calculating a Theoretical Collision Risk Assuming No Avoiding Action Band, W. January 2000 Report Wind Energy (General) Avoidance, Collision, Habitat Change Birds
Developing a Habitat Loss Method for Assessing Displacement Impacts from Offshore Wind Farms Busch, M., et al. March 2015 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Displacement Birds, Seabirds
Predicting the Displacement of Common Scoter Melanitta nigra from Benthic Feeding Areas Due to Offshore Windfarms Kaiser, M., et al. March 2002 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Displacement, Habitat Change Birds, Waterfowl
Feasibility Study for Meta-Analysis of Red-Throated Diver Displacement Dirksen, S., et al. July 2017 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Displacement Birds, Waterfowl
Possible Behavioural, Energetic and Demographic Effects of Displacement of Red-throated Divers Dierschke, V., et al. June 2017 Report N/A Displacement Birds, Waterfowl
Assessment of Displacement Impacts of Offshore Windfarms and Other Human Activities on Red-Throated Divers and Alcids McGovern, S., Goddard, B., Rehfisch, M. December 2016 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Displacement Birds
Burbo Bank Extension Offshore Wind Farm: Red-throated Diver Displacement Ellis, I., Ward, R. September 2013 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Displacement Birds, Waterfowl
Post-construction Avian and Bat Fatality Monitoring and Grassland Bird Displacement Surveys at the Judith Gap Wind Energy Project, Wheatland County, Montana TRC Environmental Corporation January 2008 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Displacement Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
Protocol for Investigating Displacement Effects of Wind Facilities on Grassland Songbirds Erickson, W., et al. February 2007 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Displacement Bats, Birds, Passerines
Wales' Marine Evidence Report Welsh Government October 2015 Report N/A N/A Birds, Seabirds, Ecosystem Processes, Fish, Invertebrates, Marine Mammals, Legal & Policy, Social & Economic Data
The consequences of seabird habitat loss from offshore wind turbines: a research plan for five selected species van Kooten, T., Soudijn, F., Leopold, M. September 2018 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Displacement Birds, Seabirds
New York Department of State Offshore Atlantic Ocean Study New York Department of State July 2013 Report Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Fish, Invertebrates, Marine Mammals, Reptiles, Human Dimensions
Modeling Wildlife Densities and Habitat Use Across Temporal and Spatial Scales on the Mid-Atlantic Continental Shelf: Annual Report for the First Budget Period Williams, K. April 2013 Report Offshore Wind Habitat Change Birds, Marine Mammals, Reptiles
High-Resolution Aerial Imaging Surveys of Marine Birds, Mammals, and Turtles on the US Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf - Utility Assessment, Methodology Recommendations, and Implementation Tools Normandeau Associates April 2013 Report Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Marine Mammals, Reptiles
Pre-Construction Breeding Bird Surveys Number Three Wind Energy Project Lewis County, New York Bay, K., et al. May 2017 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Synopsis des internationalen Kenntnisstandes zum Einfluss der Windenergie auf Fledermäuse und Vögel und Spezifizierung für die Schweiz Muller, J., et al. November 2015 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats, Birds
Repowering Smøla Wind-Power Plant: An Assessment of Avian Conflicts Dahl, E., et al. June 2015 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Raptors
Birds and Wind-Energy Best-Practice Guidelines: Best-Practice Guidelines for Assessing and Monitoring the Impact of Wind Energy Facilities on Birds in Southern Africa Jenkins, A., et al. January 2015 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Analysis of the Overlap between Priority Greater Sage-Grouse Habitats and Existing and Potential Energy Development Across the West: Final Report LeBeau, C., Fruhwirth, J., Boehrs, J. October 2014 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
2012 Post-Construction Monitoring Study Criterion Wind Project Garrett County, Maryland Young, D., et al. January 2013 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision Bats, Birds
A Historical Perspective of Wind-Wildlife Challenges: How this May Affect Distributed Wind Sinclair, K. July 2014 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Avian and Bat Survey Protocols For Large Wind Energy Conversion Systems in Minnesota Mixon, K., et al. June 2014 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Lalamilo Wind Farm Repowering Project: Draft Environmental Assessment Tetra Tech June 2014 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Assessing Northern Gannet Avoidance of Offshore Windfarms Rehfisch, M., et al. June 2014 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance Birds, Seabirds
A Habitat-Based Wind-Wildlife Collision Model with Application to the Upper Great Plains Region Forcey, G. August 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision Bats, Birds
A Pilot Golden Eagle Population Study in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area California Predatory Bird Research Group May 1995 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Displacement Birds, Raptors
Population Consequences of Displacement from Proposed Offshore Wind Energy Developments for Seabirds Breeding at Scottish SPAs Searle, K., et al. May 2014 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Displacement Birds, Seabirds
A Review of the Impacts of Wind Farms on Hen Harriers Circus cyaneus and an Estimation of Collision Avoidance Rates Whitfield, D., Madders, M. August 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds, Raptors
A Review of Methods to Monitor Collisions or Micro-Avoidance of Birds with Offshore Wind Turbines - Part 2: Feasibility Study of Systems to Monitor Collisions Collier, M., Dirksen, S., Krijgsveld, K. February 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Collision Birds
Measuring the Interaction Between Marine Features of Special Protection Areas with Offshore Wind Farm Development Sites Through Telemetry: Final Report Thaxter, C., et al. March 2014 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Seabirds
A Study of the Risk of Collision with Power Lines by Waterbirds in Winter at Shotton Steel Works, North Wales Balmer, D., Henderson, I., Clark, N. April 1995 Report Wind Energy (General) Avoidance, Collision Birds, Waterfowl
An Assessment of the Impacts of Green Mountain Power Corporation's Wind Power Facility on Breeding and Migrating Birds in Searsburg, Vermont: July 1996-July 1998 Kerlinger, P. March 2002 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Passerines, Raptors
Wind Turbine Interactions with Wildlife and their Habitats: A Summary of Research Results and Priority Questions American Wind Wildlife Institute January 2014 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
The Relative Vulnerability of Migratory Bird Species to Offshore Wind Energy Projects on the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf: An Assessment Method and Database Willmott, J., Forcey, G., Kent, A. August 2013 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision, Displacement Birds
Project-Specific Avian and Bat Protection Plan for the Tule Reduced Ridgeline Wind Project Tule Wind March 2013 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Improving Methods for Estimating Fatality of Birds and Bats at Wind Energy Facilities Warren-Hicks, W., et al. February 2013 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats, Birds
An Analytical Impact Assessment Framework for Wildlife to Inform the Siting and Permitting of Wind Energy Facilities Schwartz, J. January 2013 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Raptors
Strategic Joint Industry Project No.1: Bird avoidance behavior and collision impact monitoring at Offshore Windfarms Marine Scotland, et al. December 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Collision Birds
Avian and Bat Protection Plan Including Bird and Bat Conservation Strategies and an Eagle Conservation Plan: New Era Wind Project Westwood Professional Services November 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Argyll Array Offshore Windfarm Report to Inform a Shadow Appropriate Assessment - Great Northern Diver Potential SPAs NIRAS Consulting November 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds
Searchlight Wind Energy Project Bird and Bat Conservation Strategy Tetra Tech November 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Guidelines for Reducing Impacts to Wildlife from Wind Energy Development in Arizona Arizona Game and Fish Department October 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats, Birds
Seabirds & Offshore Wind Farms Monitoring Results 2011 Vanermen, N., et al. June 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds
Amendment to the On-Shore Bird and Bat Pre- and Post- Construction Monitoring Protocol for Commercial Wind Energy Facilities in Ohio Ohio Department of Natural Resources June 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Avian and Bat Protection Plan for the Buckeye Wind Power Project Stantec Consulting Services June 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Bats, Birds
A Review of Flight Heights and Avoidance Rates of Birds in Relation to Offshore Wind Farms Cook, A., et al. May 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Collision Birds
2011 Post-Construction Monitoring Study Criterion Wind Project Garrett County, Maryland Young, D., et al. April 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats, Birds
Marine Bird Distribution Along the Oregon Coast Suryan, R., et al. April 2012 Report Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Birds, Seabirds
Avian and Bat Protection Plan for the Spring Valley Wind Energy Facility SWCA Environmental Consultants October 2010 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds, Human Dimensions
Are Flying Wildlife Attracted to (or do they Avoid) Wind Turbines? Larkin, R. March 2010 Report Wind Energy (General) Attraction, Avoidance Bats, Birds
Pre- and Post-Construction Studies of Conflicts Between Birds and Wind Turbines in Coastal Norway (Bird Wind): Progress Report 2009 Bevanger, K., et al. December 2009 Report Wind Energy (General) Collision, Habitat Change Birds
Avian and Bat Protection Plan for the Ocotillo Wind Energy Facility Ocotillo Express February 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Bats, Birds, Raptors
Avian and Bat Protection Plan: AWA Goodhue Wind Project Westwood Professional Services December 2011 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Avian and Bat Protection Plan: Iberdrola Renewables Iberdrola Renewables October 2008 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Bats, Birds, Raptors
Avian Collisions with Wind Turbines: A Summary of Existing Studies and Comparisons to Other Sources of Avian Collision Mortality in the United States of America Erickson, W., et al. August 2001 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Collision Birds, Passerines, Raptors
Avian Monitoring and Mortality Report at the National Wind Technology Center: January 2010 - February 2011 Tetra Tech Inc. January 2018 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds
Avian, Bat and Habitat Cumulative Impacts Associated with Wind Energy Development in the Columbia Plateau Ecoregion Of Eastern Washington and Oregon Johnson, G., Erickson, W. May 2011 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Bats, Birds, Raptors
Avoidance Behaviour of Birds around Offshore Wind Farms: Overview of Knowledge Including Effects of Configuration Krijgsveld, K. July 2014 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds
The Avoidance Rates of Collision Between Birds and Offshore Turbines Cook, A., et al. December 2014 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds, Seabirds
AWWI Technical Report: Evaluating a Commercial-Ready Technology for Raptor Detection and Deterrence at a Wind Energy Facility in California Terrill, S., et al. September 2018 Report Wind Energy (General) Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds, Raptors
Baseline investigations of bats and birds at wind turbine test Centre Asterild Therkildsen, O., et al. September 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Bats, Birds
Sage-Grouse and Wind Energy: Biology, Habits, and Potential Effects from Development Becker, J., et al. July 2009 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
On-Shore Bird and Bat Pre- and Post-Construction Monitoring Protocol for Commercial Wind Energy Facilities in Ohio: An Addendum to the Ohio Department of Natural Resources Voluntary Cooperative Agreement Ohio Department of Natural Resources May 2009 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Horns Rev II Offshore Wind Farm Monitoring of Bird Migration Skov, H., et al. May 2009 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance Birds
Whooping Cranes and Wind Development - An Issue Paper US Fish and Wildlife Service April 2009 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds, Shorebirds
Impacts of Wind Farms on Birds: A Review Powlesland, R. January 2009 Report Wind Energy (General) Habitat Change Birds
The Relation Between Birds and Wind Turbines and Other Aerial Obstacles - A Literature Survey Nygård, T., Bevanger, K., Reitan, O. November 2008 Report Wind Energy (General) N/A Birds
Horns Rev II Offshore Wind Farm Monitoring of Resting Waterbirds Skov, H., Piper, W., Leonhard, S. September 2008 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds
Lake Michigan Offshore Wind Feasibility Assessment Boezaart, A., et al. June 2014 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Bats, Birds, Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Best Management Practices for siting, developing, operating, and monitoring renewable energy in the Intermountain West: A Conservationist's Guide Jones, A. March 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Bats, Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Raptors, Terrestrial Mammals
Bird and Bat Collision Risks & Wind Energy Facilities Willmott, J., et al. December 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Bats, Birds
Bird and Bird Habitats: Guidelines for Wind Power Projects Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources December 2011 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Birds
Bird Migration Intensity and Number of Collision Victims at the Wind Power Plant Le Peuchapatte (Switzerland) Aschwanden, J., Liechti, F. November 2016 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds
Bird Migration Monitoring in the AES Geo Power Wind Park Territory, Kaliakra Region, in Autumn 2012, and Analysis of Potential Impact after Three Years' Operation Zehtindjiev, P., Whitfield, D. November 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Habitat Change Birds
Bird Monitoring at Offshore Wind Farms in the Belgian Part of the North Sea - Assessing Seabird Displacement Effects Vanermen, N., et al. January 2013 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds, Seabirds
Bird Risk Behaviors and Fatalities at the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area: Period of Performance: March 1998 - December 2000 Thelander, C., Smallwood, K., Rugge, L. December 2003 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision Birds, Raptors
Breeding and Overland Flight of Red- Throated Divers (Gavia stellata) at Smøla, Norway, in relation to the Smøla wind farm Halley, D., Hopshaug, P. October 2007 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision Birds, Waterfowl
Burbo Bank Extension Offshore Wind Farm Volume 2: ES Biological Environment DONG Energy March 2013 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Collision Course: The Hazards of Lighted Structures and Windows to Migrating Birds Ogden, L. September 1996 Report N/A Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Lighting Birds
Collision and Displacement Vulnerability Among Marine Birds of the California Current System Associated with Offshore Wind Energy Infrastructure Adams, J., et al. October 2016 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds, Seabirds
Collision Mortalities at Horseshoe Shoal of Bird Species of Special Concern Hatch, J., Brault, S. January 2007 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
Collision Risk in White-Tailed Eagles Modelling Kernel-Based Collision Risk Using Satellite Telemetry Data in Smøla Wind-Power Plant May, R., et al. May 2011 Report Wind Energy (General) Avoidance, Collision Birds, Raptors
Collision Risk in White-Tailed Eagles: Modelling Collision Risk Using Vantage Point Observations in Smøla Wind-Power Plant May, R., et al. December 2010 Report Wind Energy (General) Avoidance, Collision Birds, Raptors
Collision, Displacement and Barrier Effect Concept Note Humphreys, E., Cook, S., Burton, N. January 2015 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Comparison of Avian Responses to UV-Light-Reflective Paint on Wind Turbines Young, D., et al. January 2003 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Lighting Birds, Raptors
Criterion Wind Project Avian Protection Plan Young, D., Tidhar, D. March 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Bats, Birds
Deriving an Avoidance Rate for Swans Suitable for Onshore Wind Farm Collision Risk Modelling Whitfield, D., Urquhart, B. February 2015 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds
Developing a science-based approach to defining key species of birds and bats of concern for wind farm developments in Victoria Lumsden, L., Moloney, P., Smales, I. September 2019 Report Wind Energy (General) Avoidance, Collision Bats, Birds
Developing an Avian Collision Risk Model to Incorporate Variability and Uncertainty Masden, E. September 2015 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Collision Birds
Investigations of the Bird Collision Risk and the Responses of Harbour Porpoises in the Offshore Wind Farms Horns Rev, North Sea, and Nysted, Baltic Sea, in Denmark - Part II: Harbour porpoises Diederichs,A., Hennig, V., Nehls, G. January 2008 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision, Noise Birds, Marine Mammals
Further Use of Aerial Surveys to Detect Bird Displacement by Offshore Windfarms Maclean, I., Skov, H., Rehfisch, M. October 2007 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Displacement Birds
Developing Guidance on Ornithological Cumulative Impact Assessment for Offshore Wind Farm Developers King, S., et al. June 2009 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds
Developing Methods To Reduce Bird Mortality In The Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area Smallwood, K., Thelander, C. January 2004 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds, Raptors

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