Knowledge Base

The Knowledge Base provides access to information about the environmental effects of marine and wind energy, supporting OES-Environmental and WREN initiatives. Relevant documents and OES-Environmental metadata forms are compiled into a user-friendly table with advanced filtering. Filters may be selected on the right, or keywords entered in the Search Text box. Content may also be sorted alphabetically by clicking on column headers.


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Title Author* Date** Type of Content Technology Typessort descending Stressors Receptors
Monitoring of wintering geese in the AES Geo Energy Wind Farm "St. Nikola" territory and the Kaliakra region in winter 2017/2018 Zehtindjiev, P., Whitfield, P. April 2018 Report Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Waterfowl
Monitoring of wintering geese in the AES Geo Energy Wind Farm "St. Nikola" territory and the Kaliakra region in winter 2016/2017 Zehtindjiev, P., Whitfield, P. April 2017 Report Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Waterfowl
Pathways of Effects for Offshore Renewable Energy in Canada Isaacman, L., Daborn, G. December 2011 Report Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Changes in Flow, Chemicals, Collision, Displacement, EMF, Habitat Change, Lighting, Noise Birds, Fish, Invertebrates, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Physical Environment, Reptiles, Human Dimensions
Marine Bird Distribution Along the Oregon Coast Suryan, R., et al. April 2012 Report Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Birds, Seabirds
Population Trends of Breeding Seabird Colonies in Scottish SPAs Malcolm, F., Lye, G., Lewis, M. July 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds
Population Sizes of Seabirds breeding in Scottish Special Protection Areas Lewis, M., et al. July 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds
Meeting Europe's Renewable Energy Targets in Harmony with Nature BirdLife Europe January 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general N/A Birds
Population Sizes of Seabirds Breeding in Scottish SPAs Lewis, M., et al. July 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds
Updated Summary of Knowledge: Selected Areas of the Pacific Coast Kaplan, B., et al. July 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Ecosystem, Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles, Socio-economics
User Guide for the MRSea Package: Marine Renewables Strategic Environmental Assessment Scott-Hayward, L., et al. October 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Marine Mammals
Modeling At-Sea Occurrence and Abundance of Marine Birds to Support Atlantic Marine Renewable Energy Planning: Phase 1 Report Kinlan, B., et al. May 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds
Seabird Distribution and Abundance in the Offshore Environment Final Report Kuletz, K., Labunski, E. February 2017 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds
Marine bird colony and at-sea distributions along the Oregon coast: Implications for marine spatial planning and information gap analysis Suryan, R., et al. April 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds
Compliance Monitoring Of Underwater Blasting For Rock Removal At Warrior Point, Columbia River Channel Improvement Project Carlson, T., et al. May 2011 Report N/A Noise Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals
High Definition Imagery for Surveying Seabirds and Marine Mammals: A Review of Recent Trials and Development of Protocols Thaxter, C., Burton, N. November 2009 Report N/A N/A Birds, Seabirds, Marine Mammals
Radar Monitoring of Bird and Bat Movement Patterns on Block Island and its Coastal Waters Mizrahi, D., et al. September 2010 Report N/A Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Spatial Distribution, Abundance and Flight Ecology of Birds in Nearshore and Offshore Waters in Rhode Island Paton, P., et al. June 2010 Report N/A N/A Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl
The State of the UK's Birds 2011 Eaton M., et al. November 2011 Report N/A N/A Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Passerines, Seabirds, Shorebirds
Pacific Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment (PaCSEA): Aerial Seabird and Marine Mammal Surveys off Northern California, Oregon, and Washington, 2011-2012 Adams, J., et al. March 2014 Report N/A N/A Birds, Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Pinnipeds
Comparison of Design- and Model-Based Estimates of Seabird Abundance Derived from Visual, Digital Still Transects and Digital Video Aerial Surveys in Carmarthen Bay Burt, L., Rexstad, E., Buckland, S. June 2010 Report N/A N/A Birds, Seabirds
Characteristics of Marbled Murrelet (Brachyramphus marmoratus) Habitat in Northern California Golightly, R., Hamilton, C., Hebert, P. February 2009 Report N/A N/A Birds, Seabirds
Biology and Conservation of the Common Murre in California, Oregon, Washington, and British Columbia. Volume 1: Natural History and Population Trends Manuwal, D., et al. January 2002 Report N/A N/A Birds, Seabirds
Catalog of Oregon Seabird Colonies Biological Technical Publication Naughton, M., et al. January 2007 Report N/A N/A Birds, Seabirds
Fall of Warness Wildlife Observations Methodology European Marine Energy Centre February 2013 Report N/A N/A Birds, Marine Mammals
Argyll Bird Report Maguire, E. October 1999 Report N/A N/A Birds, Seabirds
Statistical Modelling of Seabird and Cetacean Data: Guidance Document Mackenzie, M., et al. October 2013 Report N/A N/A Birds, Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Statistical Modelling of Seabird and Cetacean Data: Literature Review Oedekoven, C., et al. May 2014 Report N/A N/A Birds, Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
MRSea Package (version 0.0.1): Statistical Modelling of Bird and Cetacean Distributions in Offshore Renewables Development Areas Scott-Hayward, L., et al. November 2013 Report N/A N/A Birds, Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Manual for Aeroplane and Ship Surveys of Waterfowl and Seabirds Komdeur, J., Bertelsen, J., Cracknell, G. December 1992 Report N/A N/A Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Green Light to Birds: Investigation into the Effect of Bird-Friendly Lighting van de Laar, F. December 2007 Report N/A Lighting Birds, Passerines, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
Pelagic Seabirds off the East Coast of the United States 2008-2013 Veit, R., et al. January 2015 Report N/A N/A Birds
Pentland Firth and Orkney Waters Enabling Actions Report: Ornithological Cumulative Impact Assessment Framework MacArthur, D., et al. May 2013 Report N/A N/A Birds, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Wildlife Densities and Habitat Use Across Temporal and Spatial Scales on the Mid-Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf (2012-2014) Williams, K., et al. October 2015 Report N/A N/A Birds, Seabirds, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles
2009 Spring, Summer, and Fall Avian and Bat Surveys Stantec Consulting December 2009 Report N/A N/A Bats, Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Passerines, Raptors
Bicknell's Thrush: An Endangered Migrant in a Recovering Landscape McIntyre, E., Riordan, J. January 2015 Report N/A N/A Birds
Guidelines for Raptor Conservation during Urban and Rural Land Development in British Columbia B.C. Ministry of Forests February 2013 Report N/A N/A Birds
Interim Golden Eagle Technical Guidance: Inventory and Monitoring Protocols; and Other Recommendations in Support of Golden Eagle Management and Permit Issuance Pagel, J., Whittington, D., Allen, G. February 2010 Report N/A N/A Birds, Raptors
Assessment of Lesser Prairie-Chicken Lek Density Relative to Landscape Characteristics in Texas Timmer, J. August 2012 Report N/A N/A Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
Determining Fine-Scale Use and Movement Patterns of Diving Bird Species in Federal Waters of the Mid-Atlantic United States Using Satellite Telemetry Spiegel, C., et al. January 2017 Report N/A N/A Birds, Seabirds
Winter Marine Bird Surveys Mills, G. March 2012 Report N/A N/A Birds
West Coast Marine Bird Surveys - Quantitative shipboard surveys of species distribution and abundance on the continental shelf during April 2008 and July-August 2008 Zamon, J. August 2008 Report N/A N/A Birds
Possible Behavioural, Energetic and Demographic Effects of Displacement of Red-throated Divers Dierschke, V., et al. June 2017 Report N/A Displacement Birds, Waterfowl
Wales' Marine Evidence Report Welsh Government October 2015 Report N/A N/A Birds, Seabirds, Ecosystem Processes, Fish, Invertebrates, Marine Mammals, Legal & Policy, Social & Economic Data
Collision Course: The Hazards of Lighted Structures and Windows to Migrating Birds Ogden, L. September 1996 Report N/A Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Lighting Birds
New York Department of State Offshore Atlantic Ocean Study New York Department of State July 2013 Report Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Fish, Invertebrates, Marine Mammals, Reptiles, Human Dimensions
Modeling Wildlife Densities and Habitat Use Across Temporal and Spatial Scales on the Mid-Atlantic Continental Shelf: Annual Report for the First Budget Period Williams, K. April 2013 Report Offshore Wind Habitat Change Birds, Marine Mammals, Reptiles
High-Resolution Aerial Imaging Surveys of Marine Birds, Mammals, and Turtles on the US Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf - Utility Assessment, Methodology Recommendations, and Implementation Tools Normandeau Associates April 2013 Report Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Marine Mammals, Reptiles
First year post-construction monitoring of bats and birds at Wind Turbine Test Centre Østerild Therkildsen, O., Elmeros, M. January 2015 Report Offshore Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Avian Hearing and the Avoidance of Wind Turbines Dooling, R. June 2002 Report Wind Energy (General) Avoidance, Noise Birds
Windfarms and Birds: Calculating a Theoretical Collision Risk Assuming No Avoiding Action Band, W. January 2000 Report Wind Energy (General) Avoidance, Collision, Habitat Change Birds
A Study of the Risk of Collision with Power Lines by Waterbirds in Winter at Shotton Steel Works, North Wales Balmer, D., Henderson, I., Clark, N. April 1995 Report Wind Energy (General) Avoidance, Collision Birds, Waterfowl
Are Flying Wildlife Attracted to (or do they Avoid) Wind Turbines? Larkin, R. March 2010 Report Wind Energy (General) Attraction, Avoidance Bats, Birds
Pre- and Post-Construction Studies of Conflicts Between Birds and Wind Turbines in Coastal Norway (Bird Wind): Progress Report 2009 Bevanger, K., et al. December 2009 Report Wind Energy (General) Collision, Habitat Change Birds
AWWI Technical Report: Evaluating a Commercial-Ready Technology for Raptor Detection and Deterrence at a Wind Energy Facility in California Terrill, S., et al. September 2018 Report Wind Energy (General) Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds, Raptors
Impacts of Wind Farms on Birds: A Review Powlesland, R. January 2009 Report Wind Energy (General) Habitat Change Birds
The Relation Between Birds and Wind Turbines and Other Aerial Obstacles - A Literature Survey Nygård, T., Bevanger, K., Reitan, O. November 2008 Report Wind Energy (General) N/A Birds
Collision Risk in White-Tailed Eagles Modelling Kernel-Based Collision Risk Using Satellite Telemetry Data in Smøla Wind-Power Plant May, R., et al. May 2011 Report Wind Energy (General) Avoidance, Collision Birds, Raptors
Collision Risk in White-Tailed Eagles: Modelling Collision Risk Using Vantage Point Observations in Smøla Wind-Power Plant May, R., et al. December 2010 Report Wind Energy (General) Avoidance, Collision Birds, Raptors
Developing a science-based approach to defining key species of birds and bats of concern for wind farm developments in Victoria Lumsden, L., Moloney, P., Smales, I. September 2019 Report Wind Energy (General) Avoidance, Collision Bats, Birds
The Effect of Wind Power on Birds and Bats - A Synthesis Rydell, J., et al. August 2012 Report Wind Energy (General) Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Bird Movements and Behaviors in the Gulf Coast Region: Relation to Potential Wind-Energy Developments Morrison, M. June 2006 Report Wind Energy (General) Collision, Habitat Change Birds
Birds and Wind Farms in Ireland: A Review of Potential Issues and Impact Assessment Percival, S. December 2003 Report Wind Energy (General) N/A Birds
Windfarms and Birds: An Analysis of the Effects of Windfarms on Birds, and Guidance on Environmental Assessment Criteria and Site Selection Issues Langston, R., Pullan, J. September 2003 Report Wind Energy (General) N/A Birds, Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
A framework for decision points to trigger adaptive management actions in long-term incidental take permits Dalthorp, D., Huso, M. December 2015 Report Wind Energy (General) N/A Bats, Birds, Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Proposal to Permit Take Provided Under the Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act Gould, R. April 2009 Report Wind Energy (General) N/A Birds, Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Impacts on Biodiversity of Exploitation of Renewable Energy Sources: The Example of Birds and Bats Hötker, H., Thomsen, K., Jeromin, H. January 2006 Report Wind Energy (General) Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Ökobilanzierung von Schweizer Windenergie Eymann, L., et al. November 2015 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Human Dimensions, Life Cycle Assessment
Wind Turbines and Bats - A Pilot Study Ahlén, I. December 2003 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Collision Bats, Birds, Passerines
Bird and Bat Conservation Strategy Deuel Harvest North Wind Farm Deuel County, South Dakota Simon, S., Welch-Acosta, B. March 2019 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance Bats, Birds
Ponnequin Wind Energy Project: Reference Site Avian Study Kerlinger, P., Curry, R., Ryder, R. April 2000 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Passerines, Raptors
Post-construction Avian and Bat Fatality Monitoring and Grassland Bird Displacement Surveys at the Judith Gap Wind Energy Project, Wheatland County, Montana TRC Environmental Corporation January 2008 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Displacement Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
Protocol for Investigating Displacement Effects of Wind Facilities on Grassland Songbirds Erickson, W., et al. February 2007 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Displacement Bats, Birds, Passerines
Pre-Construction Breeding Bird Surveys Number Three Wind Energy Project Lewis County, New York Bay, K., et al. May 2017 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Synopsis des internationalen Kenntnisstandes zum Einfluss der Windenergie auf Fledermäuse und Vögel und Spezifizierung für die Schweiz Muller, J., et al. November 2015 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats, Birds
Repowering Smøla Wind-Power Plant: An Assessment of Avian Conflicts Dahl, E., et al. June 2015 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Raptors
Birds and Wind-Energy Best-Practice Guidelines: Best-Practice Guidelines for Assessing and Monitoring the Impact of Wind Energy Facilities on Birds in Southern Africa Jenkins, A., et al. January 2015 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Analysis of the Overlap between Priority Greater Sage-Grouse Habitats and Existing and Potential Energy Development Across the West: Final Report LeBeau, C., Fruhwirth, J., Boehrs, J. October 2014 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
2012 Post-Construction Monitoring Study Criterion Wind Project Garrett County, Maryland Young, D., et al. January 2013 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision Bats, Birds
A Historical Perspective of Wind-Wildlife Challenges: How this May Affect Distributed Wind Sinclair, K. July 2014 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Avian and Bat Survey Protocols For Large Wind Energy Conversion Systems in Minnesota Mixon, K., et al. June 2014 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Lalamilo Wind Farm Repowering Project: Draft Environmental Assessment Tetra Tech June 2014 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
A Habitat-Based Wind-Wildlife Collision Model with Application to the Upper Great Plains Region Forcey, G. August 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision Bats, Birds
A Pilot Golden Eagle Population Study in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area California Predatory Bird Research Group May 1995 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Displacement Birds, Raptors
A Review of the Impacts of Wind Farms on Hen Harriers Circus cyaneus and an Estimation of Collision Avoidance Rates Whitfield, D., Madders, M. August 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds, Raptors
An Assessment of the Impacts of Green Mountain Power Corporation's Wind Power Facility on Breeding and Migrating Birds in Searsburg, Vermont: July 1996-July 1998 Kerlinger, P. March 2002 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Passerines, Raptors
Wind Turbine Interactions with Wildlife and their Habitats: A Summary of Research Results and Priority Questions American Wind Wildlife Institute January 2014 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Project-Specific Avian and Bat Protection Plan for the Tule Reduced Ridgeline Wind Project Tule Wind March 2013 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Avian and Bat Protection Plan Including Bird and Bat Conservation Strategies and an Eagle Conservation Plan: New Era Wind Project Westwood Professional Services November 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Amendment to the On-Shore Bird and Bat Pre- and Post- Construction Monitoring Protocol for Commercial Wind Energy Facilities in Ohio Ohio Department of Natural Resources June 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Avian and Bat Protection Plan for the Buckeye Wind Power Project Stantec Consulting Services June 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Bats, Birds
2011 Post-Construction Monitoring Study Criterion Wind Project Garrett County, Maryland Young, D., et al. April 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats, Birds
Avian and Bat Protection Plan for the Spring Valley Wind Energy Facility SWCA Environmental Consultants October 2010 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds, Human Dimensions
Avian and Bat Protection Plan: AWA Goodhue Wind Project Westwood Professional Services December 2011 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Avian and Bat Protection Plan: Iberdrola Renewables Iberdrola Renewables October 2008 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Bats, Birds, Raptors
Avian Collisions with Wind Turbines: A Summary of Existing Studies and Comparisons to Other Sources of Avian Collision Mortality in the United States of America Erickson, W., et al. August 2001 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Collision Birds, Passerines, Raptors
Avian Monitoring and Mortality Report at the National Wind Technology Center: January 2010 - February 2011 Tetra Tech Inc. January 2018 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds
Avian, Bat and Habitat Cumulative Impacts Associated with Wind Energy Development in the Columbia Plateau Ecoregion Of Eastern Washington and Oregon Johnson, G., Erickson, W. May 2011 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Bats, Birds, Raptors
Baseline investigations of bats and birds at wind turbine test Centre Asterild Therkildsen, O., et al. September 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Bats, Birds
Sage-Grouse and Wind Energy: Biology, Habits, and Potential Effects from Development Becker, J., et al. July 2009 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
On-Shore Bird and Bat Pre- and Post-Construction Monitoring Protocol for Commercial Wind Energy Facilities in Ohio: An Addendum to the Ohio Department of Natural Resources Voluntary Cooperative Agreement Ohio Department of Natural Resources May 2009 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Bats, Birds

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