Knowledge Base

The Knowledge Base provides access to information about the environmental effects of marine and wind energy, supporting OES-Environmental and WREN initiatives. Relevant documents and OES-Environmental metadata forms are compiled into a user-friendly table with advanced filtering. Filters may be selected on the right, or keywords entered in the Search Text box. Content may also be sorted alphabetically by clicking on column headers.


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Title Author* Date** Type of Content Technology Typessort descending Stressors Receptors
A Conservation Plan for Bats in Wyoming Hester, S., Grenier, M. September 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Bats
Origins and Migratory Patterns of Bats Killed by Wind Turbines in Southern Alberta: Evidence from Stable Isotopes Baerwald, E., Patterson, W., Barclay, R. September 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats
A Historical Perspective of Wind-Wildlife Challenges: How this May Affect Distributed Wind Sinclair, K. July 2014 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Avian and Bat Survey Protocols For Large Wind Energy Conversion Systems in Minnesota Mixon, K., et al. June 2014 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Lalamilo Wind Farm Repowering Project: Draft Environmental Assessment Tetra Tech June 2014 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Optimizing Conservation Strategies for Mexican Free-Tailed Bats: A Population Viability and Ecosystem Services Approach Wiederholt, R., et al. September 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Reducing Bat Fatalities at Wind Facilities while Improving the Economic Efficiency of Operational Mitigation Martin, C., et al. March 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
A Habitat-Based Wind-Wildlife Collision Model with Application to the Upper Great Plains Region Forcey, G. August 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision Bats, Birds
Activity of Tree Bats at Anthropogenic Tall Structures: Implications for Mortality of Bats at Wind Turbines Jameson, J., Willis, C. November 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Collision Bats
Wind Turbine Interactions with Wildlife and their Habitats: A Summary of Research Results and Priority Questions American Wind Wildlife Institute January 2014 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Evidence that Bats Perceive Wind Turbine Surfaces to be Water McAlexander, A. December 2013 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Collision Bats
Project-Specific Avian and Bat Protection Plan for the Tule Reduced Ridgeline Wind Project Tule Wind March 2013 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Impacts of Wind Energy Developments on Wildlife: A Southern Hemisphere Perspective Parsons, S., Battley, P. February 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Estimating Bird and Bat Fatality at Wind Farms: A Practical Overview of Estimators, their Assumptions and Limitations Bernardino, J., et al. February 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Planner's Dilemma - How to handle Birds and Bats in the Planning Process of Wind Farms Reichenbach, M. February 2013 Presentation Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Improving Methods for Estimating Fatality of Birds and Bats at Wind Energy Facilities Warren-Hicks, W., et al. February 2013 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats, Birds
Noctule Bats and Wind Turbines Burrows, L. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats
A Quantitative Method to Analyze the Quality of EIA Information in Wind Energy Development and Avian/Bat Assessments Chang, T., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Bird and Bat Responses to Wind Energy Development in Iowa Gillespie, M. January 2013 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Characterising the Impacts of Emerging Energy Development on Wildlife, with an Eye Towards Mitigation Northrup, J., Wittemyer, G. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Using Species Distribution Modelling to Predict Bat Fatality Risk at Wind Farms Santos, H., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Bats
Evaluating the Effectiveness of Three Acoustic Monitoring Techniques for Landscape Level Bat Population Monitoring Whitby, M. December 2012 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Factors Influencing Bat Activity and Mortality at a Wind Farm in the Mediterranean Region Amorim, F., Rebelo, H., Rodrigues, L. December 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats
Fly-and-Forage Strategy in the Bat Pipistrellus nathusii During Autumn Migration Suba, J., Petersons, G., Rydell, J. December 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Avian and Bat Protection Plan Including Bird and Bat Conservation Strategies and an Eagle Conservation Plan: New Era Wind Project Westwood Professional Services November 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Bat Mortality at a Wind Power Facility in Central Canada Jameson, J., Willis, C. November 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats
Searchlight Wind Energy Project Bird and Bat Conservation Strategy Tetra Tech November 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Guidelines for Reducing Impacts to Wildlife from Wind Energy Development in Arizona Arizona Game and Fish Department October 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats, Birds
Bat Mortality at a Wind-Energy Facility in Southeastern Wisconsin Grodsky, S., et al. September 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats
Fixing wind power's bat problem Kumagai, J. July 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats
Bat Fatalities at Wind Farms in Northern Spain - Lessons to be Learned Camina, A. June 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats
Amendment to the On-Shore Bird and Bat Pre- and Post- Construction Monitoring Protocol for Commercial Wind Energy Facilities in Ohio Ohio Department of Natural Resources June 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Avian and Bat Protection Plan for the Buckeye Wind Power Project Stantec Consulting Services June 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Avian detection & tracking algorithm using infrared imaging Mirzaei, G., et al. May 2012 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
2011 Post-Construction Monitoring Study Criterion Wind Project Garrett County, Maryland Young, D., et al. April 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats, Birds
Using Stakeholder Input to Develop a Comparative Risk Assessment for Wildlife from the Life Cycles of Six Electrical Generation Fuels Zillioux, E., et al. July 2011 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Bats, Birds, Human Dimensions, Life Cycle Assessment, Stakeholder Engagement
Wind turbines as landscape impediments to the migratory connectivity of bats Cryan, P. May 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Collision Bats
Insect Attraction to Wind Turbines: Does Colour Play a Role? Long, C., Flint, J., Lepper, P. April 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction Bats, Birds, Invertebrates
Mortality of Bats at Wind Turbines Links to Nocturnal Insect Migration? Rydell, J., et al. December 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats
Temporal Patterns in Capture Rate and Sex Ratio of Forest Bats in Arkansas Perry, R., Carter, S., Thill, R. October 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats
Avian and Bat Protection Plan for the Spring Valley Wind Energy Facility SWCA Environmental Consultants October 2010 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds, Human Dimensions
Effectiveness of Changing Wind Turbine Cut-in Speed to Reduce Bat Fatalities at Wind Facilities 2010 Arnett, E., et al. May 2010 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats
Avian and Bat Protection Plan for the Ocotillo Wind Energy Facility Ocotillo Express February 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Bats, Birds, Raptors
Avian and Bat Protection Plan: AWA Goodhue Wind Project Westwood Professional Services December 2011 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Avian and Bat Protection Plan: Iberdrola Renewables Iberdrola Renewables October 2008 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Bats, Birds, Raptors
The avian and wildlife costs of fossil fuels and nuclear power Sovacool, B. December 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Displacement Bats, Birds
Avian, Bat and Habitat Cumulative Impacts Associated with Wind Energy Development in the Columbia Plateau Ecoregion Of Eastern Washington and Oregon Johnson, G., Erickson, W. May 2011 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Bats, Birds, Raptors
Baseline investigations of bats and birds at wind turbine test Centre Asterild Therkildsen, O., et al. September 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Bats, Birds
Bat Activity, Composition, and Collision Mortality At a Large Wind Plant in Minnesota Johnson, G., et al. December 2004 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision Bats
Bat Deaths and Wind Turbines - A Review of Current Knowledge, and of the Information Available in the Database for Germany Durr, T., Bach, L. January 2004 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Collision Bats
Bat fatalities at two wind farms in Tasmania, Australia: bat characteristics, and spatial and temporal patterns Hull, C., Cawthen, L. November 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Collision, Habitat Change Bats
Bat Fatalities at Wind Farms in North-Eastern Greece Georgiakakis, P., et al. December 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Collision Bats
Bat Fatality at a Wind Energy Facility in the Western Cape, South Africa Aronson, J., Thomas, A., Jordaan, S. April 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Collision Bats
Bat flight height monitored from wind masts predicts mortality risk at wind farms Roemer, C., et al. November 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Collision Bats
Wind Power Plants and the Conservation of Birds and Bats in Spain: A Geographical Assessment Telleria, J. June 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Bat Interactions With Wind Turbines at the Buffalo Ridge, Minnesota Wind Resource Area: An Assessment of Bat Activity, Species Composition, and Collision Mortality Johnson, G., et al. November 2003 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision Bats
Bats and Onshore Wind Farms: Site-by-Site Assessment and Post-Construction Monitoring Protocols Catherine, C., Spray, S. June 2009 Magazine Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats
Patterns of Bat Fatality at the Casselman Wind Project in South-Central Pennsylvania: 2008 Annual Report Arnett, E., et al. June 2009 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats
Bat Mortalities at a Wind Energy Facility in North Dakota Bicknell, L., Gilliam, E. November 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision Bats
Bat Mortality and Activity at a Northern Iowa Wind Resource Area Jain, A., et al. January 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision Bats
Bats are not birds and other problems with Sovacool's (2009) analysis of animal fatalities due to electricity generation Willis, C., et al. April 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Collision, Displacement Bats, Birds
On-Shore Bird and Bat Pre- and Post-Construction Monitoring Protocol for Commercial Wind Energy Facilities in Ohio: An Addendum to the Ohio Department of Natural Resources Voluntary Cooperative Agreement Ohio Department of Natural Resources May 2009 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Testing the Effectiveness of an Experimental Acoustic Bat Deterrent at the Maple Ridge Wind Farm Horn, J., et al. June 2008 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision Bats
Wind Power Company Compliance with Mitigation Plans in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area Smallwood, K. April 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Battered by harsh winds - must bats pay the price for wind energy? Tuttle, M. October 2005 Magazine Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Collision Bats
Behavior of Bats at Wind Turbines Cryan, P., et al. October 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Changes in Flow, Collision, Displacement Bats
Best Management Practices for Bats in New Mexico Balistreri, M. January 2010 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Habitat Change Bats
Best Management Practices for siting, developing, operating, and monitoring renewable energy in the Intermountain West: A Conservationist's Guide Jones, A. March 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Bats, Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Raptors, Terrestrial Mammals
Big Blue Wind Energy Project Avian and Bat Protection Plan Western Ecosystems Technology Inc (WEST) January 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Bats
Bird and Bat Behavior and Mortality at a Northern Iowa Windfarm Jain, A. January 2005 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Bats, Birds, Waterfowl
Criterion Wind Project Avian Protection Plan Young, D., Tidhar, D. March 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Bats, Birds
Prairie Winds: Migrating Bats & Wind Energy in Canada Baerwald, E. September 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats
Draft Black Oak & Getty Wind Avian and Bat Protection Plan Black Oak Wind, Getty Wind Company February 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Ecological Impacts of Wind Energy Development on Bats: Questions, Research Needs, and Hypotheses Kunz, T., et al. August 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Bats
Bird and Bat Collision Risks & Wind Energy Facilities Willmott, J., et al. December 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Bats, Birds
Ecological Effects of Wind-Energy Development National Resource Council August 2007 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Barotrauma is a Significant Cause of Bat Fatalities at Wind Turbines Baerwald, E., et al. August 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Bats
Wind Energy's Subtle Effect - Habitat Fragmentation Pruett, J. May 2013 Presentation Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Risks to Birds and Wildlife from Offshore Wind Farms: BOEMRE NC Task Force Peterson, C. May 2011 Presentation Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Bats, Birds, Marine Mammals, Reptiles
Bats and Offshore Wind Turbines Studied in Southern Scandinavia Ahlén, I., et al. July 2007 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision Bats
Lake Michigan Offshore Wind Feasibility Assessment Boezaart, A., et al. June 2014 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Bats, Birds, Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Contextualizing Avian Mortality: A Preliminary Appraisal of Bird and Bat Fatalities from Wind, Fossil-Fuel, and Nuclear Electricity Sovacool, B. June 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Bats, Birds
Bats and Wind Energy - A Literature Synthesis and Annotated Bibliography Ellison, L. January 2012 Report Wind Energy general N/A Bats
Development of a Cost-Effective System to Monitor Wind Turbines for Bird and Bat Collisions. Phase 1: Sensor System Feasibility Study Pandey, A., Hermence, J., Harness, R. March 2007 Report Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Migration of Bats Past a Remote Island Offers Clues toward the Problem of Bat Fatalities at Wind Turbines Cryan, P., Brown, A. September 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Bats
Variation in Bat and Bird Fatalities at Wind Energy Facilities: Assessing the Effects of Rotor Size and Tower Height Barclay, R., Baerwald, E., Gruver, J. March 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Environmental Impact of Wind Energy Saidur, R., et al. June 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Bats, Birds, Nearfield Habitat
Wind Energy Technology, Environmental Impacts of Morrison, M., Sinclair, K. June 2004 Book Chapter Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Renewable Energy Resources and Wildlife: Impacts and Opportunities Arnett, E., Strickland, M., Morrison, M. February 2007 Conference Paper Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds, Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Climate Change
Proceedings of the Wind Energy and Birds/Bats Workshop: Understanding and Resolving Bird and Bat Impacts Schwartz, S. May 2004 Conference Paper Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Proceedings of the Onshore Wildlife Interactions with Wind Developments: Research Meeting V Schwartz, S. March 2005 Conference Paper Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Proceedings of the NWCC Wildlife Workgroup Research Planning Meeting VI Schwartz, S. March 2007 Conference Paper Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Proceedings of the Wind Wildlife Research Meeting VIII Schwartz, S. April 2011 Conference Paper Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Proceedings of the National Avian - Wind Power Planning Meeting III LGL June 2000 Conference Paper Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Monitoring Seasonal Bat Activity on a Coastal Barrier Island in Maryland, USA Johnson, J., Gates, J., Zegre, N. February 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general Static Device Bats
Regulating Avian Impacts Under the Migratory Bird Treaty Act and Other Laws: The Wind Industry Collides with One of its Own, the Environmental Protection Movement McKinsey, J. January 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds, Socio-economics
The Aversive Effect of Electromagnetic Radiation on Foraging Bats - A Possible Means of Discouraging Bats from Approaching Wind Turbines Nicholls, B., Racey, P. July 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general EMF Bats
Consolidating the State of Knowledge: A Synoptical Review of Wind Energy's Wildlife Effects Schuster, E., Bulling, L., Köppel, J. August 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Bats, Birds, Marine Mammals
Wind Turbines and Bat Mortality: Interactions of Bat Echolocation Pulses with Moving Turbine Rotor Blades Long, C., et al. January 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Bats
Guidelines for Consideration of Bats in Wind Farm Projects Revision 2014 Rodrigues, L., et al. January 2015 Report Wind Energy general N/A Bats

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