Knowledge Base

The Knowledge Base provides access to information about the environmental effects of marine and wind energy, supporting OES-Environmental and WREN initiatives. Relevant documents and OES-Environmental metadata forms are compiled into a user-friendly table with advanced filtering. Filters may be selected on the right, or keywords entered in the Search Text box. Content may also be sorted alphabetically by clicking on column headers.


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Title Author* Date** Type of Content Technology Types Stressors Receptorssort descending
Bats and Wind Energy - A Literature Synthesis and Annotated Bibliography Ellison, L. January 2012 Report Wind Energy general N/A Bats
Diet of the Endangered Indiana Bat (Myotis sodalis) on the Northern Edge of Its Range Kurta, A., Whitaker, J. Jr. January 1998 Journal Article N/A N/A Bats
Information Synthesis on the Potential for Bat Interactions with Offshore Wind Facilities - Final Report Pelletier, S., et al. June 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Bats
Migration of Bats Past a Remote Island Offers Clues toward the Problem of Bat Fatalities at Wind Turbines Cryan, P., Brown, A. September 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Bats
Modified Cave Entrances: Thermal Effect on Body Mass and Resulting Decline of Endangered Indiana Bats (Myotis sodalis) Richter, A., et al. June 1993 Journal Article N/A N/A Bats
Patterns of Bat Fatalities at Wind Energy Facilities in North America Arnett, E., et al. January 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Scaling of Wingbeat Frequency with Body Mass in Bats and Limits to Maximum Bat Size Norberg, U., Norberg, R November 2011 Journal Article N/A N/A Bats
Understanding Wind Energy Impacts to Bats and Testing Reduction Strategies in South Texas Weaver, S. August 2019 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Relating Pre-Construction Bat Activity and Post-Construction Bat Fatality to Predict Risk at Wind Energy Facilities: A Synthesis Hein, C., Gruver, J., Arnett, E. March 2013 Report N/A Dynamic Device Bats
A Synthesis of Operational Mitigation Studies to Reduce Bat Fatalities at Wind Energy Facilities in North America Arnett, E., et al. March 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Offshore Activity of Bats Along the Mid-Atlantic Coast Sjollema, A., et al. June 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Bats
Ultrasonic noise emissions from wind turbines: Potential effects on bat species Long, C., Lepper, P., Flint, J. July 2011 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise Bats
The BIO-acoustic feature extraction and classification of bat echolocation calls Mirzaei, G., et al. May 2012 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Report of the IWG on Wind Turbines and Bat Populations 2012 Rodrigues, L. May 2012 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Report of the IWG on Wind Turbines and Bat Populations 2013 Rodrigues, L. April 2013 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Acoustic Deterrent Workshop National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Bat Conservation International August 2013 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise Bats
Do you hear what I hear? Implications of detector selection for acoustic monitoring of bats Adams, A., et al. September 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise Bats
Thresholds for Bats Killed by Wind Turbines Arnett, E., Barclay, R., Hein, C. May 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Geographic Variation in Activity and Fatality of Migratory Bats at Wind Energy Facilities Baerwald, E., Barclay, R. December 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Patterns of activity and fatality of migratory bats at a wind energy facility in Alberta, Canada Baerwald, E., Barclay, R. July 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Applying Research to Conservation: Science-Based Strategies Can Save Bats at Wind Farms Baerwald, E., Barclay, R. June 2014 Magazine Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
A Large-Scale Mitigation Experiment to Reduce Bat Fatalities at Wind Energy Facilities Baerwald, E., et al. September 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
A New Stochastic Dynamic Tool to Improve the Accuracy of Mortality Estimates for Bats Killed at Wind Farms Bastos, R., Santos, M., Cabral, J. November 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Survey of Bat Mortalities at a Wind-Energy Facility in North Dakota Bicknell, L., Gilliam, E. June 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Variation in catchment areas of Indiana bat (Myotis sodalis) hibernacula inferred from stable hydrogen isotope analysis Britzke, E., et al. October 2012 Journal Article N/A N/A Bats
Evidence of Late-Summer Mating Readiness and Early Sexual Maturation in Migratory Tree-Roosting Bats Found Dead at Wind Turbines Cryan, P., et al. October 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Evidence of Latitudinal Migration in Tri-colored Bats, Perimyotis subflavus Fraser, E., et al. February 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Bats
Red Aviation Lights on Wind Turbines do not Increase Bat-Turbine Collisions Hale, A., Bennett, V. August 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Lighting Bats
Bats Killed in Large Numbers at United States Wind Energy Facilities Hayes, M. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Improved Analysis of Long-Term Monitoring Data Demonstrates Marked Regional Declines of Bat Populations in the Eastern United States Ingersoll, T., Sewall, B., Amelon, S. June 2013 Journal Article N/A N/A Bats
Monitoring Seasonal Bat Activity on a Coastal Barrier Island in Maryland, USA Johnson, J., Gates, J., Zegre, N. February 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general Static Device Bats
Seasonal and Geographic Trends in Acoustic Detection of Tree-Roosting Bats Johnson, J., et al. June 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Advances in Sex Determination in Bats and its Utility in Wind-Wildlife Studies Korstian, J., et al. May 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Wind Farm Facilities in Germany Kill Noctule Bats from Near and Far Lehnert, L., et al. August 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Wind Turbines and Bat Mortality: Rotor Detectability Profiles Long, C., et al. October 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Plasticity in echolocation calls of Myotis macrodactylus (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae): implications for acoustic identification Luo, J., et al. April 2012 Journal Article N/A N/A Bats
Effectiveness of Search Dogs Compared with Human Observers in Locating Bat Carcasses at Wind-Turbine Sites: A Blinded Randomized Trial Mathews, F., et al. March 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Altitudinal Migration in Bats: Evidence, Patterns, and Drivers McGuire, L., Boyle, W. March 2013 Journal Article N/A N/A Bats
An Update on the Status of Red Bats, Lasiurus blossevillii and Lasiurus borealis, in British Columbia Nagorsen, D., Paterson, B. November 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
The Aversive Effect of Electromagnetic Radiation on Foraging Bats - A Possible Means of Discouraging Bats from Approaching Wind Turbines Nicholls, B., Racey, P. July 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general EMF Bats
Calculation of Wind Farm Production Losses via MERRA Data in Consequence of Bat Based Temporary Wind Turbine Shut Downs Raabe, J., Schorer, T., Junge, J. February 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Additional Winter Recoveries of Indiana Bats (Myotis sodalis) Banded During Summer in Michigan Rockey, C., Stumpf, J., Kurta, A. September 2013 Journal Article N/A N/A Bats
A Forensic Investigation Into the Etiology of Bat Mortality at a Wind Farm: Barotrauma or Traumatic Injury? Rollins, K., et al. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
A Modelling Approach to Infer the Effects of Wind Farms on Landscape Connectivity for Bats Roscioni, F., et al. April 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Bats
Regional-Scale Modelling of the Cumulative Impact of Wind Farms on Bats Roscioni, F., et al. July 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Artificial Wetlands and Surrounding Habitats Provide Important Foraging Habitat for Bats in Agricultural Landscapes in the Western Cape, South Africa Sirami, C., Jacobs, D., Cumming, G. September 2013 Journal Article N/A N/A Bats
Seasonal Variation in Bat Activity in Relation to Detector Height: A Case Study Staton, T., Poulton, S. December 2012 Journal Article N/A N/A Bats
Diversity of Bats in the Soutpansberg and Blouberg Mountains of Northern South Africa: Complementarity of Acoustic and Non-Acoustic Survey Methods Taylor, P., et al. April 2013 Journal Article N/A N/A Bats
The Catchment Area of Wind Farms for European Bats: A Plea for International Regulations Voigt, C., et al. September 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
The insectivorous bat Pipistrellus nathusii uses a mixed-fuel strategy to power autumn migration Voigt, C., et al. September 2012 Journal Article N/A N/A Bats
Using echolocation monitoring to model bat occupancy and inform mitigations at wind energy facilities Weller, T., Baldwin, J. November 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Patterns of Pre-Construction Bat Activity at a Proposed Wind Facility in South-Central Pennsylvania Arnett, E., Hayes, J., Huso, M. August 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Patterns of Pre-Construction Bat Activity at a Proposed Wind Facility in Northwest Massachusetts: 2006 Annual Report Arnett, E., et al. September 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Bats
Effectiveness of Changing Wind Turbine Cut-in Speed to Reduce Bat Fatalities at Wind Facilities 2009 Arnett, E., et al. April 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
State of Washington Bat Conservation Plan Hayes, G., Wiles, G. June 2013 Report N/A N/A Bats
Patterns of Pre-Construction Bat Activity Determined Using Acoustic Monitoring at a Proposed Wind Facility in South-Central Wisconsin Redell, D., et al. August 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
South African Good Practice Guidelines for Surveying Bats in Wind Farm Developments Sowler, S., Stoffberg, S. January 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
South African Good Practice Guidelines for Surveying Bats at Wind Energy Facility Developments - Pre-construction Sowler, S., Stoffberg, S. January 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Preliminary Field Test Results of an Acoustic Deterrent with the Potential to Reduce Bat Mortality from Wind Turbines Szewczak, J., Arnett, E. August 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Noise Bats
Reducing Bat Fatalities from Interactions with Operating Wind Turbines National Wind Technology Center November 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Assessing and Analyzing Bat Activity with Acoustic Monitoring: Challenges and Interpretations Adams, A. July 2013 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Assessment of Bat Mortality and Activity at Buffalo Mountain Windfarm, Eastern Tennessee Fiedler, J. August 2004 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Stable Isotope Analyses of Bat Fur: Applications for Investigating North American Bat Migration Fraser, E. December 2011 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Bats
Acoustic Deterrent Workshop National Wind Technology Center, Louisville, CO Bat Conservation International, National Renewable Energy Laboratory August 2013 Workshop Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise Bats
Patterns of Acoustical Activity of Bats Prior to and Following White-Nose Syndrome Occurrence Ford, W., et al. January 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
A Practical Sampling Design for Acoustic Surveys of Bats Rodhouse, T., Vierling, K., Irvine, K. July 2011 Journal Article N/A N/A Bats
Estimating Sample Size for Landscape-Scale Mark-Recapture Studies of North American Migratory Tree Bats Schorr, R., Ellison, L., Lukacs, P. June 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Evaluation of Mobile Acoustic Techniques for Bat Population Monitoring Whitby, M., et al. June 2014 Journal Article N/A N/A Bats
Barriers and Benefits: Implications of Artificial Night-Lighting for the Distribution of Common Bats in Britain and Ireland Mathews, F., et al. May 2015 Journal Article N/A Lighting Bats
Bat Activity in Intensively Farmed Landscapes with Wind Turbines and Offset Measures Millon, L., et al. February 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
2014 Bat Survey Report: Wilton IV Wind Energy Center Burleigh County, North Dakota Wilton Wind IV January 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
How to Mitigate Impacts of Wind Farms on Bats? A Review of Potential Conservation Measures in the European Context Peste, F., et al. February 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Wildlife and Renewable Energy: German Politics Cross Migratory Bats Voigt, C., et al. April 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Massive Bat Migration Across the Alps: Implications for Wind Energy Development Bontadina, F., et al. October 2014 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Investigating the Causes of Death for Wind Turbine-Associated Bat Fatalities Grodsky, S., et al. October 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Patterns of Pre-Construction Bat Acoustic Activity at the Proposed Resolute Wind Energy Project, Wyoming, 2009-2010 Hein, C., et al. October 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Mortality of Bats at a Large-Scale Wind Power Development at Buffalo Ridge, Minnesota Johnson, G., et al. January 2003 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Wind Turbines and Bat Mortality: Interactions of Bat Echolocation Pulses with Moving Turbine Rotor Blades Long, C., et al. January 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Bats
Bat Mortality at Wind Turbines in Northwestern Europe Rydell, J., et al. July 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Offshore Observations of Eastern Red Bats (Lasiurus borealis) in the Mid-Atlantic United States Using Multiple Survey Methods Hatch, S., et al. December 2013 Journal Article N/A N/A Bats
Guidelines for Consideration of Bats in Wind Farm Projects Revision 2014 Rodrigues, L., et al. January 2015 Report Wind Energy general N/A Bats
Accounting for False-Positive Acoustic Detections of Bats Using Occupancy Models Clement, M., et al. October 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Another Blown in the Wind: Bats and the Licensing of Wind Farms in Brazil Valença, R., Bernard, E. October 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Bat Acoustic Studies for the Georgia Mountain Community Wind Project Chittenden County, Vermont Gruver, J. February 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Bat Fatalities at Wind Turbines: Investigating the Causes and Consequences Cryan, P. October 2015 Website Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Final progress report of a 12 month pre - construction bat monitoring study for the Proposed Waaihoek Wind Energy Facility near Utrecht, KwaZulu-Natal Kruger, C. August 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Bat Species Composition and Activity at the Proposed Glen Dhu Wind Development Site, Pictou County, Nova Scotia Broders, H., Henderson, L. November 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Behavior of the Hawaiian Hoary Bat (Lasiurus cinereus semotus) at Wind Turbines and its Distribution Across the North Ko'olau Mountains, O'ahu Gorresen, P., et al. May 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Biological Assessment for the Federally Endangered Indiana Bat (Myotis sodalis) and Virginia Big-eared Bat (Corynorhinus townsendii virginianus): NedPower Mount Storm Wind Project, Grant County, West Virginia Johnson, G., Strickland, M. October 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Blown in the Wind: Bats and Wind Farms in Brazil Bernard, E., et al. December 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
California Guidelines for Reducing Impacts to Birds and Bats from Wind Energy Development Anderson, R., et al. September 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
A Comment on "Bats Killed in Large Numbers at United States Wind Energy Facilities" Huso, M., Dalthorp, D. June 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Do Habitat Characteristics Determine Mortality Risk for Bats at Wind Farms? Modelling Susceptible Species Activity Patterns and Anticipating Possible Mortality Events Ferreira, D., et al. July 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Eastern Pipistrelle (Perimyotis subflavus) Species Guidance Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources September 2013 Report N/A N/A Bats
Effects of Acoustic Deterrents on Foraging Bats Johnson, J., et al. January 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise Bats
Evaluating Pre-Construction Sampling Regimes for Assessing Patterns of Bat Activity at a Wind Energy Development in Southern California Weller, T. July 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
First Report on Bat Mortalities on Wind Farms in Chile Escobar, L., et al. January 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Little Brown Bat (Myotis lucifugus) Species Guidance Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources September 2013 Report N/A N/A Bats
Monitoring the Potential Impact of A Wind Development Site on Bats in the Northeast Reynolds, D. January 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Overview of Issues Related to Bats and Wind Energy Cryan, P. February 2008 Presentation Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats

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