Knowledge Base

The Knowledge Base provides access to information about the environmental effects of marine and wind energy, supporting OES-Environmental and WREN initiatives. Relevant documents and OES-Environmental metadata forms are compiled into a user-friendly table with advanced filtering. Filters may be selected on the right, or keywords entered in the Search Text box. Content may also be sorted alphabetically by clicking on column headers. More entries will load as you scroll down.


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Title Author* Date** Type of Content Technology Types Stressorssort descending Receptors
Echolocation activity of migratory bats at a wind energy facility: testing the feeding-attraction hypothesis to explain fatalities Reimer, J., Baerwald, E., Barlay, R. December 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction Bats
Resource Availability May Not Be a Useful Predictor of Migratory Bat Fatalities or Activity at Wind Turbines Bennett, V., Hale, A. June 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction Bats
Surface Texture Differentiation Using Synthetic Bat Echolocation Calls: Implications for Reducing Bat Fatalities at Wind Turbines Yuen, B. December 2015 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction Bats
Are Flying Wildlife Attracted to (or do they Avoid) Wind Turbines? Larkin, R. March 2010 Report Wind Energy (General) Attraction, Avoidance, Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Mating Behavior as a Possible Cause of Bat Fatalities at Wind Turbines Cryan, P. April 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Collision Bats
Wind Turbines and Bats - A Pilot Study Ahlén, I. December 2003 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Collision Bats, Birds, Passerines
When the Excrement Hits the Fan: Fecal Surveys Reveal Species-Specific Bat Activity at Wind Turbines Bennett, V., Hale, A., Williams, D. November 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Collision Bats
Best Management Practices for Bats in New Mexico Balistreri, M. January 2010 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Collision, Habitat Change Bats
Aerial-Hawking Bats Can Glean Prey Items From Surfaces Similar to Wind Turbine Towers: Implications for Reducing Bat Fatalities at Wind Facilities Jarzombek, L. May 2016 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Habitat Change Bats
Surface Texture Discrimination by Bats: Implications for Reducing Bat Mortality at Wind Turbines Bienz, C. May 2016 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Habitat Change Bats
Evidence that Bats Perceive Wind Turbine Surfaces to be Water McAlexander, A. December 2013 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Habitat Change Bats
Bats, Bugs, and Wind Turbines - Is There a Connection? Cochran, C. May 2013 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Habitat Change Bats
Insect Attraction to Wind Turbines: Does Colour Play a Role? Long, C., Flint, J., Lepper, P. April 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Bird and Bat Conservation Strategy Deuel Harvest North Wind Farm Deuel County, South Dakota Simon, S., Welch-Acosta, B. March 2019 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance Bats, Birds
Field Test Results of a Potential Acoustic Deterrent to Reduce Bat Mortality from Wind Turbines Szewczak, J., Arnett, E. January 2008 Report Wind Energy (General) Avoidance Bats
Texturizing Wind Turbine Towers to Reduce Bat Mortality Bennett, V., Hale, A. July 2018 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision Bats
Impact of wind turbines on bat activity: an ommited long-distance concern Barre, K., et al. February 2017 Presentation Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision Bats
Research Priorities for Wind Energy and Migratory Wildlife Piorkowski, M., et al. April 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Bats, Birds
Impacts on Biodiversity of Exploitation of Renewable Energy Sources: The Example of Birds and Bats Hötker, H., Thomsen, K., Jeromin, H. January 2006 Report Wind Energy (General) Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Bats Avoid Radar Installations: Could Electromagnetic Fields Deter Bats from Colliding with Wind Turbines? Racey, P., Nicholls, B. March 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Avoidance, Collision, EMF Bats
Testing the Effectiveness of an Experimental Acoustic Bat Deterrent at the Maple Ridge Wind Farm Horn, J., et al. June 2008 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Habitat Change Bats
Impacts on Wildlife and Government Responsibilities for Regulating Development and Protecting Wildlife Office, United States Government Accountability September 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Habitat Change Bats, Birds, Raptors
Wind Turbine Interactions with Birds and Bats: A Summary of Research Results and Remaining Questions National Wind Coordinating Committee November 2004 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Wind Energy's Subtle Effect - Habitat Fragmentation Pruett, J. May 2013 Presentation Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Wind turbines impact bat activity, leading to high losses of habitat use in a biodiversity hotspot Millon, L., et al. March 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Habitat Change Bats
Influence of landscape and time of year on bat-wind turbines collision risks Roemer, C., et al. October 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats
Acoustic mirrors as sensory traps for bats Greif, S., Zsebok, S. September 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Collision Bats
Wildlife and Wind Farms - Conflicts and Solutions, Volume 2 Onshore: Monitoring and Mitigation Perrow, M. April 2017 Book Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats, Birds
Synopsis des internationalen Kenntnisstandes zum Einfluss der Windenergie auf Fledermäuse und Vögel und Spezifizierung für die Schweiz Muller, J., et al. November 2015 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats, Birds
Proceedings of the Wind-Wildlife Research Meeting X Schwartz, S. April 2015 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General) Collision Bats, Birds
Report of the IWG on Wind Turbines and Bat Populations 2015 Rodrigues, L. March 2015 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General) Collision Bats
The Impacts of Small and Medium Wind Turbines on Bats Moyle, A. July 2016 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Bats
Using Stakeholder Input to Develop a Comparative Risk Assessment for Wildlife from the Life Cycles of Six Electrical Generation Fuels Zillioux, E., et al. July 2011 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Bats, Birds, Human Dimensions, Life Cycle Assessment, Stakeholder Engagement
Protocol for Investigating Displacement Effects of Wind Facilities on Grassland Songbirds Erickson, W., et al. February 2007 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Displacement Bats, Birds, Passerines
Large-scale citizen science improves assessment of risk posed by wind farms to bats in southern Scotland Newson, S., et al. November 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Displacement Bats
Bats and Offshore Wind Turbines Studied in Southern Scandinavia Ahlén, I., et al. July 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Behavioral Responses of Bats to Operating Wind Turbines Horn, J., Arnett, E., Kunz, T. March 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Bats
Red bat fatality: Geographic extents through deuterium and niche models Murtaugh, R., et al. July 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Development of a Cost-Effective System to Monitor Wind Turbines for Bird and Bat Collisions. Phase 1: Sensor System Feasibility Study Pandey, A., Hermence, J., Harness, R. March 2007 Report Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Migration of Bats Past a Remote Island Offers Clues toward the Problem of Bat Fatalities at Wind Turbines Cryan, P., Brown, A. September 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Bats
Patterns of Bat Fatalities at Wind Energy Facilities in North America Arnett, E., et al. January 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Understanding Wind Energy Impacts to Bats and Testing Reduction Strategies in South Texas Weaver, S. August 2019 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Variation in Bat and Bird Fatalities at Wind Energy Facilities: Assessing the Effects of Rotor Size and Tower Height Barclay, R., Baerwald, E., Gruver, J. March 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Evaluating the Effectiveness of an Ultrasonic Acoustic Deterrent for Reducing Bat Fatalities at Wind Turbines Arnett, E., et al. June 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Bats
A Synthesis of Operational Mitigation Studies to Reduce Bat Fatalities at Wind Energy Facilities in North America Arnett, E., et al. March 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Design and Initial Component Tests of an Integrated Avian and Bat Collision Detection System for Offshore Wind Turbines Flowers, J., et al. April 2014 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
The BIO-acoustic feature extraction and classification of bat echolocation calls Mirzaei, G., et al. May 2012 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Fuzzy Clustering in Avian Infrared Imagery Application Mirzaei, G., et al. June 2014 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Thresholds for Bats Killed by Wind Turbines Arnett, E., Barclay, R., Hein, C. May 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Bat Fatality at a Wind Energy Facility in the Western Cape, South Africa Aronson, J., Thomas, A., Jordaan, S. April 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Geographic Variation in Activity and Fatality of Migratory Bats at Wind Energy Facilities Baerwald, E., Barclay, R. December 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Applying Research to Conservation: Science-Based Strategies Can Save Bats at Wind Farms Baerwald, E., Barclay, R. June 2014 Magazine Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
A Large-Scale Mitigation Experiment to Reduce Bat Fatalities at Wind Energy Facilities Baerwald, E., et al. September 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
A New Stochastic Dynamic Tool to Improve the Accuracy of Mortality Estimates for Bats Killed at Wind Farms Bastos, R., Santos, M., Cabral, J. November 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Survey of Bat Mortalities at a Wind-Energy Facility in North Dakota Bicknell, L., Gilliam, E. June 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Causes of Bat Fatalities at Wind Turbines: Hypotheses and Predictions Cryan, P., Barclay, R. December 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Bats
Evidence of Late-Summer Mating Readiness and Early Sexual Maturation in Migratory Tree-Roosting Bats Found Dead at Wind Turbines Cryan, P., et al. October 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Assessment of bat and avian mortality at a pilot wind turbine at Coega, Port Elizabeth, Eastern Cape, South Africa Doty, A., Martin, A. December 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Bats Killed in Large Numbers at United States Wind Energy Facilities Hayes, M. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Accounting for Unsearched Areas in Estimating Wind Turbine-Caused Fatality Huso, M., Dalthorp, D. February 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Estimating Bat and Bird Mortality Occurring at Wind Energy Turbines from Covariates and Carcass Searches Using Mixture Models Korner-Nievergelt, F., et al. July 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Ecological Impacts of Wind Energy Development on Bats: Questions, Research Needs, and Hypotheses Kunz, T., et al. August 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Wind Farm Facilities in Germany Kill Noctule Bats from Near and Far Lehnert, L., et al. August 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Wind Turbines and Bat Mortality: Rotor Detectability Profiles Long, C., et al. October 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Effectiveness of Search Dogs Compared with Human Observers in Locating Bat Carcasses at Wind-Turbine Sites: A Blinded Randomized Trial Mathews, F., et al. March 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Estimation of Bird and Bat Mortality at Wind-Power Farms with Superpopulation Models Peron, G., et al. June 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Calculation of Wind Farm Production Losses via MERRA Data in Consequence of Bat Based Temporary Wind Turbine Shut Downs Raabe, J., Schorer, T., Junge, J. February 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
A Forensic Investigation Into the Etiology of Bat Mortality at a Wind Farm: Barotrauma or Traumatic Injury? Rollins, K., et al. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Comparing Bird and Bat Fatality-Rate Estimates Among North American Wind-Energy Projects Smallwood, K. March 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Avian and Bat Fatality Rates at Old-Generation and Repowered Wind Turbines in California Smallwood, K., Karas, B. September 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds, Raptors
Scavenger removal: Bird and bat carcass persistence in a tropical wind farm Villegas-Patraca, R., et al. August 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
The Catchment Area of Wind Farms for European Bats: A Plea for International Regulations Voigt, C., et al. September 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Effectiveness of Changing Wind Turbine Cut-in Speed to Reduce Bat Fatalities at Wind Facilities 2009 Arnett, E., et al. April 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Bat Interactions With Wind Turbines at the Buffalo Ridge, Minnesota Wind Resource Area: An Assessment of Bat Activity, Species Composition, and Collision Mortality Johnson, G., et al. November 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
2012 Post-Construction Monitoring Study Criterion Wind Project Garrett County, Maryland Young, D., et al. January 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Criterion Wind Project Avian Protection Plan Young, D., Tidhar, D. March 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Reducing Bat Fatalities from Interactions with Operating Wind Turbines National Wind Technology Center November 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Assessment of Bat Mortality and Activity at Buffalo Mountain Windfarm, Eastern Tennessee Fiedler, J. August 2004 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
A Roadmap for PIER Research on Avian Collisions with Wind Turbines in California Sterner, D. December 2002 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds, Raptors
How to Mitigate Impacts of Wind Farms on Bats? A Review of Potential Conservation Measures in the European Context Peste, F., et al. February 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Fauna Collisions with Wind Turbines: Effects and Impacts, Individuals and Populations. What Are We Trying to Assess? Smales, I. January 2015 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Wildlife and Renewable Energy: German Politics Cross Migratory Bats Voigt, C., et al. April 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Massive Bat Migration Across the Alps: Implications for Wind Energy Development Bontadina, F., et al. October 2014 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Search Areas for Monitoring Bird and Bat Carcasses at Wind Farms using a Monte-Carlo Model Hull, C., Muir, S. June 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Results of Bat and Bird Mortality Monitoring at the Expanded Buffalo Mountain Windfarm, 2005 Fiedler, J., et al. June 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds, Passerines
Investigating the Causes of Death for Wind Turbine-Associated Bat Fatalities Grodsky, S., et al. October 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Mortality of Bats at a Large-Scale Wind Power Development at Buffalo Ridge, Minnesota Johnson, G., et al. January 2003 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Bat Activity, Composition, and Collision Mortality At a Large Wind Plant in Minnesota Johnson, G., et al. December 2004 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Wind Turbines and Bat Mortality: Interactions of Bat Echolocation Pulses with Moving Turbine Rotor Blades Long, C., et al. January 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Bats
Spatial Pattern of Summer Bat Mortality from Collisions with Wind Turbines in Mixed-Grass Prairie Piorkowski, M., O'Connell, T. April 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Bat Mortality at Wind Turbines in Northwestern Europe Rydell, J., et al. July 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Activity of Tree Bats at Anthropogenic Tall Structures: Implications for Mortality of Bats at Wind Turbines Jameson, J., Willis, C. November 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Assessing Bat and Bird Fatality Risk at Wind Farm Sites using Acoustic Detectors Heist, K. August 2014 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Avian Bat Mortality Associated with the Initial Phase of the Foote Creek Rim Windpower Project, Carbon County, Wyoming Young, D. Jr., et al. January 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
Bat Deaths and Wind Turbines - A Review of Current Knowledge, and of the Information Available in the Database for Germany Durr, T., Bach, L. January 2004 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
A Comment on "Bats Killed in Large Numbers at United States Wind Energy Facilities" Huso, M., Dalthorp, D. June 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Design and Testing of an Integrated Wildlife-Wind Turbine Interactions Detection System Flowers, J. March 2015 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Do Habitat Characteristics Determine Mortality Risk for Bats at Wind Farms? Modelling Susceptible Species Activity Patterns and Anticipating Possible Mortality Events Ferreira, D., et al. July 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Estimates and Correlates of Bird and Bat Mortality at Small Wind Turbine Sites Minderman, J., et al. March 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Estimating Wind-Turbine Caused Bird and Bat Fatality when Zero Carcasses are Observed Huso, M., et al. July 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds

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