Knowledge Base

The Knowledge Base provides access to information about the environmental effects of marine and wind energy, supporting OES-Environmental and WREN initiatives. Relevant documents and OES-Environmental metadata forms are compiled into a user-friendly table with advanced filtering. Filters may be selected on the right, or keywords entered in the Search Text box. Content may also be sorted alphabetically by clicking on column headers. More entries will load as you scroll down.


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Title Author* Date** Type of Content Technology Types Stressorssort descending Receptors
Potential Impact of Submarine Power Cables on Crab Harvest Bull, A., Nishimoto, M. February 2016 Conference Paper Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Attraction, Avoidance, EMF Invertebrates
Sharks can Detect Changes in the Geomagnetic Field Meyer, C., Holland, K., Papastamatiou, Y. December 2004 Journal Article N/A Attraction, Avoidance, EMF Fish
Evaluation of Potential EMF Effects on Fish Species of Commercial or Recreational Fishing Importance in Southern New England Snyder, D., et al. August 2019 Report Marine Energy (General) Attraction, Avoidance, EMF Fish, Demersal Fish, Pelagic Fish, Invertebrates, Fisheries
Effects of Marine Windfarms on the Distribution of Fish, Shellfish and Marine Mammals in the Horns Rev Area Hoffmann, E., et al. May 2000 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Attraction, Avoidance, EMF, Habitat Change, Noise Fish, Invertebrates, Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Pathways of Effects for Offshore Renewable Energy in Canada Isaacman, L., Daborn, G. December 2011 Report Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Changes in Flow, Chemicals, Collision, Displacement, EMF, Habitat Change, Lighting, Noise Birds, Fish, Invertebrates, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Physical Environment, Reptiles, Human Dimensions
Bats Avoid Radar Installations: Could Electromagnetic Fields Deter Bats from Colliding with Wind Turbines? Racey, P., Nicholls, B. March 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Avoidance, Collision, EMF Bats
Burbo Offshore Wind Farm Construction Phase Environmental Monitoring Report Centre for Marine and Coastal Studies April 2008 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow, EMF, Noise Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Environmental and Ecological Impacts of Wind Energy on Humans: Public Health Issues Walker, R., Swift, A. May 2015 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Collision, EMF, Lighting, Noise Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
A Baseline Assessment of Electromagnetic Fields Generated by Offshore Windfarm Cables Centre for Marine and Coastal Studies July 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF N/A
Behaviour Of Trout (Salmo Trutta L.) Larvae And Fry In A Constant Magnetic Field Formicki, K., et al. July 2004 Journal Article N/A EMF Fish
Effect of Modified Magnetic Field on the Ocean Migration of Maturing Chum Salmon, Oncorhynchus keta Yano, A., et al. April 1997 Journal Article N/A EMF Fish
Effects of EMFs from Undersea Power Cables on Elasmobranchs and other Marine Species Normandeau Associates, et al. May 2011 Report N/A EMF Benthic Invertebrates, Fish, Marine Mammals
Electromagnetic Simulation of the Near-Field Distribution around a Wind Farm Ling, H., Yang, S. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF Nearfield Habitat
Magnetic Intensity Study: Long Island Replacement Cables Ocean Surveys November 2010 Report N/A EMF N/A
Magnetic Orientation and Magnetoreception in Birds and Other Animals Wiltschko, R., Wiltschko, W. August 2005 Journal Article N/A EMF Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Sea Turtles
Magnetic Orientation and Navigation in Marine Turtles, Lobsters, and Molluscs: Concepts and Conundrums Cain, S., et al. January 2005 Journal Article N/A EMF Benthic Invertebrates, Sea Turtles
Marine Turtles use Geomagnetic Cues during Open-Sea Homing Luschi, P., et al. January 2007 Journal Article N/A EMF Sea Turtles
Offshore Windmills and the Effects of Electromagnetic Fields on Fish Öhman, M., Sigray, P., Westerberg, H. December 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF Fish
Review of Literature and Studies on Electro Magnetic Fields (EMF) Generated by Undersea Power Cables and Associated Influence on Marine Organisms Switzer, T., Meggitt, D. September 2010 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF N/A
COWRIE 2.0 Electromagnetic Fields (EMF) Phase 2: EMF Sensitive Fish Response to EM Emissions from Sub-sea Electricity Cables of the Type used by the Offshore Renewable Energy Industry Gill, A., et al. March 2009 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF Fish
The Perception of Weak Electric D.C. Currents by the European Eel (Anguilla anguilla) Enger, P., Kristensen, L., Sand, O. July 1976 Journal Article N/A EMF Fish
The Physics Of Geomagnetic-Field Transduction In Animals Winklhofer, M. November 2009 Journal Article N/A EMF Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles
COWRIE 1.5 The Potential Effects of Electromagnetic Fields Generated by Sub-Sea Power Cables Associated with Offshore Wind Farm Developments on Electrically and Magnetically Sensitive Marine Organisms - A Review Gill, A., et al. July 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF Benthic Invertebrates, Fish, Marine Mammals
True Navigation and Magnetic Maps in Spiny Lobsters Boles, L., Lohmann, K. January 2003 Journal Article N/A EMF Benthic Invertebrates
Use of Multiple Orientation Cues by Juvenile Loggerhead Sea Turtles, Caretta caretta Avens, L., Lohmann, K. August 2003 Journal Article N/A EMF Sea Turtles
An Inherited Magnetic Map Guides Ocean Navigation in Juvenile Pacific Salmon Putman, N., et al. February 2014 Journal Article N/A EMF Fish
Simulating Transoceanic Migrations of Young Loggerhead Sea Turtles: Merging Magnetic Navigation Behavior with an Ocean Circulation Model Putman, N., et al. February 2012 Journal Article N/A EMF Sea Turtles
Compatibility of Magnetic Imprinting and Secular Variation Putman, N., Lohmann, K. July 2008 Journal Article N/A EMF Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles
Magnetic Maps in Animals: Nature's GPS Lohmann, K., Lohmann, C., Putman, N. July 2007 Journal Article N/A EMF Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Sea Turtles
Geomagnetic Imprinting: A Unifying Hypothesis of Long-Distance Natal Homing in Salmon and Sea Turtles Lohmann, K., Putman, N., Lohmann, C. December 2008 Journal Article N/A EMF Fish, Sea Turtles
Evidence for Geomagnetic Imprinting as a Homing Mechanism in Pacific Salmon Putman, N., et al. February 2013 Journal Article N/A EMF Fish
Rearing in a Distorted Magnetic Field Disrupts the 'Map Sense' of Juvenile Steelhead Trout Putman, N., Meinke, A., Noakes, D. May 2014 Journal Article N/A EMF Fish
A Preliminary Review of the Impact of Placing Portions of an Extra-High Voltage Transmission Line Beneath the Chesapeake Bay & Other Waters Community & Environmental Defense Service February 2011 Report N/A EMF Benthic Invertebrates, Ecosystem, Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Using Medaka Embryos as a Model System to Study Biological Effects of the Electromagnetic Fields on Development and Behavior Lee, W., Yang, K. October 2014 Journal Article N/A EMF Fish
Effect of Electromagnetic Fields on Marine Organisms Bochert, R., Zettler, M. January 2006 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF N/A
The Potential Effects of Electromagnetic Fields Generated by Cabling Between Offshore Wind Turbines upon Elasmobranch Fishes Gill, A., Taylor, H. September 2001 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF Fish
Detection and Processing of Electromagnetic and Near-Field Acoustic Signals in Elasmobranch Fishes Kalmijn, A. September 2000 Journal Article N/A EMF Fish
The Aversive Effect of Electromagnetic Radiation on Foraging Bats - A Possible Means of Discouraging Bats from Approaching Wind Turbines Nicholls, B., Racey, P. July 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general EMF Bats
Bioelectric Fields of Marine Organisms: Voltage and Frequency Contributions to Detectability by Electroreceptive Predators Bedore, C., Kajiura, S. April 2013 Journal Article N/A EMF Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
Environmental Magnetic Fields: Influences on Early Embryogenesis Cameron, I., et al. April 1993 Journal Article N/A EMF N/A
Effects of Electromagnetic Fields on Behavior of Largemouth Bass and Pallid Sturgeon in an Experimental Pond Setting Bevelhimer, M., Cada, G., Scherelis, C. September 2015 Report N/A EMF Fish
Evidence that Fin Whales Respond to the Geomagnetic Field During Migration Walker, M., et al. July 1992 Journal Article N/A EMF Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Ecological Functions and Adaptations of the Elasmobranch Electrosense Tricas, T., Sisneros, J. January 2004 Book Chapter N/A EMF Fish
Sensitivity and Response Dynamics of Elasmobranch Electrosensory Primary Afferent Neurons to Near Threshold Fields Tricas, T., New, J. December 1997 Journal Article N/A EMF Fish
Directional Behaviour of Transplanted Stationary and Migratory Forms of the Eel, Anguilla anguilla, in a Circular Tank Tesch, F., Lelek, A. January 1973 Journal Article N/A EMF Fish
Motionally Induced Electric and Magnetic Fields in the Sea Sanford, T. May 1971 Journal Article N/A EMF N/A
Acuity of a Cryptochrome and Vision-Based Magnetoreception System in Birds Solov'yov, I., Mouritsen, H., Schulten, K. July 2010 Journal Article N/A EMF Birds
On the Electrodetection Threshold of Aquatic Vertebrates with Ampullary or Mucous Gland Electroreceptor Organs Peters, R., Eeuwes, L., Bretschneider, F. August 2007 Journal Article N/A EMF N/A
Magnetoreception: Homing in on Vertebrates Kirschvink, J. November 1997 Journal Article N/A EMF N/A
Elasmobranch Cognitive Ability: Using Electroreceptive Foraging Behaviour to Demonstrate Learning, Habituation and Memory in a Benthic Shark Kimber, J., et al. January 2014 Journal Article N/A EMF Fish
Electric and Magnetic Field Detection in Elasmobranch Fishes Kalmijn, A. November 1982 Journal Article N/A EMF Fish
Effects of an Electric Field on White Sharks: In Situ Testing of an Electric Deterrent Huveneers, C., et al. May 2013 Journal Article N/A EMF Fish
Power Connections for Offshore Wind Farms Schachner, J. January 2004 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF N/A
Modeling Magnetic Fields from a DC Power Cable Buried Beneath San Francisco Bay Based on Empirical Measurements Kavet, R., Wyman, M., Klimley, A. February 2016 Journal Article N/A EMF N/A
Identical Response of Caged Rock Crabs (Genera Metacarcinus and Cancer) to Energized and Unenergized Undersea Power Cables in Southern California, USA Love, M., et al. April 2015 Journal Article N/A EMF Benthic Invertebrates
The ability of a benthic elasmobranch to discriminate between biological and artificial electric fields Kimber, J., et al. January 2011 Journal Article N/A EMF Fish
Effects of EMFs from Underwater Power Cables on Elasmobranchs and Other Marine Species Tricas, T., Gill, A. May 2011 Report N/A EMF Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles
Effects of EMF Emissions from Undersea Electric Cables on Coral Reef Fishes Jermain, R. July 2016 Thesis N/A EMF Fish
Impacts of Submarine Cables on the Marine Environment - A Literature Review Meißner, K., et al. September 2006 Report N/A EMF N/A
Electromagnetic Fields Emitted by High Voltage Alternating Current Offshore Wind Power Cables and Interactions with Marine Organisms Gill, A., et al. January 2012 Workshop Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF N/A
Navitus Bay Wind Park Technical Appendix 2.1 - EMF Calculations Report Dorey, P. April 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF N/A
Behavioral responses by migrating juvenile salmonids to a subsea high-voltage DC power cable Wyman, M., et al. August 2018 Journal Article N/A EMF Fish
Wind Energy's Impact on Aviation, Radar, and Telecommunications Walker, R., Swift, A. May 2015 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind EMF Socio-economics, Navigation
Appendix O Summary of Current Information Related to Electromagnetic Field Impacts on Fish and LEEDCo Proposed Transmission Cable Verhamme, E., Daley, J., Peterson, G. June 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF Fish
Effect of low frequency electromagnetic field on the behavior and bioenergetics of the polychaete Hediste diversicolor Jakubowska, M., et al. September 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF Invertebrates
Effect of magnetic pulses on Caribbean spiny lobsters: implications for magnetoreception Ernst, D., Lohmann, K. June 2016 Journal Article N/A EMF Benthic Invertebrates
Assessing potential impacts of energized submarine power cables on crab harvests Love, M., et al. December 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general EMF Benthic Invertebrates, Socio-economics, Fishing
Are magnetic and electromagnetic fields of anthropogenic origin potential threats to early life stages of fish? Fey, D., et al. April 2019 Journal Article N/A EMF Fish
Potential effects of electrical energy transmission - the case study from the Polish Marine Areas (southern Baltic Sea) Otremba, Z., et al. June 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF N/A
AUV-based characterization of EMF emissions from submerged power cables Dhanak, M., et al. September 2015 Conference Paper N/A EMF N/A
Installation and operational effects of a HVDC submarine cable in a continental shelf setting: Bass Strait, Australia Sherwood, J., et al. December 2016 Journal Article N/A EMF Nearfield Habitat
Effects of EMF emissions from undersea electric cables on coral reef fish Kilfoyle, A., et al. November 2017 Journal Article N/A EMF Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Behaviour of migrating birds exposed to X-band radar and a bright light beam Bruderer, B., Peter, D., Steuri, T. May 1999 Journal Article Wind Energy general EMF, Lighting Birds
Acoustic and Electromagnetic Noise Induced by Wind Mills - Implications for Underwater Surveillance Systems Pilot Study Fristedt, T., Morén, P., Söderberg, P. September 2001 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF, Noise Socio-economics
Environmental Assessment of Offshore Wind Power Generation near Rhode Island: Acoustic and Electromagnetic Effects on Marine Animals Miller, J., et al. October 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF, Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Ecosystem, Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles
Coastal And Offshore Wind Energy Generation: Is It Environmentally Benign? Wilson, J., et al. June 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general EMF, Noise, Static Device Bats, Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Effect of the Horns Rev 1 Offshore Wind Farm on Fish Communities: Follow-up Seven Years after Construction Stenberg, C., et al. December 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF, Noise, Static Device Fish, Nearfield Habitat
The Impact of Offshore Wind Farms on the Marine Environment Steen, H., et al. January 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF, Noise, Static Device Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics
Review Report 2005: The Danish Offshore Wind Farm Demonstration Project: Horns Rev and Nysted Offshore Wind Farms Environmental Impact Assessment and Monitoring DONG Energy, Vattenfall November 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
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