Knowledge Base

The Knowledge Base provides access to information about the environmental effects of marine and wind energy, supporting OES-Environmental and WREN initiatives. Relevant documents and OES-Environmental metadata forms are compiled into a user-friendly table with advanced filtering. Filters may be selected on the right, or keywords entered in the Search Text box. Content may also be sorted alphabetically by clicking on column headers. More entries will load as you scroll down.


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Title Author* Date**sort ascending Type of Content Technology Types Stressors Receptors
Wildlife and Wind Farms - Conflicts and Solutions, Volume 2 Onshore: Monitoring and Mitigation Perrow, M. April 2017 Book Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Bird Mortality in Two Dutch Wind Farms: Effects of Location, Spatial Design and Interactions with Powerlines Brenninkmeijer, A., Klop, E. February 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Guidelines for Conducting Bird and Bat Studies at Commercial Wind Energy Projects New York State Department of Environmental Conservation June 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Wind Energy Development: Methods for Assessing Risks to Birds and Bats Pre-Construction Katzner, T., et al. April 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Prioritizing Avian Species for Their Risk of Population Level Consequences from Wind Energy Development Beston, J., et al. March 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Conflicts Between Birds and On-Shore Wind Farms Zwart, M., et al. January 2016 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Problematic Wildlife: A Cross-Disciplinary Approach Angelici, F. January 2016 Book Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Synopsis des internationalen Kenntnisstandes zum Einfluss der Windenergie auf Fledermäuse und Vögel und Spezifizierung für die Schweiz Muller, J., et al. November 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Developing an Avian Collision Risk Model to Incorporate Variability and Uncertainty Masden, E. September 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Evaluation of the Impact of Wind Farms on Birds: The Case Study of Lebanon Al Zohbi, G., Hendrick, P., Bouillard, P. August 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Repowering Smøla Wind-Power Plant: An Assessment of Avian Conflicts Dahl, E., et al. June 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors
Proceedings of the Wind-Wildlife Research Meeting X Schwartz, S. April 2015 Conference Paper Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Analysis of Wind Farm Effects on the Surrounding Environment: Assessing Population Trends of Breeding Passerines Garcia, D., et al. February 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Birds and Wind-Energy Best-Practice Guidelines: Best-Practice Guidelines for Assessing and Monitoring the Impact of Wind Energy Facilities on Birds in Southern Africa Jenkins, A., et al. January 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Results and Analysis of Eagle Studies from the Bluff Point and Studland Bay Wind Farms 2002-2012 Hull, C., et al. January 2015 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Collision, Displacement and Barrier Effect Concept Note Humphreys, E., Cook, S., Burton, N. January 2015 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Birds, Raptors, Seabirds, Shorebirds
Nest Survival of Red-Winged Blackbirds in Agricultural Areas Developed for Wind Energy Gillespie, M., Dinsmore, S. December 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
What Flight Heights Tell Us About Foraging and Potential Conflicts with Wind Farms: A Case Study in Lesser Black-Backed Gulls (Larus fuscus) Corman, A., Garthe, S. October 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Mapping Seabird Sensitivity to Offshore Wind Farms Bradbury, G., et al. September 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Historical Challenges of Wind Energy/Wildlife Interactions: How This May Affect Distributed Wind Sinclair, K. August 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Avian and Bat Survey Protocols For Large Wind Energy Conversion Systems in Minnesota Mixon, K., et al. June 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Lalamilo Wind Farm Repowering Project: Draft Environmental Assessment Tetra Tech June 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Wind Farms Threaten Southern Africa's Cliff-Nesting Vultures Rushworth, I., Kruger, S. May 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Grande Prairie Wind Farm Bird and Bat Conservation Strategy Stantec Consulting Services May 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Final Site-Wide Environmental Assessment Department of Energy's National Wind Technology Center Golden, Colorado at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory National Renewable Energy Laboratory May 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Short-Term Impacts of Wind Energy Development on Greater Sage-Grouse Fitness LeBeau, C., et al. April 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Measuring the Interaction Between Marine Features of Special Protection Areas with Offshore Wind Farm Development Sites Through Telemetry: Final Report Thaxter, C., et al. March 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Seabirds
Assessing Risk to Birds from Industrial Wind Energy Development via Paired Resource Selection Models Miller, T., et al. January 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Wind Turbines and Migratory Birds: Avoiding a Collision Between the Energy Industry and the Migratory Bird Treaty Act Evans, R. January 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Wind Turbine Interactions with Wildlife and their Habitats: A Summary of Research Results and Priority Questions American Wind Wildlife Institute January 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
A Review of the Impacts of Onshore Wind Energy Development on Biodiversity Tosh, D., Montgomery, W., Reid, N. January 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds, Ecosystem
Effects of Wind Energy Development on Survival of Female Greater Prairie-Chickens Winder, V., et al. December 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Ecosystem
Hidden Markov Models for Estimating Animal Mortality from Anthropogenic Hazards Etterson, M. December 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Influence of Wind Turbines on Presence of Willet, Marbled Godwit, Wilson's Phalarope and Black Tern on Wetlands in the Prairie Pothole Region of North Dakota and South Dakota Niemuth, N., et al. September 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
The Relative Vulnerability of Migratory Bird Species to Offshore Wind Energy Projects on the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf: An Assessment Method and Database Willmott, J., Forcey, G., Kent, A. August 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Assessing Vulnerability of Marine Bird Populations to Offshore Wind Farms Furness, R., Wade, H., Masden, E. April 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
White-Tailed Eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla) at the Smøla Wind-Power Plant, Central Norway, Lack Behavioral Flight Responses to Wind Turbines Dahl, E., et al. March 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Birds and Wind Projects Across the Pond: A UK Perspective Rowena, H., Langston, W. March 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
A Description of the Biosis Model to Assess Risk of Bird Collisions with Wind Turbines Smales, I., et al. March 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Measuring the Insecurity Index of species in networks of protected areas using species distribution modeling and fuzzy logic: The case of raptors in Andalusia Diaz-Gomez, D., et al. March 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Project-Specific Avian and Bat Protection Plan for the Tule Reduced Ridgeline Wind Project Tule Wind March 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Estimating Bird and Bat Fatality at Wind Farms: A Practical Overview of Estimators, their Assumptions and Limitations Bernardino, J., et al. February 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Impacts of Wind Energy Developments on Wildlife: A Southern Hemisphere Perspective Parsons, S., Battley, P. February 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Optimizing Wind Power Generation while Minimizing Wildlife Impacts in an Urban Area Bohrer, G., et al. February 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Planner's Dilemma - How to handle Birds and Bats in the Planning Process of Wind Farms Reichenbach, M. February 2013 Presentation Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Response to Huso and Erickson's Comments on Novel Scavenger Removal Trials Smallwood, K., et al. February 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Improving Methods for Estimating Fatality of Birds and Bats at Wind Energy Facilities Warren-Hicks, W., et al. February 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Avian Collision Threat Assessment at 'Bhambarwadi Wind Farm Plateau' in Northern Western Ghats, India Pande, S., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
A Quantitative Method to Analyze the Quality of EIA Information in Wind Energy Development and Avian/Bat Assessments Chang, T., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Bald Eagle and Golden Eagle Mortalities at Wind Energy Facilities in the Contiguous United States Pagel, J., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Bird and Bat Responses to Wind Energy Development in Iowa Gillespie, M. January 2013 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Canadian Estimate of Bird Mortality Due to Collisions and Direct Habitat Loss Associated with Wind Turbine Developments Zimmerling, J., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Habitat Change Birds
Effect of wind energy development on breeding duck densities in the Prairie Pothole Region Loesch, C., et al. December 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
The avian and wildlife costs of fossil fuels and nuclear power Sovacool, B. December 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
A Preliminary Overview of Monitoring for Raptors in Croatia Mazal, V., Mikulic, K. December 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
An Overview of Monitoring for Raptors in Ireland Mee, A. December 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Bird and Bat Collision Risks & Wind Energy Facilities Willmott, J., et al. December 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Horns Rev 2 Offshore Wind Farm Bird Monitoring Program 2010-2012 Skov, H., et al. December 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Collision, Habitat Change Birds
Strategic Joint Industry Project No.1: Bird avoidance behavior and collision impact monitoring at Offshore Windfarms Marine Scotland, et al. December 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Collision, Habitat Change Birds
Proceedings of the Wind-Wildlife Research Meeting IX American Wind Wildlife Institute November 2012 Conference Paper Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds, Nearfield Habitat
Using Wind Tunnels to Predict Bird Mortality in Wind Farms: The Case of Griffon Vultures de Lucas, M., Ferrer, M., Janss, G. November 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Argyll Array Offshore Windfarm Report to Inform a Shadow Appropriate Assessment - Great Northern Diver Potential SPAs NIRAS Consulting November 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Bird-Community Shifts in Relation to Wind Farms: A Case Study Comparing a Wind Farm, Croplands, and Secondary Forests in Southern Mexico Villegas-Patraca, R., et al. November 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Searchlight Wind Energy Project Bird and Bat Conservation Strategy Tetra Tech November 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Bird Migration Monitoring in the AES Geo Power Wind Park Territory, Kaliakra Region, in Autumn 2012, and Analysis of Potential Impact after Three Years' Operation Zehtindjiev, P., Whitfield, D. November 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Avian and Bat Protection Plan Including Bird and Bat Conservation Strategies and an Eagle Conservation Plan: New Era Wind Project Westwood Professional Services November 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Diurnal and nocturnal ranging behaviour by moorland-breeding Short-eared Owls Asio flammeus in Scotland Calladine, J., Morrison, N. October 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Guidelines for Reducing Impacts to Wildlife from Wind Energy Development in Arizona Arizona Game and Fish Department October 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Spatial Distribution of Wind Turbines is Crucial for the Survival of Red Kite Populations Schaub, M. October 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Renewable Energy Respecting Nature: A Synthesis of Knowledge on Environmental Impacts of Renewable Energy Financed by the Research Council of Norway May, R., et al. October 2012 Report Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Fish, Socio-economics
Direct human-caused mortality of birds: improving quantification of magnitude and assessment of population impact Loss, S., Will, T., Marra, P. September 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Baseline investigations of bats and birds at wind turbine test Centre Asterild Therkildsen, O., et al. September 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Impact of wind turbines on birds: a case study from Gujarat, India Kumar, S., Ali, A., Arun, P. August 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Some Clouds Have a Silver Lining: Paradoxes of Anthropogenic Perturbations from Study Cases on Long-Lived Social Birds Oro, D., Jimenez, J., Curco, A. August 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
The Effect of Wind Power on Birds and Bats - A Synthesis Rydell, J., et al. August 2012 Report Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Topography drives migratory flight altitude of golden eagles: implications for on-shore wind energy development Katzner, T., et al. July 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Visual Fields, Foraging and Collision Vulnerability in Gyps Vultures Martin, G., Portugal, S., Murn, C. July 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Seabirds & Offshore Wind Farms Monitoring Results 2011 Vanermen, N., et al. June 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Avian and Bat Protection Plan for the Buckeye Wind Power Project Stantec Consulting Services June 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Amendment to the On-Shore Bird and Bat Pre- and Post- Construction Monitoring Protocol for Commercial Wind Energy Facilities in Ohio Ohio Department of Natural Resources June 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
2011 Post-Construction Monitoring Study Criterion Wind Project Garrett County, Maryland Young, D., et al. April 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Evaluation of Greater Sage-Grouse Reproductive Habitat and Response to Wind Energy Development in South-Central, Wyoming LeBeau, C. April 2012 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
Building a stakeholder's vision of an offshore wind-farm project: A group modeling approach Château, P., et al. March 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
Greater impacts of wind farms on bird populations during construction than subsequent operation: results of a multi-site and multi-species analysis Pearce-Higgins, J., et al. March 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Griffon Vulture Mortality at Wind Farms in Southern Spain: Distribution of Fatalities and Active Mitigation Measures de Lucas, M., et al. March 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors
Putting Aeolus to work without the death toll: federal wind farm siting guidelines can mitigate avian and Chiropteran mortality Mensing, B. March 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds, Raptors
Best Management Practices for siting, developing, operating, and monitoring renewable energy in the Intermountain West: A Conservationist's Guide Jones, A. March 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Raptors, Terrestrial Mammals
Strategic Impact Assessment of Offshore Windpower in Norway - Impacts on Seabirds Lorensten, S., et al. March 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Draft Black Oak & Getty Wind Avian and Bat Protection Plan Black Oak Wind, Getty Wind Company February 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Vulnerability of Scottish Seabirds to Offshore Wind Turbines Furness, B., Wade, H. February 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Raptors, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Avian and Bat Protection Plan for the Ocotillo Wind Energy Facility Ocotillo Express February 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds, Raptors
Interactions with Offshore Wind Energy: Birds and Bats Island Institute January 2012 Presentation Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Energy Removal, Static Device Bats, Birds, Seabirds
The prosecutor's vulture: inconsistent MBTA prosecution, its clash with wind farms, and how to fix it Brunner, S. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Mortality at wind-farms is positively related to large-scale distribution and aggregation in griffon vultures Carrete, M., et al. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors
Habitat Use, Disturbance and Collision Risks for Bewick's Swans Cygnus columbianus bewickii Wintering Near a Wind Farm in the Netherlands Fijn, R., et al. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Waterfowl
New Zealand Falcon Monitoring and Risk Assessment, Hurunui Wind Farm Meridian Energy January 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors
Reduced Breeding Success in White-Tailed Eagles at Smøla windfarm, Western Norway, is Caused by Mortality and Displacement Dahl, E., et al. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Birds, Raptors
Development of a Comprehensive Conservation Strategy for the North Shore Region of Minnesota in the Context of Future Wind Power Development Peterson, A., Niemi, G. December 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Passerines, Raptors
Avian and Bat Protection Plan: AWA Goodhue Wind Project Westwood Professional Services December 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
A new method to determine bird and bat fatality at wind energy turbines from carcass searches Korner-Nievergelt, F., et al. December 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds

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