Knowledge Base

The Knowledge Base provides access to information about the environmental effects of marine and wind energy, supporting OES-Environmental and WREN initiatives. Relevant documents and OES-Environmental metadata forms are compiled into a user-friendly table with advanced filtering. Filters may be selected on the right, or keywords entered in the Search Text box. Content may also be sorted alphabetically by clicking on column headers.


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Titlesort descending Author* Date** Type of Content Technology Types Stressors Receptors
A Bird and Small Mammal BACI and IG Design Studies in a Wind Farm in Malpica (Spain) de Lucas, M., Janss, G., Ferrer, M. December 2005 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds, Terrestrial Mammals
A comparison of the fish assemblages associated with an oil/gas pipeline and adjacent seafloor in the Santa Barbara Channel, Southern California Bight Love, M., York, A. July 2005 Journal Article N/A Static Device Fish
A crane movement model parameterized using portable radar for evaluating response to wind energy development Kirsch, E., Diehl, R., Suarez, M. July 2010 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Shorebirds
A Historical Perspective of Wind-Wildlife Challenges: How this May Affect Distributed Wind Sinclair, K. July 2014 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Bats, Birds
A Modelling Approach to Infer the Effects of Wind Farms on Landscape Connectivity for Bats Roscioni, F., et al. April 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Bats
A new method to determine bird and bat fatality at wind energy turbines from carcass searches Korner-Nievergelt, F., et al. December 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
A Pilot Study of the Distribution and Abundances of Rockfishes in Relation to Natural Environmental Factors and an Offshore Oil and Gas Production Platform off the Coast of Southern California Love, M., et al. September 1994 Journal Article N/A Static Device Fish
A Preliminary Overview of Monitoring for Raptors in Sweden Hellstrom, P., Helander, B. December 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds, Raptors
A Sustainability Index of Potential Co-Location of Offshore Wind Farms and Open Water Aquaculture Benassai, G., et al. July 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Ecosystem Processes, Human Dimensions
Adapting Offshore Wind Power Foundations to Local Environment Hammar, L., Andersson, S., Rosenberg, R. May 2010 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change, Noise Invertebrates, Physical Environment
Aerial-Hawking Bats Can Glean Prey Items From Surfaces Similar to Wind Turbine Towers: Implications for Reducing Bat Fatalities at Wind Facilities Jarzombek, L. May 2016 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Habitat Change Bats
Aggregation and Feeding Behaviour of Pouting (Trisopterus luscus) at Wind Turbines in the Belgian Part of the North Sea Reubens, J., Degraer, S., Vincx, M. February 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Attraction, Habitat Change Fish
An Analysis about Wind Farm Construction Based on the Perspective of the Development of Ecological Environment Bai, Z. September 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change N/A
An Analysis of Displacement from Wind Turbines in a Wintering Grassland Bird Community Stevens, T., et al. June 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Displacement, Habitat Change Birds
An Analytical Impact Assessment Framework for Wildlife to Inform the Siting and Permitting of Wind Energy Facilities Schwartz, J. January 2013 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Raptors
An approach for evaluating changes in land-use from energy sprawl and other anthropogenic activities with implications for biotic resource management Wolaver, B., et al. March 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Reptiles
An Assessment of the Impacts of Green Mountain Power Corporation's Wind Power Facility on Breeding and Migrating Birds in Searsburg, Vermont: July 1996-July 1998 Kerlinger, P. March 2002 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Passerines, Raptors
An Integrated Visual Impact Assessment Model for Offshore Windfarm Development Depellegrin, D., Blažauskas, N., Egarter-Vigl, L. September 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Human Dimensions, Visual Impacts
Analysis of the Overlap between Priority Greater Sage-Grouse Habitats and Existing and Potential Energy Development Across the West: Final Report LeBeau, C., Fruhwirth, J., Boehrs, J. October 2014 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
Animal Behavioral Adaptation to Changing Landscapes: Spring-Staging Geese Habituate to Wind Farms Madsen, J., Boertmann, D. November 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Waterfowl
Anthropogenic disturbance facilitates a non-native species on offshore oil platforms Viola, S., et al. July 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Attraction, Habitat Change Invertebrates
Application of the Analytic Hierarchy Process to a Sustainability Assessment of Coastal Beach Exploitation: A Case Study of the Wind Power Projects on the Coastal Beaches of Yancheng, China Tian, W., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Habitat Change Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Are High Densities of Fishes at Artificial Reefs the Result of Habitat Limitation or Behavioral Preference? Bohnsack, J. March 1989 Journal Article N/A Static Device Fish
Artificial Habitats for Marine and Freshwater Fisheries Seaman, W. Jr. October 1991 Book Chapter N/A Static Device Fish
Artificial Reefs as a Tool to Aid Rehabilitation of Coastal Ecosystems: Investigating the Potential Pickering, H., Whitmarsh, D., Jensen, A. December 1999 Journal Article N/A Habitat Change Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Artificial reefs facilitate tropical fish at their range edge Paxton, A., et al. May 2019 Journal Article N/A Attraction, Habitat Change Fish
Aspects of Offshore Renewable Energy and the Alterations of Marine Habitats Wilhelmsson, D. January 2009 Thesis Marine Energy (General), Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Fish, Invertebrates
Assessing larval connectivity for marine spatial planning in the Adriatic Bray, L., Kassis, D., Hall-Spencer, J. April 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Invertebrates, Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
Assessing Risk to Birds from Industrial Wind Energy Development via Paired Resource Selection Models Miller, T., et al. January 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Birds
Assessing the Impact of Wind Farms on the Plant Diversity of Blanket Bogs in the Xistral Mountains (NW Spain) Fraga, M., et al. April 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Ecosystem
Assessing the Impacts of Wind Farms on Birds Drewitt, A., Langston, R. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Birds
Assessing Vulnerability of Marine Bird Populations to Offshore Wind Farms Furness, R., Wade, H., Masden, E. April 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Assessment of the Effects of Offshore Wind in Birds Percival, S. January 2001 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Assessment of the Effects of the Offshore Wind Farm Egmond aan Zee (OWEZ) for Harbour Porpoise (comparison T0 and T1) Scheidat, M., et al. September 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Marine Mammals
ATOC/Pioneer Seamount Cable after 8 Years on the Seafloor: Observations, Environmental Impact Kogan, I., et al. April 2006 Journal Article N/A Habitat Change Fish, Invertebrates
Avian and Bat Protection Plan for the Buckeye Wind Power Project Stantec Consulting Services June 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Avian and Bat Protection Plan for the Ocotillo Wind Energy Facility Ocotillo Express February 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Bats, Birds, Raptors
Avian and Bat Protection Plan Including Bird and Bat Conservation Strategies and an Eagle Conservation Plan: New Era Wind Project Westwood Professional Services November 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Avian and Bat Protection Plan: AWA Goodhue Wind Project Westwood Professional Services December 2011 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Avian and Bat Protection Plan: Iberdrola Renewables Iberdrola Renewables October 2008 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Bats, Birds, Raptors
Avian and Bat Survey Protocols For Large Wind Energy Conversion Systems in Minnesota Mixon, K., et al. June 2014 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Avian Collision Mortality at 50- and 60- m Guyed Towers in Central California Kerlinger, P., et al. February 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Passerines
Avian Collision Threat Assessment at 'Bhambarwadi Wind Farm Plateau' in Northern Western Ghats, India Pande, S., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Birds
Avian Issues for Offshore Wind Development Allison, T., Jedrey, E., Perkins, S. June 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Waterfowl
Avian, Bat and Habitat Cumulative Impacts Associated with Wind Energy Development in the Columbia Plateau Ecoregion Of Eastern Washington and Oregon Johnson, G., Erickson, W. May 2011 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Bats, Birds, Raptors
Avian/Wind Turbine Interactions: A Short Summary of Research Results and Remaining Questions National Wind Coordinating Committee September 2002 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Avoidance Behavior by Prairie Grouse: Implications for Development of Wind Energy Pruett, C., Patten, M., Wolfe, D. June 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Habitat Change Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
Barriers to Movement: Impacts of Wind Farms on Migrating Birds Masden, E., et al. February 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Avoidance, Habitat Change Birds, Waterfowl
Bat activity during autumn relates to atmospheric conditions: implications for coastal wind energy development Smith, A., McWilliams, S. December 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Static Device Bats
Bat fatalities at two wind farms in Tasmania, Australia: bat characteristics, and spatial and temporal patterns Hull, C., Cawthen, L. November 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Collision, Habitat Change Bats
Bats and Bat Habitats: Guidelines for Wind Power Projects Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources July 2011 Report Wind Energy (General) Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Bats
Bats, Bugs, and Wind Turbines - Is There a Connection? Cochran, C. May 2013 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Habitat Change Bats
Behavior and Turbine Avoidance Rates of Eagles at Two Wind Farms in Tasmania, Australia Hull, C., Muir, S. March 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Habitat Change Birds
Benthic and Fish Aggregation Inside an Offshore Wind Farm: Which Effects on the Trophic Web Functioning? Raoux, A., et al. January 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Ecosystem
Benthic biodiversity on old platforms, young wind farms, and rocky reefs Coolen, J., et al. July 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Invertebrates
Benthic Communities at Horns Rev Before, During and After Construction of Horns Rev Offshore Wind Farm: Final Report Vattenfall May 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Invertebrates, Physical Environment
Benthic Community and Biological Trait Composition in Respect to Artificial Coastal Defence Structures: A Study Case in the Northern Adriatic Sea Munari, C. September 2013 Journal Article N/A Habitat Change Ecosystem Processes, Invertebrates
Benthic production and energy export from man-made structures to softbottoms: does it matter? Dannheim, J., et al. September 2018 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Ecosystem Processes
Best Management Practices for Bats in New Mexico Balistreri, M. January 2010 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Habitat Change Bats
Best Management Practices for siting, developing, operating, and monitoring renewable energy in the Intermountain West: A Conservationist's Guide Jones, A. March 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Bats, Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Raptors, Terrestrial Mammals
Big Blue Wind Energy Project Avian and Bat Protection Plan Western Ecosystems Technology Inc (WEST) January 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Bats
Biglow Canyon Wind Farm: Wildlife Monitoring and Mitigation Plan Portland General Electric Company, Oregon Department of Energy May 2007 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Bats, Birds, Raptors
Biodiversity and Wind Farms in Portugal: Current Knowledge and Insights for an Integrated Impact Assessment Process Mascarenhas, M., et al. January 2018 Book Wind Energy (General) Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Bats, Birds, Terrestrial Mammals
Biodiversity Characterisation of Fouling Communities and Their Hydrodynamic Consequences on Marine Renewable Energy Infrastructure in the UK Want, A., Harris, R., Porter, J. December 2018 Conference Paper Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change N/A
Biology and Video Surveys of North Hoyle Wind Turbines 11th-13th August 2004 Bunker, F. August 2004 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Fish, Invertebrates
Bird and Bat Impacts and Behaviors at Old Wind Turbines at Forebay, Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area Smallwood, K., Neher, L. November 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Bats, Birds
Bird and Bat Responses to Wind Energy Development in Iowa Gillespie, M. January 2013 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Bird and Bird Habitats: Guidelines for Wind Power Projects Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources December 2011 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Birds
Bird Disturbance: Improving the Quality and Utility of Disturbance Research Hill, D., et al. January 1997 Journal Article N/A Static Device Birds
Bird Migration Monitoring in the AES Geo Power Wind Park Territory, Kaliakra Region, in Autumn 2012, and Analysis of Potential Impact after Three Years' Operation Zehtindjiev, P., Whitfield, D. November 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Habitat Change Birds
Bird Mortality in Two Dutch Wind Farms: Effects of Location, Spatial Design and Interactions with Powerlines Brenninkmeijer, A., Klop, E. February 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Birds
Bird Movements and Behaviors in the Gulf Coast Region: Relation to Potential Wind-Energy Developments Morrison, M. June 2006 Report Wind Energy (General) Collision, Habitat Change Birds
Bird species of concern at wind farms in New Zealand Powlesland, R. September 2009 Book Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Birds
Bird-Community Shifts in Relation to Wind Farms: A Case Study Comparing a Wind Farm, Croplands, and Secondary Forests in Southern Mexico Villegas-Patraca, R., et al. November 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds, Ecosystem Processes
Birds and Offshore Wind Farms: A Hot Topic in Marine Ecology Exo, K., Hüppop, O., Garthe, S. April 2003 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Birds, Seabirds
Birds and Wind Projects Across the Pond: A UK Perspective Rowena, H., Langston, W. March 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Birds, Wind and the Making of Wind Power Landscapes in Aude, Southern France Nadaï, A., Labussiere, O. March 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds
Black Bears (Ursus americanus) as a Novel Potential Predator of Agassiz's Desert Tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) at a California Wind Energy Facility Lovich, J., et al. April 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Reptiles, Terrestrial Mammals
Burbo Offshore Wind Farm Volume 2: ES Biological Environment The University of Liverpool Centre for Marine and Coastal Studies September 2002 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Fish, Invertebrates, Marine Mammals
Can the effect of tall structures on birds be isolated from other aspects of development? Walters, K., Kosciuch, K., Jones, J. January 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
Canadian Estimate of Bird Mortality Due to Collisions and Direct Habitat Loss Associated with Wind Turbine Developments Zimmerling, J., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Birds
Cantabrian Capercaillie signs disappeared after a wind farm construction Gonzalez, M., Ena, V. January 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
Changes in Bird Habitat Utilisation around the Horns Rev 1 Offshore Wind Farm, with Particular Emphasis on Common Scoter Petersen, I., Fox, A. April 2007 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Birds, Seabirds
Changes in Fish Communities on a Small Spatial Scale, an Effect of Increased Habitat Complexity by an Offshore Wind Farm van Hal, R., Griffioen, A., van Keeken, O. May 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Fish
Changes in the Abundance and Distribution of Upland Breeding Birds at an Operational Wind Farm Douglas, D., Bellamy, P., Pearce-Higgins, J. February 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Displacement, Habitat Change Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Shorebirds
Changing Coasts: Marine Aliens and Artificial Structures Mineur, F., et al. January 2012 Book Chapter N/A Static Device Nearfield Habitat
Characterising the Impacts of Emerging Energy Development on Wildlife, with an Eye Towards Mitigation Northrup, J., Wittemyer, G. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Characteristics of Avian Mortality at a North Florida Television Tower: A 29-Year Study Engstrom, R., Crawford, R. January 2001 Journal Article N/A Static Device Birds, Passerines
Characterizing the first wave of fish and invertebrate colonization on a new offshore petroleum platform Todd, V., et al. May 2019 Journal Article N/A Attraction, Habitat Change Fish, Invertebrates
Co-location of passive gear fisheries in offshore wind farms in the German EEZ of the North Sea: A first socio-economic scoping Stelzenmüller, V., et al. December 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Socio-economics, Fishing
Coastal And Offshore Wind Energy Generation: Is It Environmentally Benign? Wilson, J., et al. June 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Habitat Change N/A
Cod and Sole Behaviour in an Offshore Wind Farm Winter, E., Aarts, G., van Keeken, O. October 2012 Presentation Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise, Static Device Fish
Colonization of an Artificial Hard Substrate by Mytilus edulis in the German Bight Joschko, T., et al. October 2008 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Attraction, Habitat Change Invertebrates
Columbian sharp‐tailed grouse nesting ecology: wind energy and habitat Proett, M., et al. May 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
Common Raven Occurrence in Relation to Energy Transmission Line Corridors Transiting Human-Altered Sagebrush Steppe Coates, P., et al. December 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
Comparing the Ecological Impacts of Wind and Oil and Gas Development: A Landscape Scale Assessment Jones, N., Pejchar, L. November 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Ecosystem
Compensating White-Tailed Eagle Mortality at the Smøla Wind-Power Plant using Electrocution Prevention Measures Cole, S., Dahl, E. March 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
Conflicts Between Birds and On-Shore Wind Farms Zwart, M., et al. January 2016 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Birds
Connectivity of larval stages of sedentary marine communities between hard substrates and offshore structures in the North Sea van der Molen, J., et al. October 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Attraction, Habitat Change Ecosystem Processes
Continuation Implementation Masterplan Wind at Sea Ministry of Economic Affairs (Rijksoverheid), Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment (Rijkwaterstaat) September 2015 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change, Noise N/A

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